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crops of that grain and other cereals, especially The Dutch interest in the Delaware River region corn, are grown.
began with the discovery of Delaware Bay, in Wilmington and vicinity is the chief manufac- 1609, by Henry Hudson, who was in command of turing center of the State. The products are
the "Half Moon," & ship belonging to the Dutch varied and include, among others, leather goods, East India Company. ships, machinery and hardware. With the paper- With so many Dutch, Swedish, and English making plants in the valley of the Brandywine persons closely identified with the exploration, many thousands of workers are employed.
settlement, trade, and government of colonial DelsWilmington is the headquarters of the E. I. ware, it seems rather strange, says & State departduPont de Nemours & Company, the country's mental guide, that the name of the Bay, River largest manufacturer of diversified chemical and State should be that of an Englishman. products.
Thomas West, who, after he was ennobied by the Kaolin clay is an important quarry industry. Crown, bore the title Lord De la Warr, but who
Wilmington is the chief port, ship traffic passing never set foot on Delaware soul, The Governor of up the Delaware River. A Government canal con- Virginia, he may have viewed the land from the nects Delaware and Chesapeake Bays and was
bay while on board a ship on its way to or from converted (1927) into a sea-level canal.
Jamestown (1611). Delaware retains the whipping post as a punish- The only Revolutionary engagement fought on ment for criminals. The law was enacted in 1771. Delaware soil was the so-called Battle of Cooch's Delaware was the first State to ratify the United Bridge near the village of Newark), where the States Constitution (1787). It retained slavery until Americans were strongly posted. Although the latit was abrogated (1865) by the Thirteenth amend- ter were dislodged and driven toward the village ment to the Federal Constitution.
of Christiana, the British Army, 18,000 strong. The 200-year-old Delaware Sunday blue laws under Cornwallis, remained encamped between were repealed (1941). The new law prohibits Sun Glasgow and Iron Hill for five days, a waiting the day horse racing, public auctions, public dances, onslaught of Washington's main army which numpublic theatrical performances and movies outside bered about 12,000 men. When Washington stubof the cities and towns. Incorporated cities are bornly, refused to move out of his entrenchments permitted to prohibit or regulate "worldly activi- behind Red Clay Creek, the British Army Alled off ties" on Sunday.
toward the left, through Newark (Sept. 8. 1777) Delaware, though small in area, has the dis- and three days later joined in battle with the tinction of having had the flags of four nations American army on the battlefield of the Brandyfloating over its soil at different times, namely, wine, just over the Delaware boundary line in the Netherlands, Sweden, Great Britain, and the Pennsylvania. United States of America. The periods of the The University of Delaware is in Newark, and several sovereignties are as follows:
a State College for Colored Students is in Dover. 1. The Dutch settlement at Zwaanendael, 1631: The duPont Boulevard. built and donated to 2. the Swedish period (1638-1655); 3. the second public use by the late T. Coleman duPont, extends Dutch period (1655-1664); 4. the British period through the State from Wilmington to Lewes. (1664-1776); 5. the American period (1776 to the Old Swedes Church, in Wilmington, is one of the present time.)
nation's oldest historic religious edifices.
District of Columbia City of Washington is co-extensive with District of Columbia-Official Flower, American Beauty Rose -Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice to All)-Area, 69 sq. mi.; rank, 49th-Population, 663,091; rank, 37th.
The District of Columbia is the seat of the Fed - James McMillan, by whose name it is now officially eral Government of the United States. Its area
known as the McMillan Plan.
The central composition extends from the Capi. was originally 100 square miles taken from the
tol through the green stretches of the elm-borsovereignty of Maryland and Virginia. Virginia's
dered Mall to the Washington Monument, and portion south from the Potomac was ceded (1846)
thence over the Reflecting Basin to the Lincoln back to that State. It lies on the west central edge Memorial-thus placing the Founder and the Savof Maryland on the Potomac River, opposite Vir- ior of the nation on the axis of the Capitol. The ginia. The District is co-terminus with the City of cross-axis is formed by the White House, the WashWashington.
ington Monument and the memorial to Thomas Almost the entire activity is governmental. In
Jefferson provided for by Congress (1938). dustrial activity is output for governmental or lo
From the Lincoln Memorial as a focal point
extends the Rock Creek Parkway traversing the cal consumption. Navigation is carried on via the Potomac River, which is a branch of Chesapeake entire District, and also the Arlington Memorial
Bridge, which connects with the Mount Vernon Bay. The river was naturally capable of accom
Highway to the home of Washington, and modating large vessels, and has been improved in depth and otherwise, so that war or commercial well forms the entrance to the Arlington National
Cemetery. All these elements combine to make craft may pass.
coherent, logical, orderly, beautiful national To insure that the national capital should be
capital. free from local control, the Constitution provides The Lincoln Memorial, designed by Henry Bacon, that Congress shall exercise exclusive legislation
incloses a colossal statue of Lincoln by Daniel C. therein. After various experiments, Congress in
French, murals of Emancipation and Reunion by (1878) created the present form of government,
Jules Guerin and on its walls are inscribed the which consists of a commission of three members,
Gettysburg Address and the Second Inaugural. It two residents of the District appointed by the
was built by a commission with President Taft as President and confirmed by the Senate, and one de
chairman. Under the Chairmanship of Chief Justailed from the corps of engineers of the Army.
tice Taft the Supreme Court building, a portion of Each House of the Congress has a Committee on
the Capitol Group, was constructed by Cass GilDistrict of Columbia, and taxation current and for
bert, architect, with a dignity befitting one of improvements is chiefly borne by the residents.
the three coordinate branches of the government. Residents of the District of Columbia, as such, On initiative of President Coolidge, Congress do not vote on either national or municipal mat
provided for a group of departmental buildings to ters.
Persons residing in the District of Columbia redeem a "blighted district of the city extending appointed to governmental positions do not give along the south side of Pennsylvania Avenue up their voting residence in the States. The laws from the Treasury to the Capitol. Under the of the various States permit them to vote as direction of Secretary of the Treasury Andrew W. residents of such States.
Mellon, a commission of architectural consultants Cnarged by Congress with planning a capital (Messrs. E. H. Bennett, Louis Ayres, Arthur J. city. President Washington entrusted the design Brown, W. A. Delano, Louis Simon, Milton Medary to the French engineer and architect, L'Enfant, and John Russell Pope) planned as a group buildwho made a plan as extensive as the Paris of that | ings for the Departments of Commerce, Labor, day, not only with locations for government build- Post Office and Justice, for the Archives, and for ings and embellishments, but also with provision Interstate Commerce, Internal Revenue and the for parks and monuments and other adornments Federal Trade Commission. These buildings have which would come as the power and wealth of the a uniform corr line and an architectural style nation increased all reminiscent of the century- based on classical motives as established by Washold plans of Versailles, the capital of Louis XIV. ington and Jefferson for the national capital. On L'Enfant's plan, although made too small by the the south they face Constitution Avenue, a monuspreading of the city throughout the District, and mental thoroughfare extending 24 miles from the although seriously mutilated, nevertheless per- Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial. A frame for sisted and was made the basis of the comprehen- this memorial is formed on the north side of the sive plan (1901), prepared by the Senate Park avenue by five white marble buildings set back Commission (Messrs. Burnham, McKim, Saint of deep gardens--buildings of the Pan-American Gaudens and Olmsted) at the instance of Senator Union, Public Health Service, Federal Reserve
Board, National Academy of Sciences and Ameri- National Arboretum comprising tully 100 acres nas
(Methodist), Howard University (Negro), GallauAmerican. These activities, belonging to the
det College (deaf and dumb), besides junior colcultural
side of Washington life, are supplemented leges for young women and many technical schools. by the Freer Gallery of Far Eastern Art and the Folger Shakespeare Library, each supreme in its assassinated by John Wilkes Booth (April 14, 1865)
Ford's Theater, in which President Lincoln was field; the Phillips Gallery (still in embryo). Lead
is as immediately taken over by the government ership, of course, belongs to the Library of Congress embracing the Coolidge Concerts and the
and is now a Lincoln Museum. Across Tenth Street Pennell collection of etchings) and to the Smith
is the house in which Lincoln died, now used as a
memorial. It and the old theater contain the Oldsonian and the Carnegie Institutions. The National Gallery of Art, under the shadow of the by the Government (1926).
royd collection of Lincoln memoriabilia purchased Capitol dome, represents the thought and generosity of Mr. Mellon, who gave not only the building
The Mount Vernon Memorial Highway begins at
the Arlington Memorial Bridge, on Columbia (longer than the Capitol itsell) but also a collection of pictures and sculpture ranking with the Island, and extends approximately 15 miles along world's best, and an endowment for increase. The
the Virginia shore of the Potomac to the Mount gallery was designed by the late John Russell Pope.
Vernon Estate. Congress created (1910) the National Commis
Winding through Virginia countryside and affordsion of Fine Arts (composed of seven members ing vistas of the Potomac, this highway passes appointed by the President) to advise the Presi
many places of historic interest. The ruins of dent, executive officers and committees of Congress Abingdon, originally the home of the Alexander
Was on matters pertaining to the fine arts. Under the family, for whom the city of Alexandria chairmanship of D. H. Burnham, Daniel Chester named, and also the birthplace of Nelly Custis. French and (for 22 years) Charles Moore, such Martha Washington's grand-daughter, overlook the advice has guided the development of the McMillan highway and the Potomac at the highest point Plan. Congress also has provided for future plan- | between Washington and Alexandria. ning and park purchases by the National Capital In Alexand the highway passes Christ Church, Park and Planning Commission, and has placed
where Washington and Lee worshipped, and many the administration of capital parks with the Na
other places of historic and patriotic interest. tional Park Service.
Below Alexandria the highway passes Wellington, Across the Potomac, reached by the Key and the the former home of Tobias Lear, secretary to the new Memorial Bridge (2,138 ft. long), is the first President, and Fort Hunt, one of the Civil Arlington National Cemetery.
War defenses of the National Capital, now veWashington streets are exceptionally well shaded. cated and to be developed as a park, Across the Rock Creek Park is noted for its natural beauties,
Potomac is Fort Washington, designed by L'Enfant The Zoological Garden is being developed and a
and still an active military reservation.
Florida Capital, Tallahassee-Everglade State, also Land of Flowers—State Flower, Orange Blossom
Motto: In God We Trust--Area, 58,560 sq. mi.; rank, 21st-Population, 1,897,414; rank, 27th. Florida, a South Atlantic State, discovered (Eas- changed hands 13 times and has floated the ter Sunday, March 27, 1513) by the Spaniard, Spanish, French, British, Confederate and AmeriPonce de Leon, in his search for the "fountain of
can flags. Derpetual youth," is the southeasternmost point of
Among the higher institutions of learning are the
University of Florida, Gainesville; State College for the United States, bounded on the north by Georgia
Women, Tallahassee; the University of Miami, MIand Alabama, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, ami, and the University of Tampa, Tampa. on the south by the Straits of Florida, and on the Palm Beach, 300 miles south of Jacksonville, has west by the Gulf of Mexico and Alabama.
long been famous resort for American and Florida is of coral formation, with no high eleva- foreign wealth and fashion. Miami is built on the tions, and in the southern part are vast swamps, site of old Port Dallas (established 1836). Beginthe Everglades, which are being drained and pro- ning from almost nothing (1896) Miami has risen vided with roads to make available large potential to a position of leadership in resort life and as the agricultural wealth. The drainage district en- commercial center of southeastern Florida. braces 4,927,759 acres, of which one-quarter is Marine Studios, at Marineland presents a display owned by the State and is valued at $105.000.000. of marine life in the only oceanarium in the world.
The State has about 5,450,000 acres of original Through more than 200 portholes life in the underpine forests and large forests of second growth sea world is viewed. Action is continuous with pine. From them comes about one-fourth of the feeding time every morning and afternoon when national supply of naval stores.
the porpoises and fish are fed by hand. The oceanCoastwise, the vegetation is sub-tropical, and in arium is open daily from 8:30 A. M. until sunset. the interior is a coniferous tree-clad, sandy region Marineland, occupying a mile on the Atlantic where citrus fruits have been developed. The oceanfront, was constructed at a cost of $1,000,000. State leads in the production of grapefruit. and is 18 miles south of St. Augustine and 35 miles Tobacco, rice, maize, oats and peas are grown, north of Daytona Beach on Ocean Shore Boulevard,
A present and future source of great wealth are Florida Route No. 140. the natural deposits of phosphate rock, of which The two venerable strongholds, Fort Marion in pre-war times more than 1,000,000 tons were (Castle San Marcos) and Fort Matanzas, on the exported for foreign use as land fertilizer. Fullers Matanzas River in Florida, were declared national earth, stone, lime, kaolin are other minerals of monuments by Presidential proclamation (Oct. 15. importance. The raising of graded cattle is & 1924). Built by the Spanish, they are impressive growing industry on the West Coast.
memorials of the momentous epoch when European Congress authorized (May 14, 1934) the estab- nations were struggling mightily for empire in the lishment of a tropical National Park in the Ever- New World. These forts, constructed of coquina, a glades upon donation to the Federal Government native material of sea shells which Nature has of the necessary lands. The park borders the cemented together. have withstood for generations Gulf of Mexico from the Tamiami Trail on the the effects of wind and weather. north to Cape Sable, which is 350 miles further Fort Marion-This fort, the oldest defensive work south than Cairo, Egypt, and covers 2,500 square still standing in the United States, was begun by miles, being twice the size of Rhode Island. the Spanish (1672) as a protection to the town of
Indians, remnants of the Seminole nation, have St. Augustine. Containing four bastions, it is a their towns in the remote fastnesses of the Ever- symmetrically shaped structure of the type perfected glades. They did not always live in this section by Vauban, the great French military engineer. but were driven here from their homes in North Its massive ramparts are from 9 to 12 feet thick. Florida at the close of the Seminole War. Refusing Surrounded by å moat 40 feet wide, its only en. to surrender, they retreated into these wilds, where trance is across a drawbridge. Beautifully arched the soldiers could not find them. They have never casements and carved cornices attest the artistic formally submitted to the government and continue taste and skill of the Spanish builders. Besides to live under their own tribal laws. Their diet living quarters for the garrison, the fort contains a consists almost entirely of fish and game.
council room, storerooms, a chapel, a chamber of St. Augustine, the oldest city of European origin justice, and dungeons. In one of the dungeons in the United States, was founded (1565). It has Osceola, the Seminole chief whose name is conspicuous in the tragic history of his people, once ated about 70 miles due west of Key West, Fla., cu was imprisoned. Nearly all of the rooms open on Garden Key of the Dry Tortugas Islands and can the court, which is about 100 feet square.
be reached by boat or plane. Fort Jefferson was Fort Matanzas-Situated about 16 miles south of declared (Jan. 4, 1935) a national monument by Fort Marion, Port Matanzas guarded the South Presidential proclamation. Inlet of the Matanzas River. It is a small fort, The Tortugas were discovered by Juan Ponce de about 40 feet square, situated on Rattlesnake Leon on his Florida voyage (1513) and were so Island. Having no moat, it could be entered only named because of the many turtles in that vicinity. by the use of a ladder. The word Matanazas means In colonial days these islands were the lair of bucbloody. The fort takes its name from a gruesome caneers and pirates. In later years the strategie event which occurred in the vicinity (1565) when location of the Tortugas group became apparent, the Spanish slew some 300 French Huguenots. Fort and Fort Jefferson was planned as the key to Amer. Matenzas can be reached by boat from Fort Marion ican defense in the Gulf of Mexico. Work on the or by the Ocean Shore Boulevard to Matanzas In fort started (1846) but progressed so slowly that and thence by ferry.
at the outbreak of the Civil War it was scarcely Fort Jefferson-This fort is a hexagonal struc- defensible. It was garrisoned for the first time ture, fully bastioned with walls 425 feet long. (Jan. 1861) with a force of 66 Federal troops. rising 60 feet from a surrounding moat. It is situ- Union forces continued to hold it during the war.
Georgia Capital, Atlanta-Cracker State-State Flower. Cherokee Rose-Motto: Wisdom, Justice, Moderation
Area, 58,876 sq. mi.; rank, 20th-Population, 3,123,723; rank, i4th. Georgia, of the South Atlantic group, was one of At Warm Springs is a sanitarium for the treatthe Thirteen Original States. It is bounded on the ment of sufferers from infantile paralysis. It was north by Tennessee, North Carolina and South here that Franklin D. Roosevelt was restored to Carolina, on the east by South Carolina and the
health following his attack of poliomyelitis.
Fort Pulaski, on Cockspur Island, at the mouth Atlantic, on the south by Florida, and on the west
of the Savannah River, is a national monument, by Alabama. It is the largest State east of the
It was constructed for coast defense by the United Mississippi River and contains the largest area of
States in the first half of the nineteenth century. woodland-23,800,000 acres.
Near the fort is a wooded park in which are many The topography of Georgia is varied with a varieties of birds and subtropical plants. In the mountainous region in the north and northwest past 200_years three forts have been built on this which is interspersed with wide fertile valleys. Island. Fort George, a small block structure. was Some of the Blue Ridge Mountains exceed 3.000 erected (1761) by the Colonial Government. It feet. The most important river is the Savannah, was partially destroyed by storms, and completely but there are several lesser streams suited to dismantled (1776) by American patriots when the navigation
British fleet approached. New defenses were needed Agriculture is important. The chief crops are and the United States (1794) erected Fort Green. cotton, peanuts, tobacco, corn, peaches, rice, The life of this fort was short, for the great hurrisweet potatoes, sugar cane syrup. Georgia is the cane (1804) swept away its batteries and barracks. largest producer of sea-island cotton, and is the present structure (begun in 1829) was named rapidly approaching Louisiana as chief producer of Fort Pulaski in honor of the Polish hero, Count sugar cane syrup.
Casimir Pulaski, who fought in the American The State grazes a million cattle, and raises as Revolution and was mortally wounded at the battle many swine.
of Savannah (1779). The lumber cut is mostly pine, from which come Gen. Simon Bernard, who at one time had been resin and turpentine. Georgia supplies more than Napoleon's chief engineer, made a preliminary surone half of the United States production of naval vey of the island (1827) and work was begun onstores and Savannah is the world's largest market Fort Pulaski two years later. Robert E. Lee's first for such goods.
appointment after his graduation from West Point The minerals produced in Georgia in order of
was to this post. Approximately one million dollars value are as follows: kaolin, clay products, granite, was spent on the construction of the fort. The marble, Portland cement, Fullers earth, lime completed fort is a five-sided brick work, 1.580 feet stone, barites, sand and gravel, manganese, coal, in circumference, enclosing a parade ground 212 tale, bauxite, gold and silver and mica.
acres in extent, and designed to mount 140 guns in Georgia is the largest producer of kaolin for use two tiers, one in the casemates or bomb proof as a paper and china clay in the United States. In chambers, the other on the open platform on top addition, Georgia ranks first among the States in of the fort. Its solid brick walls, from 7 to 11 feet the production of Fullers earth, second in the pro- thick and 32 feet high, are surrounded by a wide duction of barite and manganese and manganifer- moat crossed by drawbridges. ous iron ore, and third in the production of bauxite Georgia was visited by De Soto (1540). It was a and micaceous minerals.
part of the tract of land granted to the lords Transportation is highly developed, with abun proprietors of Carolina (1663 and 1665): received dant rail lines and large ocean shipping in and out a provincial charter (1719). and became an infrom Savannah, chief port. Vessels up to 32 feet dependent colony (1732) under James Oplethorpe, draft are accommodated at high tide across the who founded it as a refuge for poor debtors from bar, and up to 26 feet at all times.
England. Georgia ratified the Confederate con The Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, the stitution (March, 1861), and was the scene of University of Georgia (founded in 1785) in Athens, much bloodshed during the Civil War. It was at Emory University, Atlanta, and Atlanta University Irwinville that Jefferson Davis was captured (May (for negroes) in Atlanta, are institutions for higher 10, 1865). The State was readmitted to the Union education,
Idaho Capital, Boise-Gem State or Gem of the Mountains-State Flower, Syringa-Motto: Esto Perpetua
(May It Last)-Area, 83,557 sq. mi.; rank, 12th-Population, 524,873; rank, 43rd. Idaho, of the Mountain group, is situated west | The Salmon (the river of no return) is also imof the Rockies in the Pacific Coast region, bounded portant. The St. Joe, in the area of the largest on the north by British Columbia and Montana, stand of white pine in the United States, is the on the east by Montana and Wyoming. on the highest navigable river in the world. The climate south by Utah and Nevada, and on the west by is dry and stimulating. Oregon and Washington.
There are a number of mountain ranges-Cabl. Its topography is mountainous, with broad level net, Coeur d'Alene, Beaverhead and Bitter Root plateaus. Altitudes range from 700 feet to Mount in the north; Salmon River, Sawtooth and Lost Borah (12,665 feet) in the Sawtooths, the highest Rivers in the center of the State, and the Bear, peak in the State. More like the Sahara Desert Blackfoot and Snake River mountains in the than Idaho is an area of sand dunes west of St. southeast. The Snake or Shoshone River is noted Anthony. These dunes, of pure white sand, range for several waterfalls-the American, Shoshone in height from 10 to 100 feet. The Snake River and Salmron, and for a deep canyon, drains the State to the Columbia River, twisting Shoshone Falls—46 feet higher than Niagaranorthward through Hells Canyon which averages pours its flood over a horseshoe-shaped rim and 5,510 feet for over 40 miles. At one point the is called the "Niagara of the West." At night the canyon is 7,900 feet deep, a mile and a half from spectacle is illuminated with fioodlights. Twin rim to river, which considerably exceeds the maxi. Falls also attracts many visitors. mum depth (6,100 feet) of the Grand Canyon. It Other scenic attractions are Kaniksa, Pend is 10 miles from rim to rim at its widest point. Oreille and Coeur d'Alene lakes in the north and
Bear Lake in the southeastern corner. Lake Pend, out of parts of Washington, Nebraska and North Oreille is one of the largest freshwater lakes Dakota, with Lewiston the capital. It contained wholly within the boundaries of the United States.four counties, ten mining towns and 20,000 inIt has a shore line of more than 500 mlles and in habitants. The territorial capital was moved to places is 1.100 feet deep.
Boise (May, 1865). Idaho is undeveloped, having large mineral re- Lewis and Clark led the parade of pioneers into sources, and much land yet to be covered with Idaho. Fur traders and a few scattered missionirrigation waters. The Federal Reclamation Service aries constituted the sole white population until has built several important irrigation projects, discovery of gold near Orofino (1860). Stirring rush which are in addition to many private projects. days followed, equalled only when a burro acci
About 4,000 Indians reside on the reservations dentally brought about the lead-silver strike in in the State-in Coeur d'Alene, Bannock on Fort the Coeur d'Alenes (1884). Towns sprang up Hall and Duck Valley, and Nez Perces.
overnight, and miners, lumberjacks, farmers Agriculture is important, the farmers market- swept over untouched forests. Silver was dis-, ing wheat, hay, oats, barley, potatoes, beans, peas, covered in the Coeur d'Alene country (1884). sugar beets, apples and prunes, named in the or. The old Oregon Trail, the nation's famous route der of importance. High-grade field and garden of pioneer migration, enters Idaho from Wyoming seed are raised and sold throughout the United on the southeast, and leaves the state at Weiser States. Stock raising. particularly sheep, is an im- on the west. Motorists today follow in general portant industry. Much wool is shipped. Near Mesa the same trall when they travel over U. S. Route are the largest individually-owned orchards in the 30 and 30 N through fertile irrigated tracts where world. Lumber, beet sugar, dairy products and pioneers once prodded oxen over desert wastes. fiour are the chief manufactures.
The University of Idaho is in Moscow, with a Much metal is mined. The State ranks first southern branch (junior college) in Pocatello. the in lead production and a close second in silver. College of Idaho is in Caldwell, Northwest NazaGold mining is rapidly gaining in importance. rene College in Nampa, and normal schools in Idaho Territory was organized (March 3, 1863)
Lewiston and Albion.
Illinois Capital, Springfield-Sucker State-State Flower, Violet-Motto: State Sovereignty-National Union
Area, 56,400 sq. ml.; rank, 23rd-Population, 7,897,241; rank, 3rd. Illinois les in the East North Central group, its including the Field Museum and the Chicago Musenortheastern corner touching Lake Michigan, the um of Art, with many art schools. Mississippi River flowing along its western bound- There are numerous picturesque and historical ary line, the Ohio River along its southern end. sites in Illinois.
Apple River Canyon, 250 feet deep
and 160 feet wide, containing many caverns, is one It is bounded on the north by Wisconsin, on the east by Indlana, on the south by Kentucky and From the river bed rise rock walls richly colored
of Illinois' most beautiful state park preserves. Missouri and on the west by Missouri and Iowa.
with mineral deposits and dotted at intervals with It is intensely industrial, agricultural, and mining the hazy mauves of lichen. Cave-in-Rock, on the and foremost in water and rail transportation.
Ohio river between Shawneetown and Golconda, Illinois
is almost uniformly level, being situated annually attracts thousands of tourists. It has the in a glacial moraine, and is alluvial in all parts appearance of a large crypt imbedded in solid rock. with a climate such as prevails in the whole of the The mouth is an arched opening about 55 feet wide Middle West. It is so level that a railway possesses at the base and the body of the cave extends 160 one precisely straight line 100 miles long in which
feet into the rock, having an average width of scarcely a dirt cut was necessary-a vast prairie, 40 feet. The date of the discovery of the cavern once largely wooded, now with only 10 per cent of by white men is unknown. The årst mention of forest cover. Corn, wheat, oats, barley and rye it may be found in the "History of New France" are grown in large quantities. Other agricultural by Charlevoix (published 1744). products are potatoes, hay, soy beans and wool.
Springfield, aside from the fact that it is the It is provided with remarkable mileage of river- capital of Illinois, is hallowed by the mark of Abraways. The Mississippi in the west, and the Ohio ham Lincoln. To this city he went as a young man. and the Wabash in the southwest, provide a His farewell address was delivered from the platnatural boundary for much of Illinois. The form of a train at Springfield (1861). In the Illinois River is the principal intrastate river. An legislative session (1837), held in Vandalia, then artificial, waterway is the Chicago Drainage Canal, the capital of Illinois, it was Abraham Lincoln, & 40 miles from Chicago on Lake Michigan to Joliet rising young lawyer, who led the fight to move the on the Illinois River, an engineering device which capital to Springfield. The bill proposing the move supplies drainage out from the flat lake-coastal was passed (July 4, 1837) and the cornerstone of district around the city and the Chicago River, and a new State Capitol was laid. reverses the natural tendency to drain into Lake The building still stands on the square, but is Michigan. The canal has been extended from used now as the Sangamon County Court House Lockport to the Illinois River at Starved Rock, because 27 years after its erection it was found and & 9-foot channel dredged in the river to the inadequate and the present Capitol was built. Mississippi. The waterway was built at a cost of The old court house, now dwarfed by its modern $102,000,000.
neighbors, is rich in Lincoln associations. In addi. Chicago is one of the greatest railway centers tion to serving in the legislature Lincoln argued in the world
cases before the Supreme Court, then in the same Trathc on the Great Lakes to and from Chicago building, and made frequent use of the State and has reached huge proportions. The bulk of the Supreme Court libraries. In this building he first receipts are iron ore brought from the Minnesota, took issue with Stephen A. Douglas and here he Wisconsin and Michigan mines to the great works made his famous "House divided against itself" of the United States Steel Corporation in Gary, speech. Here were his headquarters during the Ind., & part of the Chicago Industrial Area.
1860 campaign for the Presidency, and here his Leading industries are wholesale meat packing, body lay in state (May 4, 1865) before burial steel mills and blast furnaces, foundries and in Oak Ridge Cemetery. machine shops, petroleum refining, electric ma- The Lincoln tomb and monument in Oak Ridge chinery factories, automobile plants, railroad car Cemetery are about two miles due north of the construction and repair shops, and agricultural im- Capitol. The Lincoln log cabin in Coles County, plement factories. The printing and publishing about a mile southeast of Farmington, is not to be plants are very important; also the clothing houses. confused with relics directly associated with Abra
Bituminous coal underlies more than half the ham Lincoln. The cabin, which is a reconstruction area of Illinois which ranks third in soft coal out- undertaken by the State, is the last home of put. Other minerals include petroleum, fluorspar, Lincoln's father, Thomas Lincoln, and his steppig iron, primary zinc. The petroleum industry is mother, Sarah Bush Lincoln. The original cabin rapidly expanding in the State.
became the home of the elder Lincolns (about The Chicago Board of Trade is the principal 1837). Prior to that time they had lived in at least grain dealing exchange of the country.
two places in Coles County, first at a place known Among the educational institutions are the Uni- as Buck Grove, about three miles east of the presversity of Illinois in Urbana; the University of ent city of Mattoon, and later on a 40-acre farm a Chicago, Loyola University, in Chicago; North- half mile south of Lerna. The total tract as finally western University, in Evanston; De Paul Uni. deeded to Thomas Lincoln (1840) consisted of 120 versity, Chicago, Augustana College, Rock Island; acres; part of this had belonged to Mrs. Lincoln's Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria; Knox Col- son by her first marriage, John D. Johnston, and lege. Galesburg.
was purchased from him by Thomas Lincoln. Tourists find a wealth of art centers in Chicago, 'Evidently the only building on these farm lands
when Lincoln and Johnston acquired them was a West 80 acres from Johnston and also cultivated small log cabin which they subsequently moved the 40 acres as part of his farm, and (May 7, and enlarged.
1888) acquired legal title to this section by reason It is doubtful that Lincoln ever lived with his of undisputed possession for more than tsents
The cabin, after being shown at the County homes. When they took up residence Columbian Exposition (World's Fair) in Chicago In Coles County (1831) he was on his way to New (1893), was dismantled and while plans for its Orleans and the evidence is that he went to live future disposition were being considered it mysin New Salem immediately
after his return from teriously disappeared. No trace of it ever has been the southern port. However, he was familiar with found. the place and more than once aided his father The restoration of the thriving grist mill village financially when the latter called upon him to help of New Salem of 1830 has been made log for log. in keeping the farm from sale.
rude door for rude door, tiny window for tiny New Salem has been restored in New Salem State window, cabins, stores..cooper shop, carding shed. Park, a tract of 200 acres, situated two miles south tannery and other buildings as they stood origof Petersburg on State Highway 123. It was here inally, flanking a half mile length of grassy road. that Lincoln began his public career as postmaster The town comprises a scant dozen buildings and the (1833-1836) at a salary of about $25 a year. The restoration has been done by CCC boys. Tall postoffice, a cubicle in the Hill-McNamara general grass cut from the ground after 75 years revealed store, was restored (Feb. 12, 1940) by the Federal remnants of old foundations and even chimneys Government. Lincoln clerked in the store.
were found. A copy of the original plat of the Thomas Lincoln died in this cabin (1851) and, surveyor and land title records, placed together shortly after, Abraham conveyed the west 80 acres with the knowledge of persons still living who had of the farm to Johnston, reserving his step-mother's been children in New Salem, produced the scheme dower right and 40 acres. These latter 40 acres he by which the village was laid out for the second never relinquished. John J. Hall purchased the time and reconstructed.
Indiana Capital, Indianapolis-Hoosier State-State Flower, Zinnia-Motto: The Crossroads of America-Area,
36,291 sg. mi.; rank, 37th-Population, 3,427,796; rank, 12th. Indiana is bounded on the north by Michigan and and spearmint oil produced in the United States Lake Michigan, on the east by Ohio, on the south
come from acres of muck soil in northern Indiana. by Kentucky, and on the west by Illinois. The
The limestone area of southern Indiana contains Ohio River is the boundary line to the south, and
many sinkholes and caves. Most widely known are the Wabash forms almost half the western bound- United States, and Marengo, in Crawford County,
Wyandotte cave, the second largest cavern in the ary. These rivers, and the white and Whitewater
Porter's cave' in Owen County, and Donaldson's Rivers, were important in the early settlement of
in Lawrence the State.
Maintained by the State as memorials are the The surface of the State is comparatively level, old State capitol in Corydon; Pigeon Roost monuespecially in the northern and central portions: ment, in Scott County, commemorating the masthe southern part is hilly. There are hundreds of sacre of pioneer settlers by the Indians; a monusmall lakes in the northern half of the State. The ment in Tippecanoe County at the scene of Wilsoil varies in character, but for the most part is
liam Henry Harrison's defeat of the Indians in.'
cited to uprising by Tecumseh and his brother, the fertile. The climate is characteristic of the Middle West, warm in summer and cold in winter.
Prophet; and the grave of Nancy Hanks Lincoln Indiana
and the site of Abraham Lincoln's boyhood cabin is predominantly
manufacturing home in Spencer County.. State, with diversified industries and both large
State-supported institutions of higher education and small factories. Leading in production are
are Indiana University, Bloomington; Purdue Unisteel and other rolling mill products. Manufacture
versity, Lafayette; Indiana State Teachers' College. of automotive parts, furniture, glass, soap, re
Terre Haute; Ball State Teachers' College, Muncie. frigerators, farm implements, pumps, grain mill
Other schools are: Depauw University, Greencastle; products, and clothing is also important. The
University of Notre Dame, South Bend: Wabash Calumet region, including Gary, Hammond, East
College, Crawfordsville; Earlham College, and But. Chicago and whiting, with its steel mills and re
ler University, Indianapolis. fineries, is one of the great industrial centers of
French traders reached Indiana in the early the world. Harbors at Gary and Indiana Harbor are Lake Michigan ports for freighters carrying
18th century; at their post. Vincennes, established
about 1732, grew up the first permanent settle ore for the Calumet region.
ment in the State. Following the Revolution and Bituminous coal, from strip and shaft mines
the subjugation of the Indians, settlers came into in the southwestern part of the State, oolitic lime- the State from the south and east. stone, for building purposes, mineral wool and
Indiana became a State (1816). The seat of Portland Cement are important mineral products. government during the Territorial period was Coke, petroleum, , natural gas, gypsum and pig Vincennes (1800-1813) and Corydon (1813-1816). iron are also produced in quantities.
Corydon continued as capital of the new State Agriculture is important. Corn is the big crop, until 1825, when the government was moved to with wheat, tomatoes, oats, rye, hay, soy beans and a site selected in the center of the State, Indiantobacco following. The predominant type of diver- apolis sified farming is a combination of stock raising Indianapolis is the largest city in the State and and grain farming. The State is known for its is an industrial, commercial, educational and culcanned vegetable products, especially tomatoes and tural as well as geographical and governmental tomato juice. Two-thirds of all the peppermint center for the State.
Iowa Capital, Des Moines-Hawkeye State-State Flower, Wild Rose-Motto: Our Liberties We Prize
Area, 56,280 sq. mi.; rank, 24th-Population, 2,538,268; rank, 20th. Iowa lies in the West North Central part of the Four milion tons of coal are mined annually. Middle West, bounded on the north by Minnesota. Much gypsum plaster, building stone, clay prodon the east by Wisconsin and Illinois, on the south ucts, cement sand and gravel are produced.
Important industries are the processing of agriby Missouri, and on the west by Nebraska and South Dakota. The Mississippi River flows along live stock.
cultural products and the handling of grain and
Farm implements, washing machines, the entire eastern boundary line, and the Missouri fountain pens, cosmetics, buttons, railroad equip. River along three-fourths of the western line. ment, furnaces, lawn mowers, calendars, cartons,
The surface is rolling prairie. No "civilized" area vending machines, auto accessories and once in the world of equal size has such consistently equipment are among the manufactures. fertile soil. Altitudes range from 477 feet above There are 25 Institutions for higher learning, sea level to 1,670 feet, the highest.
including the University of Iowa in Iowa City The proportion of area actually under cultivation and the State College of Agriculture in Ames. In is ger than in any other State The diversity addition there is a teachers' college, four proof crops is unexcelled anywhere in the world. fessional and technological schools and 37 Junior
Iowa ranks high in the production of corn, oats, colleges. butter, eggs, fruit and nuts, and is the world center Marquette and Joliet were the first explorers for popcorn and timothy seed.
to visit the land (1673) and the first settlement The Iowa Farm Census showed that there were was made by Julien Dubuque (1788) near the (Jan. 1, 1940) on Iowa farms 117,833 tractors, an site of the city named after him. Iowa was in average of one tractor for each farm and a hali. the territory ceded to Spain (1783), ceded back