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ceeded by Gen, George Argesanu, who resigned gained (1941) in the Axis fight against Russia in (Sept. 28) his place to Constantin Argetoianu, an which Rumania participated. industrialist, president of the Senate and royal The soil of Rumania is fertile. Four-Afths of the counsellor. George Tatarescu, liberal ex-Premier population engage in agriculture and stock-raising. and ambassador to Paris, succeeded Argetoianu The most important agricultural products are (Nov. 24, 1939). Under his government, which re- wheat, corn, rye, barley and oats, the aggregate nounced the British guarantee of national in- output of which was 7,287,610 metric tons (1939tegrity as a gesture of neutrality in the war, 1940), a subnormal year. Vineyards and orchards Bessarabia and Northern Bukowina were lost to are plentiful. The country yields salt, petroleum, Russia. Tatarescu resigned (July 4), and King natural gas, lignite, gold, Iron, copper, zinc and Carol appointed a rightist cabinet

headed by John pyrites. Flour milling, brewing and distilling are Gigurtu, former Commerce and Industry minister. important industries. Gigurtu embarked upon a course of totalitarian Únder the land reform initiated by King Ferdirule, declared the Army was the first care of the nand (1918), over 15,000,000 acres were exproState and gave agriculture and industry a new priated in favor of the peasantry. In Wallachia organization aimed to intensify production. He and Moldavia 1,000,000 farmers; in Transylvania, negotiated with Hungary the rectification of Ru- 540,000; in wooded Bukovina 55,000 and in Bessmania's western boundary, the breakdown of which arabia 557,016 received land by 1929, with the resulted in the arbitration decision of the Axis result that today Rumanla is a country of small powers decreeing the dismemberment of Transyl- farms, only 27.7% of the country's area representvania (Aug. 30, 1940). The Gigurtu cabinet re- ing holdings of more than 100 hectares (247 acres) signed Sept. 5, 1940), and King Carol II named each. Of the forests, some 7,390,000 were State Gen. Ion Antonescu Prime Minister. Simultaneously property (1938), of which 2,194,000 acres under a decree dissolved parliament and gave Gen. An- direct Government management, and 5,196,000 tonescu supreme authority to rule over Rumania. managed by private companies under Government The following day King Carol abdicated in favor grant and supervision. Public institutions owned of his son, Grand Voyvode Michael, who became 3,301,000 acres and over 7,500,000 acres were in King Michael I.

private hands. The Agriculture Ministry estimated Gen. Antonescu created a totalitarian State (1938) the value of Rumania's forests at $347,(Sept. 15) with himself as Chief of State, Premier, 420,000, that of tillable land at $412,650,000, and of and Minister of National Defense, which merged livestock at $496,000,000. Fisheries yield $121,950,000 the portfolios of Minister of Munitions, Aviation, annually. Navy and War, and (Nov. 1940) adhered on behalf Primary education is free and obligatory. There of Rumania to the tripartite pact among Germany, were (1935) 2,041 kindergartens, 15,344 public Italy and Japan.

schools, 756 secondary schools and universities and The Iron Guard was proclaimed the sole political polytechnical schools in the capitals of the party and four of its chieftains taken into the provinces, Bucharest, Jassy, Cluj, Chisinau, Cercabinet. The Guard staged (Jan. 20, 1941) an nauti and Timisoara, all under the Ministry of unsuccessful coup to eliminate Gen. Antonescu and Education; in addition there were 1,423 primary the other non-Guard cabinet members in an effort and 218 secondary private schools. to seize control of the economic departments, as a Military service is universal and compulsory from result of which it was officially suppressed and the ages of 21 to 50. the members condemned to prison. The govern- Liberty of worship is assured. Orthodox clergy ment was reorganized with Gen. Antonescu as are paid by the State, other clergy being subPremier and Foreign Minister, and leading generals ventioned. Jews are organized by communities in key cabinet posts. A plebiscite (March, 1941) which are placed under special laws. gave overwhelming approval to the government's Ordinary Government revenue (1939-1940) exprogram of spiritual and economic rehabilitation ceeded actual expenditure by 10.5%; current estialming at the recovery of the Rumanian popula- mates balance revenue and expenditure at 44,870,tion lost to foreign rule (1940). Rumania took 000.000 lei (official buying and selling rates in action (June 22, 1941) to reoccupy Northern effect April 1, 1941) are respectively 187.60 and Bukowina and Bessarabia, whose loss to Russia had 195.00 lei to the dollar). Current national defense not been recognized. All this territory was re- revenue is estimated at 16,000 million lei.

Salvador

(REPUBLICA de EL SALVADOR) Capital, San Salvador-Area, 13,176 square miles--Population (1940) 1,744,535 Salvador lles along the Pacific Ocean with Hon- Under the Constitution (1924) a President for duras as its northeast boundary, and Guatemala four years and single chamber of 70 deputies for on the northwest. Its coast line is 160 miles 2 year are elected by universal suffrage. The long and its average breadth 60 miles. Along the President is Gen. Maximiliano Martinez, appointed

(Dec. 4, 1931) and confirmed by Congress (Feb. 7. seg is a narrow, low alluvial plain, and the interior

1932) and elected (Jan. 13-16, 1935) for a four-year is a plateau about 2,000 ft. above sea level, con- term. He was re-elected (Jan. 21, 1939) for a sixtaining a number of volcanic cones. Earthquakes

year term. The dominant religion is Roman are frequent. The country has luxuriant forests Catholic. The language is Spanish. and abundant mineral deposits, which are unde- Military service is compulsory from 18 to 50 in veloped. Mestizos and Indians form two-thirds of case of war. the population,

Education is free and compulsory. Salvador is a one-crop. countryIts prosperity A three-power agreement pledging the Governdepends upon the sale of its coffee, which has a ments of Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras to high reputation. About 265,000 acres are devoted a common policy in matters of general concern in to coffee. Coffee forms 96% in value of all the Central America was signed (May, 1927). exports. The United States takes 62% of the The budget (1941) estimates revenues at 22,047,exports and supplies 47% of the imports. Henequen 000 colones and expenditures at 22,044,000. The and balsam are also exported.

value of the colone is $2.50.

San Marino

Area, 38 square miles Population (Sept. 1939), 14,545 San Marino, situated in the Apennines near 60 members elected by popular vote, two of whom Rimini, in the heart of Italy, claims to be the oldest are chosen to exercise executive power for a term State in Europe and to have been founded in the of six months. The militia consists of all able fourth century. A treaty of friendship with the

bodied persons between the ages of 16 and 55, Kingdom of Italy (June, 1897) was revised (1908)

with the exception of teachers and students. and (1914). It has extradition treaties with the

Revenue and expenditure (1939-1940) balanced at

6,009,919 lire. There is no public debt. It has its United States, Great Britain, Belgium and Hol- own coinage and postage stamps, but Italian and land. Agriculture and stock raising are practically Vatican City currency are in general use. the only industries. Chief exports are wine, cattle San Marino is reached by carriage or motor from and building stone.

Rimini. 15 miles away. An electric railway, 20 San Marino is governed by a Great Council of miles long, was completed (1932).

Anglo-Egyptian Soudan Capital, Khartoum--Area, 969,600 square miles-Population (latest estimate), 6,342,477 The Soudan is bounded by Libya and Egypt on east, Uganda (British) and the Belgian Congo on the north, the line being the 22° north latitude: the the south, and French Equatorial Africa and Libya Red Sea and Eritrea (Italian) and Ethiopia on the on the west.

Its greatest length north and south is 1,650 miles, war, famine and disease. The inhabitants are and its greatest breadth east and west is 900 miles. partly Arabs, partly Negroes and partly Nubians The northern zone consists of the Libyan desert. of mixed Arab and Negro blood; the Arabs and on the west, and the mountainous Arabian desert, Nubians are Mohammedans. The Mahdist rebelextending to the Red Sea on the east, separated lion (1884), culminating in the fall of Khartoum by the narrow valiey of the Nile; the central zone and the death of Gen. Gordon (Jan. 26, 1885). has large areas of fertility, including the rainlands forced the Egyptian Government to withdraw of Kassala and Tokar, the Gezira plain and the from the Soudan, retaining only Wadi Halfa on pastures and gum forests of Kordofan; and the the Nile and Suakin on the Red Sea as frontier southern equatorial belt where the soil is richest ports. The Dervishes were overthrown by Lord and watered by tropical rains.

Kitchener with the Anglo-Egyptian army at It is the principal source of the world's supply Omdurman (Sept. 2, 1898). On the reconquest of of gum arabic. Cotton is grown extensively. Other the Soudan an agreement was signed (Jan. 19, 1899) important products are sesame, senna leaves and between Eøvpt and Great Britain, which fixed the pods, ground-nuts, dates, hides and skins, ma- boundary, provided for the administration of the hogany, dom nuts (vegetable ivory) chillies, semn territory by a Governor General appointed by Egypt (ghee), melon-seed, beans, corn, trochus and with the consent of Great Britain (aided since 19:0 mother of pearl shell, shea nuts, salt, ivory and by a council) who should make laws by proclamagold. The staple food of the inhabitants is dura tion, and providing that the British and Egyptian (great millet).

fags should fly together. The White Nile flows north through the middle Soudan has its own defensive force with a few of the country; the Blue Nile, rising in the moun- Egyptian soldiers. tains of Ethiopia, flows northwest to its junction While Egypt claims the Soudan as an integral at Khartoum with the White Nile to make the part, the British Government has officially anNile that flows on in a huge s curve to enter Egypt nounced as a fixed policy that Great Britain will at Wadi Halfa. Khartoum is 1,345 miles south of never abandon the Soudan or tolerate any atCairo, and 1,255 ft. above sea level. Formerly a tempt to disturb the administration. hot bed of malaria, modern sanitation has elimi- The monetary unit is the Egyptian pound, with nated the mosquito.

an average value of $4.54. Governmental revenue The population estimated at 9,000,000 (1884) de- (1938) was £E5,131,635 expenditures were £E4,creased to 2,000,000 under Dervish misrule through 857,784.

Spain

(ESPANA) Capital Madrid--Area, 196,607 square miles-Population (est. April 26, 1940), 26,000,000 Spain is bounded on the west by Portugal and to the Franco government (April 1, 1939). The the Atlantic Ocean, on the north by the Atlantic Government placed (Feb. 1, 1941) the responsibility and by France, on the east and south by the for feeding their workers on the key industrial and

mine owners. Mediterranean Sea, the British fortified station

The Ministry of Labor issued an Gibraltar being at the southernmost tip, guarding

order that any factory or mine that he designates

must establish company stores to supply employes the entrance to the Mediterranean from the

with necessaries. Atlantic. The Balearic Islands in the Mediter

The first meeting after the civil war of the ranean (capital, Palma; area, 1,935 square miles;

Grand Council of the Falange Espanola Tradiciopopulation, 368,173) and the Canary Islands (area, nalista, which under the Spanish totalitarian 2,807 square miles; population, 564,873), in the system' replaced the Parliament, opened in Burgos Atlantic, are provinces of Spain; Ceuta, a fortified

(June 5, 1939) under the presidency of Gen. Franco post in Africa, opposite Gibraltar (area, five square to legislate for the peace time organization of the miles: population, 39,510), is part of the Province

country Spain announced a 12-year reconstrucof Cadiz.

tion program costing $516,000,000 and a law for Spain occupies the entire Iberian peninsula with the compulsory service of all males between 18 the exception of Portugal. The lofty Pyrenees and 50 for reconstruction was approved by the separate it from France. The interior is a high cabinet. They must work 15 days a year for the inclosed plateau traversed east and west by moun- State or pay the equivalent in wages. tain range and deficient in rainfall.

General Franco announced (Aug. 10, 1939) his The productive land of Spain comprises nearly new cabinet with himself as Leader (Caudillo) of 114,000,000 acres, about 90% of the total area, but the Empire, Chief of State, Commander-in-Chief only about 56.000.000 acres are under cultivation, of the Army. Prime Minister, Minister of the while 60,000.00 acres are pastures and mountains. Interior and Head of the Military Directorate.

The Spanish republic was established (1931) The new cabinet replaced the civil war governwhen following the overwhelming victory of the ment, established Jan. 1, 1938, which in turn sucRepublicans in the municipal elections, Alfonso ceeded the junta of five generals that conducted XIII, King of Spain from his birth (May 17, 1886), the Nationalist Government during the first and Queen Victoria, with the Royal family, went eighteen months of the conflict. General Franco into exile (April 14). A self-formed provisional assumed the power in cases of urgency to issue government headed by Niceto Alcala Zamora car- decrees with the force of law without a vote of ried on

A Cortes, the first in eight years, was the Council of Ministers. elected (June 28) and formed itself into a Con- Under the Republican Constitution Spain had no stituent Assembly with members elected by uni- State religion, although a vast majority of the versal suffrage for four years, Zamora was elected population is Catholic. The Franco Government President for six years, and a constitution adopted has reestablished Catholicism as the State religion, (Dec. 9) under which Church and State were religious bodies have recovered their legal status separated, Church property confiscated, education and confiscated property has been returned. Primade entirely secular, provision made for the mary education is compulsory and free and reli. division of the large estates among the peasants gious teaching has been returned to its former and other socialistic plans made possible. (See The status. World Almanac for 1936, pages 697-98.

The Army was reorganized (1939) and is comPresident Zamora dissolved the Cortes, and to posed of ten army corps, not counting the forces in the new one elected (Feb. 16, 1936) were returned the Balearic and Canary Islands. Service is comLeft parties, 263; Center, 62; Right, 148; giving the pulsory for two years. A Ministry of the Air. Leftist (the Popular Front) a clear majority. The separate from the War Ministry and having full Cortes at once removed Zamora from the presidency control of all aviation, whether civilian or military. for violation of the Constitution in dissolving the was created (1939). The Navy consists of approxiprevious Cortes, and (May 11,) Manuel Azana, the mately 50 boats, including destroyers, torpedo Premier, was elected President for a six-year term. boats, gunboats, submarines and miscellaneous Santiago Casares Quiroga formed a Leftist Cabinet craft. without participation of the Extremists.

The Merchant Marine consisted (Jan. 1, 1940) A counter revolution broke out (July 19, 1936) of 923 vessels with a gross tonnage of 1,074,845. of the political elements opposed to the Popular The principal agricultural products of Spain are Front. The Nationalists set up & Government at wheat, barley.. oats, rye, olives, grapes, lemons, Burgog under the leadership of General Francisco oranges and other fruit, onions, almonds, esparto, Franco (born Dec. 14, 1892, in El Ferrol). The flax, hemp, pulse and cork. Wine-making is imporcivil war continued until the surrender of Madrid tant. Spain possesses an abundance of minerals. (March 28, 1939). Azana had resigned as presi- Iron is mined in the provinces of Viscaya, Sandent (Feb. 27, 1939), the day that Great Britain tander, Oviedo, Navarra, Huelva, and Seville: copand France recognized Franco, and fled to France. per in the provinces of Sevilla, Cordoba and Huelva; The United States formally accorded recognition coal in Oviedo, Leon, Gerona, Valencia and Cor

doba; zinc in Santander, Murcia, Guipuzcoa, and The chief ports are Barcelona, Pasajes, Bilbao Vizcaya; cobalt in Oviedo, lead in Murcia, Jaen and and Cadiz. Almeria, manganese in Oviedo, Huelva and Seville: The budget (1941) is estimated to balance at quicksilver in Ciudad Real and Oviedo; silver in 7,000,000,000 pesetas. The budget (1940) was the Guadalajara; sulphate and soda in Burgos; sul- same. Italy billed Spain (Feb. 27, 1941) for 5.500,phur in Murcia and Almeria; phosphates in Cace- 000,000 lire (approximately $270,000,000 at the res and Huelva.

official Italian exchange rate) for aid given to All railroads were placed under government Generalissimo Franco in the civil war. This is to ownership and operation (Feb. 1, 1941) in an effort be paid off in 25 years. Interest is graduated startto solve the country's transport tangle. Narrow ing at one-fourth of one per cent and ending at gauge and mining railroads were not affected. 4 per cent.

SPANISH COLONIES The colonies of Spain are now relatively unim- Morocco, over a part of which (area, 18.350 portant, in sharp contrast with those which she square miles; population, 750,000) Spain exercises held in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth a protectorate and where she has suffered severe centuries. The Guinean lands in Africa (area military setbacks, is less developed than the French 10,036 square miles; population 140,000) are unde: Algerian and other African possessions. (See veloped, and small values are taken therefrom. All Morocco.) Other Spanish possessions are Rio de figures are mere estimates.

Oro and Adrar (area, 109,200 square miles; white Spain has given France the right of pre-emption population, 840); Ifni (965 square miles and 20.000 in case of the sale of any of these African colonies population); Fernando Po and others near Guinea or the adjacent Islands.

(705 square miles and 23,846 population).

Sweden

(SVERIGE) Capital, Stockholm-Area, 173,347 square miles-Population (Jan. 1, 1940), 6,341,303 Sweden occupies the eastern and largest part of pulp mills: 100,000 men are regularly employed the Scandinavian peninsula in northwest Europe. and 400,000 more obtain some part of their living

therefrom. A mountain range separates it from Norway on the

Before the war, 90 per cent of sawed

and planed wood were exported. 75 per cent of the west, and the Gulf of Bothnia and the Tornea

The Baltic Sea wood pulp and 60 per cent of the paper. Although River from Finland on the east.

this export has suffered tremendously from the separates it from the Baltic states and Germany

loss of the markets beyond the seas, new ways have on the southeast and south and the Cattegat from

been found to utilize the products of the forest in Denmark on the southwest. The mountain range

the Swedish home market. Private houses, inbetween Norway and Sweden is frequently referred

dustries and railroads burn wood instead of coal to as the Kjolen mountain, but such a mountain

and coke. Fabrication of rayon and other textiles does not exist geographically, but is merely a name made of pulp has increased, and it has even been used exclusively in certain expressions to indicate possible to produce cattle fodder from woodpulp. the dividing line between the two countries. The principal crops are wheat, rye, barley. oats,

The Government is a constitutional monarchy. corn. peas, beans, vetches, potatoes, sugar beets, The Legislature has two Chambers, the first of 150 fodder roots and hay. members and the second of 230 members. Suffrage About 10,000 are engaged in the mining industry, is universal for all over twenty-four years of age which is most extensive north of the Arctic Circle. of both sexes.

The Swedish steel is of especial value for tool The King of Sweden is Gustav V. (born June 16, making. The iron and mechanical industry em1858), succeeded on the death of his father, Oscar ployes about 175,000; textiles, 80,000 and the paper II (Dec. 8. 1907). He married (Sept. 20, 1881) industry, 60,000. Princess Victoria, daughter of Friedrich. Grand Because of the blockade, Sweden has been cut ofl Duke of Baden (died in Rome, April 4, 1930). The from markets which took about 70 per cent of the Crown Prince Gustav Adolf (born Nov. 11. 1882) imports and an even higher percentage of the exmarried (June 15, 1905) Princess Margaret (died ports. Imports and exports in very small quantities May 1, 1920), daughter of the Duke of Connaught have been managed via Gothenburg and the Finnish and granddaughter of Queen Victoria. He has four Arctic port of Petsamo. A trade treaty negotiated sons and one daughter by his first marriage. His with the Soviet Union (1940) provided for desecond wife, Lady Louise Mountbatten, he married liveries of Russian fodder, breadstuffs, mineral oil (Nov. 3, 1923).

and certain metals, in exchange for chiefly highThe Government is composed of five Social- class manufactured Swedish goods. The export to Democrats, two Agrarians, three Conservatives, two Germany consists above all of forest products and Liberals and three non-Partisan Ministers. Prime iron ore, the latter not exceeding pre-war quantiMinister is Per Albin Hansson, Social-Democrat ties. No export of war materials is allowed. (born Oct. 28, 1885).

The population is very homogeneous, being Lakes and rivers are more numerous in Sweden entirely of the Scandinavian branch of the Aryan than in any other European country except Finland family, except about 30,000 Finns and 6,500 Lapps.

The Government's hydro-electric plant, Porjus, Most of the people are Lutheran Protestant, which in Lappland many miles north of the Arctic Circle, is the state religion, but complete freedom of worthe center of a vast iron mining section, has a ship exists. Education is compulsory. capacity of 105 thousand HP. The water power

Population of the chief cities (1940) is: Stockresources of the country are more than 18

holm, 583,621; Gothenburg. 280,602; and Malmo, million HP.

154,270. The importance of the electric power is shown

Compulsory and universal military service is reby the fact that the electrification of Swedish railway trackage is 50 per cent complete and the quired from 20 to 46.

The budget (1938-39) railroads now electrified bear 90 per cent of the

balanced at 1,295.000 kronor, Increased (1939-40) total railroad traffic. As to other means of trans

to 2,767,000 kronor. About half of this, or 1,377.000 portation, Sweden had, before the war, about

kronor, was reserved for military expenses, which 230,000 motor cars, trucks, buses, etc. The block

for the year 1940-41 amounted to 2,500,000 kronor. ade, however, has cut off practically all imports

For the budget year 1941-42 the corresponding of gasoline. As substitute cars with charcoal

costs are being calculated to at least 1,550,000

kronor. burners are used; more than 50,000 vehicles of this

The Navy has eight coast defense ships. type were being used (June, 1941).

three cruisers, 20 destroyers, ten motor torpedo

boats, 75 mine sweepers and 28 submarines. The Although of broken, mountainous topography,

Air Force, divided into 10 regiments, includes, acSweden contains much productive land, well watered, on which the Swedes have attained high

cording to non-official estimates, 500 aircraft, and

is being heavily increased. The Army organization efficiency in agriculture. Hall the people are on

is undergoing change. farms, which number about 430,000; of which 120.000 are unde 5 acres, and 270,800 between 5 Parliament passed (1940) a new enabling law for and 50 acres. Sweden's total area divides 9.4%

compulsory national service by which all Swedes arable, 2.3% meadows, 59.4% forests. The forest

can be called to perform specified kinds of work area is about 58,000,000 acres. In Lapland 32% of

considered to be of national importance. the trees are more than 160 years old and 45% are The monetary unit is the krona, with an average more than 120 years old.

value of $.24. of the forest lands 45% are owned by farmers, The merchant marine (July 1, 1939) consisted of 4% by large landed proprietors, 27% by companies 2,259 ships with a gross tonnage of 1,611,462. having sawmills, pulp mills, etc., and about 24% There are free ports at Stockholm, Goteborg and by the state. In forestry, lumbering, sawmills and I Malmo.

Switzerland

(SCHWEIZ-SUISSE-SVIZZERA) Capital, Berne-Area, 15,944 square miles—Population (est. Jan. 1, 1940), 4,218,000 Switzerland is bounded on the west by France, high mountains in the world. In the Swiss Alps the north by Germany, the east by Germany there are no fewer than 70 peaks with an altitude and Italy, and the south by Italy. It is mostly ranging from 10,000 feet to 15,000. The largest mountainous, having many high peaks of the Swiss number is in Canton Valais, where the Dufour Peak Alps, with many fertile and productive valleys highest in the country.

of Monte Rosa, 15,217 ft. above sea level, is the

The lowest point in between, in which dairying flourishes, and much

Switzerland is also in the region of the Alps -- the foodstuff is produced. The German language is shore of Lake Maggiore, which is about 650 ft. spoken by a majority of the people in 16 of the 22

above sea level, while the bottom of the lake itself cantons, French in five, and Italian in one. Ger

is 575 ft, below sea level. Other Swiss lakes famous man was spoken (1930) by 2,924,314 persons. French by 831,100. Italian by 242,634, Romansch by Brienz, Thoune, Lucerne, Geneva, and Constance.

for their beauty are Zurich, Zug, Lugano, Walensee, 44,204, and other languages, 24,797. There were

In all, there are 21 large lakes. (1930) 355.522 foreigners in the country.

About 3,000,000 acres are under grass and about The chief cities are: Zurich, 330,000; Basle, 2,000,000 acres pasturage. Dairy products form the 165,000; Berne, 125,000: Geneva, 125.000; Lausanne, chief agricultural industry, followed by cattle, pigs, 90.000 St. Gall, 65,000; Winterthur, 60,000 and fruit, poultry, tobacco, wheat, rye, oats and potaLucerne, '48,000.

toes. The country is famous for its wine and Switzerland is the peacetime winter playground cheese. The principal minerals are salt, iron ore, of Europe. Four large riverine districts con- and manganese. Watchmaking and embroidery tribute to its grandeur--the Rhine, Rhone, Po and are important manufactures. Danube. Almost three-quarters of the country Switzerland is a confederation of 22 cantons, serve as a watershed for the Rhine, whose more which are joined under a Federal Constitution important tributaries are the Aare, Limmat, and (that of May 29, 1874, being now in force), with Reuss. The Rhine and the Rhone rise in the

large powers of local control retained by each central part of Switzerland; the Inn flows out of canton. The national authority vests in a parliathe mountains of the Engadine to the Danube: the ment of two chambers, a "Ständerat" or States most important Swiss tributary of the Po is the Council to which each canton sends two members. Tessin, which rises in the Gotthard range. The The lower house, Nationalrat or National Council, formation of the courses of the rivers and the has 187 members elected according to population, channels which they have carved in the valleys one representative to about 22.000 persons. The impart to Switzerland-situated as it is in the President (1940) is Ernest Wetter and the Vice heart of Europe-great geographical importance President Philippe Etter. from the traffic point of view, for the shortest Social welfare legislation covers subsidies for sick roads between north and south, east and west, ran insurance, accident insurance, unemployment rethrough this country from time immemorial. The lief, old age pensions and professional training northern escarpment of the Alps extends into the courses. foothills and rolling midlands, which are bounded

Primary education has been free and compulsory by the Jura range running from north-east to south-west. The Alps constitute 61%. the mid-Basel, founded in 1460.

since 1874. There are seven universities, the oldest, lands 27%, and the Jura 12% of Switzerland.

There is complete freedom of worship. The midlands, lying between the Jura and the Service in the national militia is compulsory and Alps, is the cultivated and industrial district,

universal. Service liability extends from 18 to 60. where towns, commerce and industry flourish.

The Federal Council estimated national defense The Jura is an ancient deciduous limestone expenditures (1941) at 1.050,000,000 francs comrange, which acted as an abutment when the Alps pared with 1,136.000.000 (1940) and 392,000,000 were formed, being thereby mounted in a series (1939). of folds running parallel to one another. Their The monetary unit is the franc with an average altitudes seldom exceed 4,500 ft. to 5,200, ft.

value of $.23. The Alps, from the scenic point of view, con- Governmental receipts (1941) are estimated at stitute the most varied and beautiful chain of | 518,000,000 francs; expenditures at 592,000,000.

Syria and The Lebanon

Area 57,900 squares miles--Population (1935), 3,630,000 Syria is a former province of the old Turkish of violent riots and protracted strikes forced his Empire, made an independent State by the Treaty resignation (Feb. 23. 1936). mandate given to France by the Supreme Council Hashem El Atassi (elected Dec. 21, 1936) resigned of Serves (Aug. 10, 1920) and administered under a as president (July 7, 1939) in protest against of the Allied Powers. On the north lies Turkey, on French failure to grant complete independence to the east the Iraq, on the south Transjordania and the Republic. The Cabinet had resigned previously Palestine, and on the west the Mediterranean Sea. for the same reason. Gabriel Puaux, French High It is about the size of Michigan, The population Commissioner, suspended the Constitution and is mainly Moslem.

appointed a board of directors to rule the manSyria is divided into the Republic of Lebanon, dated State under his guidance. The French High proclaimed a State as Great Lebanon (Sept. 1,

Commissioner is Henri Dentz. 1920) with Beirut as its capital and the French A Franco-Syrian treaty approving establishment tricolor, charged

with a cedar on the white stripe, of an independent Syrian State, under French millfor its fag; the State of Syria formed by uniting tary supervision, was signed (Sept. 8, 1936). Great Damascus, Alexandretta, Aleppo, Hama Homs, Britain occupied Syria and the Levant (1941) under Hauran, and Deir Ezzor (1925). with Damascus as

the terms of an armistice with the Vichy Governthe capital; the Government of Latakia (set up ment of France terminating a five-weeks' war. May 14, 1930), and the Government of Jebel Druse, France turned her mandate over to the British and both under direct French administration.

Free French forces. The area in square miles of the territorial Syria was proclaimed a Republic (Sept. 16, 1941) divisions under the mandate are-Syria, 49,100; by the occupying Free French authorities and The Lebanon, 3,600; Latakia, 2.800; Jebel Druse, Sheik Tajeddine Hassani was proclaimed presi2,400. The population follows-Syria, 1,696,638: dent. The Prime Minister is Hassan Bey Hakin, The Lebanon, 862,618; Latakia, 286.920; Jebei Free France acted in agreement with Great Druse, 51.780. There are about ' 250,000 Bedouin Britain in terminating the mandate. tribesmen (nomads).

The unit of currency is the Syrian pound which 'The French have met in Syria constant difficul. Is pegged to the French franc at the rate of 20 tles of administration, economic troubles, armed francs to one Syrian pound. uprisings, notably the Druse rebellion (1925-27) Tobacco, wheat, fruit, wine and silk are the chief and the Damascus outbreak (1925), and during products, followed by cotton, barley, corn, sorrecent years much turmoil over the Arab nationalist ghums, sesamé, olives, grapes and citrus fruits. ferment. Although a Franco-Syrian treaty of The population is composed mainly of Moslenis. friendship and alliance was signed (Nov. 20, 1933) There is a public education system; also private the Nationalists refused to accept it and the French and foreign schools. There is a Syrian University High Commissioner had to suspend the Syrian in Damascus, agricultural colleges in Selemie and Parliament (Nov. 3. 1934) and govern by decree Bekaa, with an American and a French University through a puppet Premier, Sheikh Taj. six weeks 1 in Beirut.

Thailand (formerly Siam)

(PRADES THAI OR MUANG-THAL)
Capital, Bangkok-Area, 221,898 square miles-Population (est, July, 1938), 15,976,000
Thailand is situated in Southeastern Asia, with for the people, and an elected parliament,
Burma (British India) on the northwest and west

King Prajadhipok, a liberal, had trouble with and French Indo-China on the northeast and east, both the Communistic and the Reactionary eleand the Gulf of Thailand, which is part of the ments of his country. When in England awaiting China Sea, on the south and east. It also occupies had by a coup seized power, presented to him a

an operation on his eyes, the government, which the neck of the Malay Peninsula as far as the Fed

measure taking away the royal power over life and erated Malay States (British). It is of rolling death. He refused to sign it on the ground that topography with large areas susceptible to irriga- it merely transferred the power to his ministers. tion, of which about 250,000 acres have been under He abdicated, and the throne passed to his nephew, water since 1922.

Prince Ananda Mahidol (born Sept. 20, 1925). The Government changed (1939) the official During the King's minority & Council of Rename of the country to Thailand, the ancient name gency was appointed to rule. The Council (Dec. of Siam. The word Thai was substituted for Siamese. 16, 1938) named Col. Luang Bipul Songgram, De

Bangkok, the capital, in the delta of the Menam, fense Minister and head of the dominant militarist is a modern city,

clique, premier, The appointment was made in The town of Nakon Sritamaraj, 1,000 years old, the name of King Ananda, who had returned is the home of perhaps the most distinctive Siamese (Nov. 15), from his school in Switzerland for a art, the "Niello" work which has been practised | visit. Col. Songgram was succeeded by Prince for more than eight centuries. The process con- Aditya Dibabha. sists in the tracing of designs on silver by means A border dispute arose between Thailand and of gentle repoussé work and afterward Alling up French-Indo China (1940) and was settled (1941) the depressions with a black metallic substance under mediation by Japan. The terms of the obtained from lead, copper and silver, melted with settlement awarded to Thailand, 21,750 square sulphur.

miles in Cambodia and Laos, one of the richest There are many large forests, teakwood being an rice producing sections of French Indo-China. The important article of export. Labor is higher than settlement provides that the ceded territories are in almost any other Oriental country.

to become demilitarized zones in which French The chief crop is rice, the staple food of the nationals and Indo-Chinese natives will have full people and heavily exported. Other important rights to go and come or to keep their homes products are para-rubber, cocoanuts, tobacco, pep- and businesses. per and cotton.

All able-bodied males between the ages of 18 and Mineral resources are extensive and include coal, 30 are liable to military service; two years in the tin, iron, manganese, tungsten, antimony and quick Army, and 23 in the reserves. The Air Force consilver.

sists of five wings. The Navy consists of approxiThailand, one of the last of the absolute monar- mately 60 small vessels, the majority modern. chies, underwent a bloodless revolution (June 24, Buddhism is the prevailing religion. There were 1932). It was aimed at the elders of the Royal (1938-1939) 18,416 temples with 140,774 priests. House, of the government, and of the army who The monetary unit is the baht (tical) with an had opposed the King in liberalizing his regime. average value of $.38. Governmental revenues The King (June 29, 1932) signed a new constitu- (1941) are estimated at 137,968,768 bahts with extion establishing a limited monarchy, full franchise penditures of 187,968,657.

Turkey

(TURKIYE CUMHURIYETI) Capital, Ankara-Area, 294,416 square miles (not including Republic of Hatay)—Population (Oct. 1940)

17,869,901 Up to the beginning of the World War, Turkey. Turkey (April 10, 1936) asked of the eight powers or the Ottoman Empire, included European Turkey, signatory to the Treaty of Lausanne for its reAnatolia, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, vision so that she might remilitarize the Straits Armenia and Kurdistan, also groups of islands in of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. The powers

consented at a meeting at Montreaux, Switzerland the Aegean Sea.

(June 20). The areas of the Turkish Empire (so late as 1916) A constitution replacing the Fundamental Law totaled about 710,224 square miles, with about of 1921 was adopted (October, 1925). It provided 21,273,900 of population.

for a single legislative National Assembly of 283 In Asia, a part of Armenia has adopted a Soviet Deputies elected on a basis of one to each 50,000 government and is at least in harmonious agree- people by males over 18. This provision was ment with Soviet Russia, Syria passed under the changed (Dec. 14. 1934) when the franchise was mandate of France and was occupied by Great given to women and the age of both men and Britain (1941). Mesopotamia has been created the women made 22 years, and the ratio changed to independent kingdom of the Iran; Palestine has one for 40,000. The Assembly elected for four years come under the mandate of Great Britain; and (March 26, 1939) has 424 members including 14 Arabia has asserted its independence, and is now women. the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The National Assembly elects the President of Turkey in Europe now bounded on the north the Republic for a four-year term from among its by the Black Sea, Bulgaria and the Caucasus; on members. In 15 years a steady flow of legislation the east by the Caucasus and Persia; on the south has been enacted to Westernize the country. By by Iraq, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea; on the tacit omission polygamy and slavery were abolished, west by Bulgaria, Greece and the Aegean Sea. civil marriages were made obligatory and registra

Under the Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 10, 1920), im- tion of marriages was ordered. The Gregorian posed on Turkey after the World War, various calendar was adopted, the 24-hour clock, and divisions of her territory were made and a neutral the metric system. All Turks were ordered to zone was set up on either shore of the Dardanelles, adopt family names. The fez was outlawed and the Sea of Marmora, and the Hellespont.

most of the younger women discarded the veil and The Sanjak of Alexandretta (set up Jan. 1, with it the old custom of seclusion. The Assembly 1925) as part of the State of Syria became an inde- (May 28, 1935) made Sunday the weekly day of pendent province known as the Hatay Republic rest throughout Turkey in place of Friday, the under a treaty concluded (June, 1938) between traditional Mohammedan Sabbath. France and Turkey. Its capital is Antioch. Hatay Islam is no longer recognized as the State rewas ceded to Turkey by France (June 23, 1939) ligion, but the vast majority of the Turkish in a mutual assistance pact.

population is Moslem., Turkish has been substiThe real power in the Turkish Empire was seized tuted for the liturgical language in all mosques. by the Grand National Assembly and a responsible The law forbids the wearing of clerical garb exMinistry set up by the Nationalists at Ankara, in cept in places of Worship during Divine service. Anatolia, which was the most genuinely Turkish Education is compulsory, free and secular besection of the old Ottoman Empire, after the last tween the ages of 7 and 16. There are primary, Chamber of Deputies, sitting at Constantinople, intermediate, secondary and vocational schools was dissolved (April 11, 1920). The Assembly de- with universities in Istanbul and Ankara, clared that Mohammed VI was deposed as Sultan, Mustapha Kemal Ataturk (Cnlet Turk), presiand the Sultanate abolished. It declared (March dent of Turkey, died (Nov. 10, 1938) and Gen, Is2, 1924) that his successor as Caliph, Abdul Medjid met Inonu (Nov. 11) was elected to succeed him. II, was deposed as Caliph (spiritual head of Islam) A new cabinet was formed (Jan. 25. 1939) with and that the Caliphate was vested in the Assembly. I only five of the twelve ministers who held office

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