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tary Prince Harold, was born (Feb. 21, 1937) and Government is in London, and Norwegian military two daughters, Princess Ragnhild Alexandra, training camps are maintained, mainly in Canada. (June 9, 1930) and Princess Astrid, (Feb. 12, 1932). The Crown Princess and her children, at the in

Germany invaded and occupied Norway (April, vitation of the President of the United States. 1940). The war, following the invasion, lasted came to America (Aug. 23, 1940) aboard the until mid-Júne when the Allied forces evacuated. American Legion. The German Governor General King Haakon, the Crown Prince, the Government of Norway is Joseph Terboven. and all military forces that could be accommo- The monetary unit is the krone with a value of dated on board ships and airplanes at their dis- | $.20 based on the official German rate. The budget posal, evacuated Norway to continue the fight (1940-1941) was estimated to balance at 790,000,000. from Allied soil. The seat of the Norwegian kroner.

SPITZBERGEN

(Svalbard) Spitzbergen, a mountainous group of islands in the war ended the negotiations, but, following the Arctic Ocean between 76° 26' and 80° 50' north action by the Peace Conference (1919), a treaty latitude and 10° 20' and 32° 40' east longitude, the was signed in Paris (Feb. 9, 1921) by the United largest being West Spitzbergen (12,000 square States, Great Britain, Denmark, France, Italy, miles), lies about 370 miles due north of Norway, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, half-way to the Pole. Discovered by Norsemen which put Spitzbergen under the flag of Norway. (1194) and rediscovered by Barents (1596,) the The area is about 24.290 square miles; the populaIslands had been the resort of whalers of several tion around 2,700. nations. Norway has periodically asserted (since The development of the coal fields has proceeded 1261) her claims to the

islands, and from 1870 the rapidly. The resources are estimated at 9,000,000,demand became more insistent, increasing as Nor- 000 tons. There are large deposits of low-grade wegian exploration discovered rich outcropping iron ore and gypsum, and signs of oil have been seams of coal-a necessary which Norway lacks. reported.

MINOR ISLAND POSSESSIONS Jan Mayen, a desolate area of 144 square miles

Bouvet Island, area 22 square miles, is an unbetween Greenland and Northern Norway and

inhabited tract in the Southern Atlantic. Great about 300 miles north of Iceland. The Norwegian

Britain relinquished (1928) its claim to the Island

to Norway. Meteorlogical Institute established (1921) a weather Peter I Island, with an area of 94 square miles, station there. Otherwise Jan Mayen is uninhabited. I lies in the Antarctic and is uninhabited.

Palestine

(ERETZ YISRAEL-FLSTIN) Capital, Jerusalem-Area, 10,429 square miles-Population (est. June, 1940), 1,529,559 Palestine, the Holy Land, lying between the as & Jewish homeland in accordance with the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, was "Balfour Declaration" has met with much opformerly a vilayet of the Turkish province of Syria. position from the Arabs, and outbreaks of violence It was conquered during the World War by British have marked the history of the country for the troops under General, later Field Marshal, Viscount past 18 years. Allenby, Jerusalem being surrendered (Dec. 9, 1917).

The Balfour declaration (Nov. 2, 1917) was: “His Jerusalem had been in Moslem hands since 1244. Majesty's Government views with favor the estabhad been conquered and reconquered in the Cru- lishment in Palestine of a national home for the sades, and had been under the rule of the Turk Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to since 1517. It remained under British Military facilitate the achievement of that object. It being Administration until July 1, 1920, when Sir Herbert clearly understood that nothing shall be done which L. Samuel was appointed High Commissioner and may prejudice the civil and religious rights of exa civil government set up. The country has been isting non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the governed (since Sept. 29, 1923) by Great Britain rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any under & mandate granted by the League of Na- other country." tions. The present High Commissioner (appointed Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister, Colonial Secretary March 1, 1938) is Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael. (Oct. 31, 1933) restated the policy of the Mandatory

Palestine is primarily an agricultural country, Power: "There is under the Mandate the obligation the growing of citrus fruit being the most lucra- to facilitate the establishment of a National Home tive commercial activity. The principal crops in- for the Jewish people in Palestine, but at the same clude wheat, barley, durra, olives, kersenneh, time there is an equally definite obligation to safemelons and watermelons, grapes, figs, tomatoes. guard the rights of all inhabitants of Palestine. The citrus fruits are chiefly oranges and grape - Both obligations will be most carefully observed." fruit. Bananas are also grown. Wine making is an Lord Passfeld in a White Paper (Oct. 20, 1930) extensive industry. Minerals found are limestone, announced that "no margin of land available for sandstone, gypsum. The valley of the Jordan and agricultural settlement by new immigrants rethe shores of the Dead Sea yield rock salt and mained," therefore "it was the duty of the mansulphur. The center of the wine-making industry datory power to suspend such immigration until is in the Jewish villages of Zichron Jacob and the unemployed portion obtain work." Rishon le Zion, Soap-boiling is chiefly centered in Both civil and religious courts have been estabNablus, Jaffa and Haifa; olive oil in Nablus, Acre lished. A new code of commercial law has been and Jaffa, and cement in Haifa.

enacted, and many laws modernized. The official The Jewish population in Palestine (1920) was

languages are English, Arabic and Hebrew. estimated at 66,574 urban and 15,000 rural. It was estimated (June 30, 1940) that there were 941,362 in Palestine recognize the Jewish Agency (com

The British Government and the Administration Moslems, 456,743 Jews and 119,007 Christians. The

posed of Zionists and non-Zionists) as the agency official languages are English, Arabic and Hebrew.

of the Jewish people in building a National Jewish There were (1938-1939) 1,482 schools with 7,088 teachers and 166,646 pupils. A dual system of

Home. education, Arab and Hebrew, prevails. The Hebrew

Great Britain announced (Feb. 28, 1940) new University in Jerusalem (established 1925) has

restrictions on the sale of land by Jews to Arabs. (1939-1940) 133 teachers and 1,106 students.

The new regulations divide the country into three Legal immigration into Palestine was cut off

areas as follows: (Oct. 1, 1939) for a period of six months by orders

First, Zone A, in which the transfer of land to of the British Government. Immigration was re

any one other than a Palestine Arab is prohibited sumed (April, 1940) at the rate of 1,000 a month.

except in exceptional cases, includes the HDI Before the World War there were in Palestine

Country as a whole, together with certain areas 1,235 Industrial undertakings, most of them Arab;

of the Gaza and Beersheba subdistricts where the there were (1933) 5,290, of which nearly 3,000 were

land available already is insufficient for the supJewish, employing 16,000 workers. The number port of the existing population." of Jewish enterprises (1937) was 5,606, employing

Second, Zone B, in which the transfer of land 30.040. The area of land in Jewish possession has

to Jews is forbidden except under certain condi. Increased from 102,150 acres (1920) to 378,000 tions, includes the plains of Asdraelon and Jezreel acres (1939).

in Eastern Galilee, the maritime plain between There has developed considerable trade in manu- Haita and Tantura and between the southern factured commodities, both in local and imported boundary of the Lamleh subdistrict and Beer raw materials. Small scale Industries and handi- Tuviya and the southern portion of the Beersheba crafts still predominate although there has been subdistrict (the Negeb)." a flow of capital equipment for industrial enter- Third, the zone in which Jews may purchase prises.

any land available includes all the rest of PalesThe effort of Great Britain to establish Palestine tine not included in Zones A and B, the unrestricted zone including "all municipal areas, the an average width of eight miles, 1.292 ft. below Haifa industrial zone and, roughly speaking, the sea level. mariti ne plain between Tantura and the southern An income tax was imposed (1941) for the first boundary of the Rerleh subdistrict."

time since the days of the Biblical tithe. The levy Jerusalem. the Holy city, is visited annually by is 10 per cent of company earnings for the previous large pilgrimages of Orthodox Greek Christians. year. The Mosque of Omar occupies the site of Solomon's The principal imports are cotton, textiles, sugar, Temple. It contains the sacrificial stone of Abra- petroleum, cigarettes and rice; and the chief exham and a relic of Mahomet. Bethlehem is also ports are oranges, soap, wines, melons, apricots, visited, the Church of the Nativity being reputed port and almonds. the oldest Christian church in existence, Jerusalem The chief ports of Palestine are Haifa and Jaffa has (1940) a population of 135,900.

with light draft vessels going to Tel-Aviv, Gaza On the west is the coastal plain a hundred miles and Acre. long and 15 wide, fertile and well watered. In the The unit of currency is the Palestine pound, center is the plateau of Judea. The eastern border equal in value to the British pound. The budget drops sharply into the depressed valley of the (1940-1941) estimates revenues of £8,435,836 and River Jordan and the Dead Sea, 46 miles long, with expenditures of £8,857,584.

TRANSJORDAN Trans jordan is an Arab state set up within | ward Abu Kamal on the Euphrates; on the cast the Palestine Mandate yet separate from Palestine the boundary between it and the

Iraq runs south (since Sept. 1, 1922). It is under the responsibility from Abu Kamal to the junction of the boundaries of the High Commissioner for Palestine, who has a of the Iraq and Nejd; on the south lies the kingdom British agent there, in accord with an agreement of Saudi Arabia. concluded between the British Government and The area is approximately 34,740 square miles, the Emir (signed Feb. 20, 1928) and ratified (Oct. and the population is estimated at 300,000, chiefly 31, 1929). Under the Organic Law the Emir ad- nomad Arabs, of whom about 260,000 are Moham. ministers the country under a council

of advisers. medan, 30,000 Arab Christians, and 10,000 CircasThe first legislative assembly, of 22 elected depu- sians. The official language is Arabic. ties was opened (April 2, 1929).

The King of the Hejaz (1924) transferred The Emir is Abdullah, second son of King Hussein Akaba, Maan and Tebuk to Transjordan. of the Hejaz, and brother of King Feisal of Irag, The country is largely desert except for a 30-mile (born in Mecca in 1882) and became ruler (April, strip between the Jordan and the Hejaz railroad 1921).

traverses the country from

to Maan, The boundaries of Transjordan have not been its present terminus. A road fit for motor traffic determined, but roughly, on the west the line extends from Jerusalem to the capital, Amman, · separating it from Palestine runs from the Lake where there is a British aerodrome and air-force

of Tiberias down the Jordan to the Dead Sea and detachment. thence south across Wadi el Araba to Marashash The Transfordan frontier force numbers 47 on the Gulf of Sinai; on the north it is separated officers and 1,577 men. There is an additional force from Syria by the River Yarmuk, thence eastward of some 700 men raised in Palestine and Transto Imtar and thence a straight line northeast to-1 Jordan, and officered largely by the British.

Panama

(REPUBLICA DE PANAMA) Capital, Panama-Area, 33,667 square miles Population (1930), 467,459 In 1513 Vasco Nuñez de Balboa forced his way the Taft agreement (abrogated June 1, 1924) was through the jungles to discover the Pacific Ocean. signed in Washington (March 2, 1936). by which Spain's Emperor Charles V established (1858) the the United States renounced its guarantee of Real Audiencia de Panama with jurisdiction over Panaman independence specified in the treaty of Nicaragua to the north and all the Spanish 1903, also the right to intervene to maintain order Provinces to the south as far as the Strait of in the cities of Panama and Colon. The annual Magellan, including the Provinces of Cartagena, rental charge of $250,000 in gold was changed Peru, Chile and what is now Argentina. Panama (retroactive to Feb. 26, 1934, in consequence of became independent from Spain by a movement of the dollar devaluation) to 430,000 balboas, the its own (Nov. 28, 1821) and subsequently joined currency of Panama. The treaty further provided the Great Colombian Confederation formed by that no new private business be established in the Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. Panama broke Canal Zone, and only Government employees alaway from New Granada (Colombia) on several lowed to reside there. occasions but always joined her again until (Nov. of the total area of Panama, five-eighths are 3. 1903, it finally seceded from Colombia and be- unoccupied and only a small part of the remainder came an independent Republic and was recognized is properly cultivated. Immigration is restricted. (Nov. 13) by the United States. It occupies the The forest resources are great. Stock raising is entire isthmus of that name connecting North and extensively carried on. The chief exports are South America, lying between the Caribbean Sea bananas, cacao and coconuts. on the north and the Pacific on the south. The A new Constitution (adopted in a plebiscite Dec. Costa Rican boundary was settled by a treaty 15, 1940, and put into force Jan. 2, 1940), extends signed May, 1941). The Colombian boundary line the term of the president to six years and bars reto the east was determined by a boundary commis election. It continues the National Assembly, comsion appointed by both governments which fixed posed of 32 members, elected for four years on the the boundary and whose work was finished (1938). basis of one for each 15,000 inhabitants. The

By treaty (Nov. 18, 1903) ratified (Feb. 23, 1904) Cabinet of six members is continued. There are and with a supplemental (Taft) agreement (1904) three vice presidents, chosen by the National the United States acquired the right to construct Assembly. Arnulfo Arias was elected president the Panama Canal across the Isthmus, a strip (the (June 2, 1940) and fled the country (Oct. 7, 1941) Canal Zone) extending for five miles on each side after failure to collaborate with the United States of the Canal, the terminal cities of Cristobal, on foreign policy. The Panama Supreme Court adjacent to Colon, and Balboa, adjacent to Panama, declared the post vacant and Ricardo Adolfo de la and islands for defensive purposes in the bay, in Guardia was sworn in two days later. The Roman perpetuity and exclusive control for police, judicial, Catholic religion prevails, but religious freedom is sanitary and other purposes. The United States guaranteedPrimary education is free and comalso has complete jurisdiction over sanitary and pulsory. There is no army; the national police has quarantine matters in the two cities of Colon and the dual role of Army and police and numbers Panama and owns and operates the Panama Rail- 2,500 officers and men. Spanish is the official road, 47 miles long, connecting these cities. In language and its use is compulsory. Women have return the United States paid Panama $10.000.000 the ballot. outright, and $250,000 gold a year rental, beginning The silver balboa is the unit of currency. The after the lapse of nine years.

budget (1939-1940) was estimated to balance at A new treaty with the United States replacing 22,795,000 balboas.

Paraguay

(REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY) Capital, Asuncion--Area (including Chaco), 174,854 square miles-Population (est. 1940), 1,000,000

Paraguay, one of the two inland countries of, west by Argentina and Bolivia. The extensive South America, is bounded on the north by plains are excellent for pasturage and agriculture, Bolivia and Brazil, on the east by Brazil and and the mountain slopes are covered with luxuriant Argentina, on the south by Argentina, and on the forests. It is one of the best watered countries in

the world. The Paraguay River, the Republic's but the State has the right to regulative economic most important waterway, is navigable for vessels activities. of 12-foot draft as far as Asuncion and Concepcion, Felix Paiva became President (Aug. 15, 1937) by and beyond for smaller craft for practically its a military junta that displaced Col. Rafael Franco. entire length (1,800 miles).

The National Congress of Paraguay (Oct. 11, 1938) Regular steamer service is maintained from elected Paiva President for an indefinite term. Buenos Aires on the Parana-Paraguay Rivers as Gen. Jose Felix Estigarribia was elected President far as Asuncion, where extensive port improve- for a 4-year term (April 30, 1939) in the first ments have been made, including the dredging of presidential election since the beginning of the an adequate river channel and the construction of Chaco war in 1932. He was inaugurated (Aug. fireproof warehouses and railway terminals. There 15. 1939). Estigarribia was killed in an airplane are air mail and passenger services between the accident (Sept. 6, 1940) and was succeeded by Gen. two cities.

Higino Morinigo, Minister of War. The population is chiefly white. There are All citizens from 18 to 22 years of age are subabout 20,000 aborigines in the wilds, and Negroes ject to obligatory military service. In case of genare unknown.

eral mobilization all citizens from 18 to 45 are The area of Paraguay was increased 91,800 subject to conscription. In the peace-time army square miles (Oct. 10, 1938) by the terms of the there are 5,000 men and 250 officers. A modernly Gran Chaco Peace Settlement by which almost equipped naval fleet patrols the rivers. the entire Chaco country was awarded to Para- More than sixty colonies of various foreign peoguay, thus ending a dispute with Bolivia since 1870. ples are settled in various parts of the Republic,

Shortly after the war (1870), a constitution, engaged in developing agriculture and stockraising, modeled after that of the United States, providing and have their own schools, churches, hospitals for a republican form of government, was adopted, and stores. One of these is the colony of Men

A new constitution (accepted in a plebiscite nonites (about 6,000), mostly from Canada, but a 163,628 to 13,521, Aug. 4, 1940) is designed to few from western parts of the United States and eliminate anti-social abuses, regulate national others from Europe as well. economic life with a view to preventing monopoli- The Roman Catholic religion is established, but zation of consumption goods and artificial price others are tolerated. Primary education is comfixing. The new constitution retains the funda- pulsory between the ages of 7 and 14. There are mental rights of the 1870 constitution and re- six normal schools, one in the capital and five strains Congress from endowing the president with throughout the country, and a university in Asunextraordinary powers. The new pact is designed cion Spanish is the niversal language. to eliminate oligarchic or other anti-social condi- Tobacco is one of the leading crops Cotton raistions, gives to all citizens the right to work, to ing possibilities are great, the fertile soil assuring meet peacefully, to petition the authorities, to large yields. The livestock industry is growing. publish their views in the press without previous Latest statistics show that Paraguay has about censorship, to dispose of private property as the 4,000,000 cattle, excluding hogs and other liveowner sees At and to form associations for legiti- stock. Several saladeros, or beef curing establishmate ends

ments, are located near Asuncion. Congress is composed of one Chamber, with the The chief exports are oranges, yerba mate, timmembers elected one for each 25,000 inhabitants. ber, hides, tobacco, beef products, quebracho wood, A Council of State succeeds the Senate and the cotton, tannin, lace and vegetable oils. Chief immembers are nominated by the Government on a ports are textiles, foodstuffs, hardware, fancy corporative basis. The President is elected for five goods, wines and spirits, pharmaceutical products, years and appoints & Cabinet which exercises all automobiles, ready-made clothing and hats. the functions of the Government. It informs the The monetary unit is the Argentine peso with Chamber and Council of State of its policies. an average value of $.24. The budget (1936-1937) Private property is guaranteed by the constitution, balanced at 10,732,862 gold pesos.

Peru

(REPUBLICA DEL PERU) Capital, Lima-Area, 532,000 square miles-Population (1940) 7,000,000 Peru, situated on the Pacific coast of South sugar production was 389,080 metric tons. Wheat, America, is bounded on the north by Ecuador, on rice, potatoes, beans, barley and quinua are also the northeast and east by Colombia and Brazil, and raised. Corn, native to Peru, is grown throughon the southeast by Bolivia; at its southernmost out the country, forming a staple food for a large tip is the narrow Republic of Chile. With a part of the Indian population. Pacific coastline of 1,410 miles and an extreme of the total arable area of 29,460,000 acres it is width, from coast to eastern jungle, of about 800 estimated that only 3,617,000 acres (12) are miles, it is the fourth nation in population and actually under cultivation. third in size in South America. Culturally it is the The mountains are rich in minerals and many oldest of the South American nations, having valuable mines, some dating back to the Incas. been for centuries the leading political power on are being worked. The country is the largest prothe continent. first as the center of the Inca ducer in the world of vanadium. Petroleum and its Empire; later as Spain's foremost viceroyalty in derivatives account for nearly half of the value of the New World.

total mineral production. Copper, gold and silver Here the Andes reach their highest altitudes, are also mined and (1937) the country ranked seven peaks towering above 19,000 feet. The 30- fourth in the world production of silver. Mineral mile wide strip of land along the Pacific is a production (1937) was valued at $72,042.782. desert except as it is irrigated from streams from An effort to revive the production of rubber was the mountains; the uplands or western slopes of made (1941) with the help of the United States. the Andes are well watered and also the eastern There are thousands of rubber trees in the forests descent to the Amazon basin, tropical lowlands, near the Amazon and experienced workers have very fertile, thickly wooded in parts with much been sent to these districts to train natives in the wild rubber, and thinly populated. Iquitos, the tapping of the trees and routine plantation rubber capital of this district, is over 2,000 miles up the production, Amazon.

The chief exports are crude petroleum and peLima, the capital, has a population of 500,000. troleum derivatives, sugar, copper bars and cotton; Called "City of the Kings", it is the most im- imports are machinery and vehicles, foodstuffs, portant commercial center of the country. Callao textiles, metals and products, chemicals, dyes and (80,000 population), important industrially and the paints. chief seaport, is connected with the capital by two The President, Manuel Prado, was elected (Dec. Tailroads and three highways. Arequipa (75.000) 8, 1939) to succeed Gen, Oscar Benavides, who was ranks third in commercial importance, being sur- elected by Congress (1933) to fill out the unexpired passed only by the Lima-Callao district in manu- term, three and a half years, of President Luis M. facturing

Sanchez Cerro, who was assassinated that day, to Though agricultural and pastoral products com- succeed him. His term expires July 28, 1945. prise only 40% of the value of the total exports, By the Constitution (April 9, 1933) the govern85% of the population is dependent, directly or ment consists of a President and two Vice-Presiindirectly, upon them by agriculture and stock dents, elected by direct suffrage for a period of raising

six years and are barred from re-election. The chief crop and leading agricultural export tional legislative authority is vested in a Conis cotton and averages 20% of the country's total gress composed of a Chamber of Deputies and a exports, About 100.000 persons are engaged in Senate. The number of members in each is the industry. Second only to cotton as a money determined by law, and elections are for six years. crop is sugar. With 130.000 acres devoted to Chamber Obers must be at least 25 years of sugar cane, the production of cane amounts to age: Senate members at least 35 years of age, and more than three million metric tons; 80% of the all must be native-born Peruvians and in possescrop is exported. For the same period (1937) sion of the right to vote.

NaReligious liberty prevails but the Roman Catholic of the Indian population still speaks Quechua or religion is protected by the State.

Aymara. Suffrage is granted to literate citizens, and, in Military service is compulsory in event of war municipal elections, to adult or married women. with two years in the active army between the Voting is compulsory for literate males between ages of 18 and 20; between 20 and 29 in the the ages of 21 and 60.

active army reserve; between 29 and 39 in the Education is free and compulsory between the national guard and between 39 and 45 in the terages of 7 and 14. There are over 470,000 pupils in ritorial guard. The Army consists of approxithe elernentary schools. The University of San mately 10.000 men. The Navy is composed of two Marcos (founded May, 1551) is the oldest insti

cruisers, two destroyers, four U. S. built subtution of higher learning in the Western marines and gunboats and river craft. The Air Hemisphere.

Force has 140 planes. The Navy and Air Force About sixty per cent of the population is Indian: the white, (10%) is predominantly of

are advised by U. S. missions. Spanish descent. The remainder are

chiefly

The monetary unit is the sol with an average mestizos.

value of $.155. The budget (1940-1941) is estiSpanish is the official language, but a large part mated to balance at 279,375,300 sols.

Poland

(RZECZPOSPOLITA POLSKA) Captial, Warsaw-Area, 150,470 square miles-Population (Jan. 1, 1939) 34,775,698 Poland, a kingdom whose history dates from with a population of approximately 22,500,000—all 966, and & great power from the fourteenth to the the territory ceded to Poland by the Treaty of Verseventeenth century, in four partitions (1772, 1793, sailles. To the U. S. S. R. went some 78,000 square 1795 and 1939) was apportioned among Prussia, miles of territory with a population of 12,775,000. Russia and Austria and Germany and Russia The territory gained by Russia comprised porOverrun by the Austro-German armies in the tions of White Russia and the Western Ukraine, World War its independence (self-declared on all of which was annexed by the U. S. S. R. Nov. 9, 1918) was recognized by the Treaty of Poland and Russia signed an agreement, in Versailles (June 28, 1919) by the Council of Am- London (July 30, 1941) abrogating the Germanbassadors' orders under it and by the Treaty of Russian accord partitioning Poland. Riga. The territory detached from Prussia and Silesia, one of the countries returned to Germany, returned aggregated 6,973 square miles and in- was divided (1941) into two provinces, Upper Silesia cluded Pomorze, the Polish Corridor, and, by plebi- and Lower Silesia. The population of the two scite, Upper Silesia; from Russia, 101,196 square provinces (1941) was estimated at 7,500,000. Kattomiles; and from Austria, 30,914 square miles. witz is the seat of government of Upper Silesia, When Polish Gen. Zeligoroski seized Vilna (Wilno) which includes the districts of Kattowitz and the old capital of Lithuania with its surrounding Oppeln. Breslau is the seat of Lower Silesia, territory by a raid in (October, 1920) the Council which includes the districts of Breslau and Liegnitz. of Ambassadors finally handed it over to Poland About one-third of the German-occupied area (March 15, 1923). This added 11,140 square miles, of Poland has been incorporated into the Reich as Poland annexed from Czecho-Slovakia (1938) 419 the districts of Danzig-West Prussia and Warthe. square miles with a population of 241,698.

The rest of German-occupied Poland was made Poland is bounded on the north by Germany, the a "Governor-Generalcy". Dr. Hans Frank is the Baltic Sea, Danzig, East Prussia, Lithuania and German Governor-General. Latvia; on the east by Soviet Russia, on the south The German Government expropriated (1940) all by Rumania, Czecho-Slovakia and Germany, and landed estates. The section awarded to the U. S. on the west by Germany.

S. R., with Warsaw as the capital, was occupied “Access to Free City of Danzig (Gdanski), for- by the Germans (1941) in the war between Russia merly of the German Empire, as a port on the and the German Reich. Baltic Sea, was granted by the Treaty of Versailles, A Government-in-Exile was formed by Poles in and Danzig was brought (1922) within the Polish Paris (Sept. 30, 1939) with Wladyslaw Raczkiecustoms frontier.

wicz as President and Wladyslaw Sikorski as PreSixty-five per cent. of the population engages in mier. The new Government moved to Bordeaux agriculture. There are approximately 44,478,000 with the French (June 14,

1940) and later estab. acres arable; 13,000,000 pastures; 22,153,000 forests; lished itself in London, Poland participated for 9,000,000 gardens and

other uses. The chief the first time (April 23) in the deliberations of the crops are wheat, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar Allied Supreme War Council. The Poles have beets, flax, hemp, hops and chicory. Forests cover formed a Polish Legion attached and fighting with 23% of the country and contain Scotch pine, the Allies against the Axis Powers. A military spruce, fir, larch; deciduous trees, beech, oak, agreement of cooperation was signed between alder, 'birch, elm, aspen, and others. Wood- Great Britain and Poland (Aug. 5). working industries are important.

Education was free and compulsory in the Polish Poland possesses great mineral wealth, particu- Republic. There were universities in Warsaw, larly coal, besides iron, lignite, petroleum, natural Lwow, Cracow, Posnan (Posen), Wilno (Vilna), gas, salt, potassium salts and zinc,

and Lublin. Germany and Russia invaded and conquered The Polish Census (1931) reported 20,670, 100 Poland (Sept. 1-27, 1939). A treaty of partition

(64.8 per cent) Catholics; 3,336,200 (10.4 per cent) (the fourth partition of Poland) was signed by Greek Catholics; 3,762,500 (11.8 per cent) OrthoGermany and the U. S. S. R. (Sept. 29) by which dox; 3,113.900 (9.8 per cent) Jews, 835,200 (2.6 per they divided the country between each. It is es- cent) Protestants and other religions, 197,900 0.6 timated that Germany received 72,500 square miles per cent).

Portugal

(REPUBLICA PORTUGUESA) Capital, Lisbon-Area, 35,490 square miles-- Population (est. 1939), 7,460,195 Portugal occupies the western part of the Iberian drove King Manoel II, from the throne and a rePeninsula, being bounded on the north and east by public was proclaimed!

The new constitution Spain and on the south and west by the Atlantic

(1934)

replacing Ocean. The Azores and Madeira Islands, in the adopted by plebiscite (1933) provides some features

of "Corporative State." At the election (Dec. 16. North Atlantic, are politically an integral part of

1934) only one list of candidates selected by Goythe republic. The country is mountainous. About

ernment committees was presented. Republicans one-third of the land is cultivated. Vineyards and Socialists abstained. Two assemblies of 90 abound, and wines, olive oil and fruit are largely members each were chosen the first, the National produced. Wine-making is the chief industry. Assembly, to exercise legislative and financial Forests of pine, oak, cork and chestnut cover 19% powers, by direct election by heads of families of the country, and cork, of which the average regardless of sex; the second, the Corporative annual production is 140,000 metric tons,' is the Chamber, chosen through a system of guild or second largest industry. Portugal has much mineral syndical representation. The Corporative Chamwealth (including coal, pyrites, lead, copper, tin, ber deals with economic and social matters, and wolfram, kaolin, sulphur, lithium, titanium), which reviews some legislation. The Assembly may overis undeveloped because of a scarcity, of electric ride a Presidential veto by a two-thirds vote. power and transportation. The sardine fisheries A Council of National Defense was created and are important. Hides and wool are exported. & Council of the Colonial Empire to co-ordinate

Portugal, an independent state since the twelfth activities. The President has a Council of State century, was a kingdom until a revolution (1910) to advise him, consisting of the Premier, the

Presidents of the National Assembly and the Su-| gunboats, six destroyers, three submarines, and preme Court, the Procurator General, the Vice-minor craft. There is a navy flying service with President of the Supreme Council of Public Ad- 24 planes (Dec., 1938). The navy personnel is 6,250 ministration and five life members named by the officers and men. President.

The dominant religion is Roman Catholic; there The President is General Antonio Oscar de Fra is freedom of worship. There are three universigoso Carmona; (elected Nov. 29, 1926) (re-elected ties. March 25, 1928) and (Feb. 17, 1935) for a 7 year The monetary unit is the escudo with an average term.

value of $.04. Government revenue (1941) is estiSuffrage is extended to males and females with mated at 2,783,700,000 escudos with expenditures of certain educational or tax payment qualifications. 2,783,200,000. Military service is compulsory between the ages of The area of the Azores is 922 square miles with 17 to 45. The total peace time strength (July, & population (1930) of 232,012. The area of the 1939) was 2,551 officers and 26.424 in other ranks. Madeira Islands is 314 square miles with a popuThe navy consists of seven escort vessels, seven lation (1930) of 211,610.

PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS Portuguese India includes Goa (capital, Nova coast line stretching south from the mouth of the God or Pangin), on the Malabar coast; Damao,

Congo. It is governed by a High Commissioner,

with large powers. The Portuguese have owned it near Bombay; and Diu, a small island 140 miles

since 1575 Its area is 481,226 square miles. from Damao. There is a total area of 1537 square

The capital was moved (1928) from unhealthy miles and a population of 601,000. Salt is pro- Loanda where it had been for 350 years to Nova duced in Goa and Damao, and manganese near Lisboa, nearly a mile above sea level and 225 miles Mormugao, where there are 200 mines. Other ex- inland on the railway, ports are cocoanuts, fish, spices, caju-nuts, and The native population numbered (1936) 3,484,300 copra.

and there are about 59,000 Europeans. Macao, China, with an area of six square miles, is Chief products are coffee, rubber, wax, sugar, oil on an island of the same name at the mouth of the seeds, cocoanuts, ivory, cattle, fish, tobacco' for Canton River. It has 200,000 population, 4,000 of local use, cotton, petroleum and asphalt. Diamonds which are Portuguese; the rest Chinese.

are mined and exported principally to Belgium Portuguese Timor is the eastern part of the There are large deposits of malachite copper, iron Malay Island of that name, off the north coast of and salt, and gold has been iound. Portugal supAustralia, Holland having the western part. The plies from 45% to 50% of the imports. area is 7,330 square miles and the population (1936) The unit of currency is the angolar, which equals was 463,796. Exports are coffee, sandalwood, san- one escudo; a thousand are known as a conto dal root, copra and wax.

The budget (1939) balanced at 255,990,232 anThe Cape Verde Islands in the North Atlantic, golars. longitude 25', latitude 15°, are 15 in number. The Mozambique, Portuguese East Africa, extends total area is 1,557 square miles and the population from Cape Delgado (10° 40' south latitude) to the (1936) 162,055, of which about 6,318 are white. Union of South Africa. To the west lies the Union Chief products are coffee, medicinal products, of South Africa and Rhodesia (British). On the hides, fruit and grain.

north is Tanganyika, formerly German East Africa, Portuguese Guinea, on the coast of Senegambia, but surrendered to the British (November, 1919). (chief port, Bissau) has an area of 13,944 square More than 400 square miles of that territory, the miles and a population (1938) of 415,220. Chief Kionga Triangle, was transferred to Mozambique exports are rubber, wax, oils, ivory and hides. (1919)

The Islands of San Tome (population, 1936, Mozambique has 297,654 square miles, and a 52,100) and Principe (population, 6,900), about 125 population (1936) of 4,995,750, of which 120,750 miles of the west coast of Africa in the Gull of were Europeans. The capital is Lourenco Marques. Guinea, form a province under a Governor. The The budget (1939) balanced at 589,383,545 escudos. islands have an area of 384 square miles. Chief Chief products are sugar, cocoanuts, and beesproducts are cacao, coffee, rubber and cinchona. wax. Coal deposits exist. It has vast natural Angola, Portuguese West Africa, has a 1,000-mile

resources practically untouched.

Rumania

ROMANIA Capital, Bucharest-Area, 75,400 square miles-Population (1940) 14,098,850 Rumania, whose history began in 101 A.D. with Rumanian territory. The Carpathian mountains the Roman colonization of the Dacian Kingdom, extend southward from Bukowina to Buzau, thence was formed by the union (Jan. 24, 1859) of the westward to Orsova on the Danube. principalities of Wallachia (Muntenia) and Mol- According to the Constitution (Feb. 27, 1938) the

Government is vested in a King, a Senate and a davia; proclaimed her independence (May 10, 1877)

Chamber of Deputies. The King of Rumania is during the Russo-Turkish War from Turkish

Michael I (born Oct. 25, 1921), only son of exsuzerainty, acknowledged through mutual assist

King Carol II, who abdicated (Sept. 6, 1940), and ance pacts in the 16th century, and by the Treaty of Princess (now Queen-Mother) Helen of Greece. of Berlin (1878) lost for the second time Bessarabia Under the Constitution all citizens, irrespective of to Russia, receiving in compensation Dobrud ja race or creed, are equal before the law.

No from Turkey. The World War, which she entered Rumanian may undermine the established overnon the side of the Allies (Aug. 28, 1916), resulted

ment, advocate the seizure of personal property and in the return of Bessarabia, the addition of exemption from taxation, or foment class struggle. Transylvania with part of the Banat of Timisoara, Political propaganda through the churches is also the Crisana and Maramures from Hungary (which prohibited. Freedom of thought, education, press the latter held from Austria since 1867), and the and peaceful assembly is guaranteed to all. restoration of Bukowina lost to Austria in 1775. Qualified citizens, male and female, over 30 years Bessarabia (17,325 sq. mi.) and Northern Bukowina old, elect every six years by secret ballot a (2,035 sq. mni.), with a combined population of Chamber of Deputies as popular representatives of 3,748,063, of whom 52.4% are Rumanians and agriculture and labor, commerce and industry, and 10.5% Russians, were occupied by the U. S. S. R. the professions. Nine-year term membership in armies following an ultimatum (June, 1940). the Senate is hall elective, half appointive, among Rumania returned to Bulgaria (1940) the two the appointed members being the royal family, the Southern Dobrud ja counties won by the Treaty of Patriarch and diocesan bishops of the State OrthoBucharest (1913) with an area of some 3,000 sq. mi., dox Church, heads of other creeds with at least and & population (1930) of 408,900. By the 200,000 communicants and former high state digniGerman Italian arbitration decision of Vienna taries. The judiciary, headed by a High Court of (Aug. 30, 1940), Rumania lost to Hungary the entire Cassation and Justice, are non-removable. Transylvanian counties of Salaj Satu Mare, The government of Octavian Goga (Dec, 29, Maramures, Nassaud, Ciuc and Trei Scaune, with 1937-Feb. 11, 1938) followed the liberal Tatarescu parts of five other districts, area 17,300 sq. mi., cabinet that failed to obtain a parliamentary mapopulation 2,395,153, of whom 50.2% are Ru- jority in the elections (Dec. 20, 1937). Gogo in manians and 37.1% Hungarians.

turn was succeeded by Patriarch Dr. Miron Rumania is bounded on the north by the U. S. Christea, upon whose death (March 7, 1939) ViceS. R., on the east by the Ukraine and the Black Premier Armand Calinescu became Prime Minister, Sea, on the south by Bulgaria, and on the west Calinescu, who insisted on neutrality in the war by Yugoslavia and Hungary. For 243 miles the between Germany and Poland, was assassinated by Danube forms her southern boundary; for 190 miles, a youthful band of Iron Guardists, a German from Calarasi to the Black Sea. it flows through sympathizing political organization, and was suc

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