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Felix of Bourbon-Parma. They have a son and dissolved the Chamber of Deputies and Council heir, Prince Jeane (born Jan. 5, 1921) and four of State. daughters and another son.

The provisional Government of Luxemburg has The country maintained an armed State force been established in Montreal, Canada. of 250 and 225 police.

Luxemburg is a country of small landowners; German troops occupied Luxemburg (May 10, 430,000 of the 500.000 acres devoted to agriculture 1940) and Gustav Simon, Provincial Governor of are farmed by resident owners. The principal crops Coblenz-Trier, was appointed Provincial Governor are oats and potatoes. (Gauleiter). Simon proclaimed German as the The mineral output of Luxemburg, despite its official language. A German civil administration size, is enormous and includes iron, pig iron and was set up to reorganize life on a basis com- steel, parable to that in the Reich, Luxemburg was in- Government receipts (1939) were estimated at corporated into the Reich's custom borders. The 355,229,716 francs; expenditures at 353, 439,719. Reichsmark was made legal tender and German The value of the franc, the monetary unit of foreign currency restrictions put into effect. The Luxemburg, was 1.25 times the value of the Belgauleiter declared the constitution void and also I gian belga.

Manchukuo Capital, Hsinking-Area, 503,013 square miles--Population (Jan. 1, 1938), 36,949,972 Japan wrested Manchuria from China (1931) The Manchukuo-Outer Mongolia border dispute occupying Mukden (Sept. 18) and defeating the between Japan and Russia ended (June 10, 1940) Chinese in a series of military operations. The

when the two countries signed an agreement. three northeastern provinces of China--Fengtien,

Japanese and Russian forces clashed (1938) at Kirin and Heilungchiang, together with Jehol- | Changkufeng Hill, at the junction of the Siberian,

Manchukuoan and Korean borders. There was were, with the assistance of the Japanese army,

another clash of armed forces (1939) which was proclaimed (Feb. 18, 1932) an independent state, followed by a long truce. Outer Mongolia, a Rusto be known as Manchukuo. Japan, Italy, Ger- stan dependency, has long disputed her 1,000-mile many, Hungary, Poland and San Salvador (March, boundary with Japanese controlled Manchukuo. 1939) have recognized Manchukuo. Rumania ex- The Chinese Eastern railway (1,078 miles), built tended recognition later but the United States by Russia (1896-1903) and managed jointly by has not.

Russia and China, crosses it a little north of center Henr Pu Yi (born Feb., 1906), the former from Manchouli in the northwest to Vladivostok, Manchu boy'' Emperor, Hsuan Tung (deposed in the Russian Far East Pacific Ocean port which is 1911) was made Ching Chang (Chief Executive) of just beyond the mountains that form the eastern the new government (March 9. 1932), and en- boundary. A spur south from Harbin connects at throned as Emperor Kang Teh (March 1, 1934). He Changchun with the South Manchuria railway, has selected a Chinese cabinet behind each

member built by Russia as part of the Chinese Eastern but of which stands a Japanese adviser. There are ceded to Japan aiter the Japanese-Russian war more than 600 Japanese in the government.

(1905). The Chinese Eastern Rallway was formally The Prime Minister is Gen. Chang Ching-hui transferred to Manchukuo (March 23, 1935). The (appointed May 21, 1935),

price paid was 140,000,000 yen (about $39.900,000), Conscription for 'males between 19 and 40 with plus retirement allowances totaling 30,000,000 yen a three year period of military service prevails. (about $8.440.000) to Soviet railway employees. The Government decided (1940) to create a con- The soil of Manchukuo is one of the richest in script army of youths of 19 to be united to the the world. The area of land capable of cultivation Japanese army under the sole command of the totals 27,853,640 acres, of which 11,409,585 acres are Japanese commander-in-chief.

tilled. The principal crops are soy beans, kaoliang. Manchukuo, the Manchu State, is the former millet, corn, wheat and rice. Lumber is an imnortheast portion of China bounded on the north portant produce. The land possesses great mineral by Siberia (U. S. S. R.), the boundary being the wealth, including iron, gold, coal, magnesite, and Amur River; on the east by Siberia, and Korea oil shale. (Japan); on the southeast by Korea, the boundary The monetary unit is the yuan, worth about 30 being the Yalu River; on the south by the Yellow cents in American money. Sea and China, and on the west by China, Mon- Government receipts and expenditures (1940) golia and Siberia.

are estimated to balance at 570,000,000 yuan.

Mexico

(REPUBLICA MEXICANA) Capital, Mexico City-Area, 763,944 square miles-- Population (1939) 19,478,791 Mexico is bounded on the north by the United | tinuation of the Rocky Mountains--runs down States, on the east by the United States (Texas), nearly to Vera Cruz. the Rio Grande forming the boundary line, and Between the two ranges lies the vast tableland

of Mexico, altitude from 5,000 to 8,000 ft., with a the Gulf of Mexico; on the south by Guatemala and on the southwest and west by the Pacific delightful climate and with the vegetation and Ocean. The Gulf of California, 739 miles long with products of the temperate zone varying with the a maximum width of 190 miles, makes a huge in- rising

to subtropical in the foothills; hot and dentation in the western coast, completely separat- unhealthy with a heavy rainfall on the Gulf side. ing the narrow, mountainous, sterile and sparsely Along the Pacific slope and in the interior irrigainhabited peninsula of Lower California, 760 miles tion is needed and natural streams from the mounlong, from the mainland. On the east the province tains are used to supply it. Yucatan juts out into the Gulf of Mexico, connected Agriculture and stock-raising are the chief inwith the main territory of the country by a narrow dustries. The country is marvelously rich, but the strip northwest of the Guatemala frontier. The land is barely scratched except on the larger coast line on the Pacific is 4,574 miles long and ranches; primitive methods of cultivation prevail. 1,727 on the Caribbean. The northern boundary is The cultivable lands are estimated at one-fourth 1,600 miles long.

of the total area, or 120,417,760 acres, of which The principal industry in Mexico is mining, and only 30,000,000 acres are cultivated. The grazing until recently 97% of the 31,000 mining properties lands cover about 120,500,000 acres and forests had been foreign-owned. Foreign concessions 44,000,000 acres of which 25,000,000 are estimated number nearly 17,000. Mexican silver accounts for to be rich in pine, spruce, cedar, mahogany, rose40% of the world's output. Among the minerals wood and logwood. Some of the more important are gold, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, mercury, products are corn, rice, sugar, wheat, coffee beans. arsenic, amorphous graphite, molybdenum. coal tomatoes, tobacco, cotton, carbanzos, cocoa, sisal, and opal. Petroleum production is huge and has bananas. About 50% of the world's supply of sisal been controlled mainly by three big companies in comes from Yucatan.. fields covered by 1,186 concessions occupying 30,

The labor law obliges employers to contract 866,894 acres.

directly with the unions for their help; recognizes Mexico began large scale experiments in the the right to strike, and the right of strikers to close cultivation of rubber (1941), with the United States a business until the issue is settled; obliges emsupplying the seedlings and technical supervision, ployers to provide hygienic living quarters for their

The Sierra Madre mountains run north and employees; and stipulates that 80% of the emsouth near the western coast, turning near Colima ployees of all industrial and commercial concerns and continuing nearly due east. paralleling the shall be Mexican citizens. The eight-hour

six-day coast into the Central American countries. Near week is established. Minimum wages are fixed by the Gulf Coast another range of mountains-a con- / special commissions in each region, and regional

boards of conciliation and arbitration are provided | District; the Chamber is elected on a population for.

basis. Mexico has pursued (since 1915) a policy of land Mexico is declared to be a Federal Republic of distribution, seizing large estates and partitioning 28 States, each having a large measure of home them among the poor. Under this system peasant rule and with governor, legislature and judiciary groups organize, certify they have no lands or elected by universal suffrage in a general election. means of support and apply to the Agrarian Com- There are also two territories whose governors are missioner for a collective farm. The Government, appointed and may be removed by the President, after investigation, assigns to them expropriated and a Federal District containing Mexico City govland or seizes the land for their use. The title erned by Federal Commissioners. The President rests in the Government, but the peasants are al- appoints a Cabinet of nine ministers and eight delowed to use the lands, paying rent out of their partment heads with cabinet rank, who are crops. If not cultivated for two years the land is responsible to him and may be dismissed by him, subject to forfeiture. There were distributed He has the right to expel from Mexico without (1915-1939) 56,882.726 acres among 1,606,507 peas- "judicial process" any foreigner whose presence he ants.

may deem "inexpedient." President Avíla Camacho decreed (1940) that Military service is obligatory with men between individual land titles be given as soon as possible the ages of 18 and 45 subject to service for one to 1,500,000 Mexican peasants diving on the Re- year. The measure (made a law 1940) calls for the public's communal farms. Under the decree 65,- training of 50.000 reserves annually until a reserve 000,000 acres will be parceled out among the of 200,000 has been developed. The Navy consists peasants, but communal operation of the farms of six escort vessels, ten coast guard pairol boats will continue.

and minor craft. and is used chiefly to police the The Government regulates farm production and

coasts. fixes maximum and minimum prices for farm Education, is free and compulsory up to 15 years products. The exportation and importation of of age. Vocational instruction, particularly in agriagricultural products are under State control. culture, is being promoted. There are normal

The National Highway Commission of Mexico schools for both sexes throughout the country and (organized in 1925) has been active in road de

some hundred technical schools. The National velopment. The trunk automobile highway from University of Mexico, (founded 1553), is famous Mexico City to Nuevo Laredo was opened (July, among Latin-American universities, and in the 1936). This road is 770 miles long. The total road capital are many higher institutions of learning mileage (1938) was 42,470, of which 7,939 were

and culture and scientific institutions and societies. suitable for all-year traffic. The Commission is Education in primary, secondary and normal active in the construction of new highways. The schools is socialistic and divorced from all religious main Mexican railways are nationalized.

doctrines. Mexico is now linked to all parts of the continent There is full religious freedom and services are by aviation service. Mexico has been much torn by civil war and the Republic in churches of all creeds. The ma

held_daily and without interference throughout insurrection since achieving its independence from jority of the people are Roman Catholic. All forSpain (proclaimed Sept. 15, 1810, and effected in eign priests were expelled (1926) and the Papal 1821).

The
Delegate (1931).

Mexican
At a general election (July 7, 1940) Gen. Manuel

Congress has Avila Camacho was elected president.

limited the number of priests to 350, approximately Mexico is governed under a constitution (promul

one to each 45,000 inhabitants. Several States gated Feb. 5, 1917) replacing the Constitution of permitted Catholic churches to reopen (1936). 1857. It was amended chiefly as to tenure of office The Mexican Constitution forbids any church to (1929 and 1933) and now provides that the Presi- own real estate. dent shall be elected for a term of six years, the

The monetary unit is the pesos with an average 58 Senators for six years (half the Senate being value of $.20. The budget (1941) is estimated to renewed at a time), and the 170 Deputies for three balance at 492,000,000 pesos. years. None may be re-elected for the term imme- Mexico's imports are mainly from the United diately following. Governors of the States, Mayors States, 65.3%; Germany, 11.9% Great Britain, and State Legislators are also b ed from succeed - 5.86 Exports are principally distributed among ing themselves in office. The Senate has two the following-United States, 62.8%; Great members from each State and from the Federal Britain, 10.1%; Germany, 7.1%.

Monaco Capital, Monaco-Area, 7.99 square miles- Population (1939) 23,973 Monaco is a small principality on the Mediter- £90,000 (1927) and £100.000 (1937). The yearly ranean surrounded by the French Department of peace time average of visitors is more than the Alpes Maritimes. An independent Principality

1,500,000

The French franc is the unit of currency. The for 800 years, the reigning Prince was dispossessed by the French Revolution. The line was re-estab

budget (1939) proposed expenditures of 38,892,921

francs. lished (1814) and placed under the protectorate of

The principality is divided into three communes, France, (1815) of the Kingdom of Sardinia. King Monaco-Ville. La Condamine and Monte CarloCharles III (1861) ceded his rights upon Menton which are administered by a municipal body, and Roquebrune to France. The Prince of Monaco elected by vote. Women do not have the right of was an absolute ruler until a Constitution was suffrage. There is a local police force of 200. promulgated (June 7, 1911). This provided for a The late Prince Albert established an important National Council of 21 members reduced to 12 oceanographic museum, aquarium and laboratory, (1917) elected by universal suffrage for four years. and also an anthropological museum, in Monaco. The revenue is mainly derived from the gaming The ruler of Monaco is Prince Louis II. (born tables of the Casino at Monte Carlo. (Monte Carlo July 12, 1870). He succeeded his father. Prince is a town with a resident population of 9,428). The Albert (June 26, 1922). His heir is his grandson. annual grant for the concession was £80,000 (1917); | Prince Ranier, (born May 31, 1923.)

Morocco
(MOGHREB-EL-AKSA, i. e. THE FARTHEST WEST)

Capital, Rabat-Area, 213,350 square miles—Population (1936), 7,093,720 Morocco of to-day is the remnant of the great of Morocco (except the Ifni enclave and the Cape Shereefian Empire founded by the Arab invader, Juby area) from the Algerian frontier to the who carried the crescent of Islam west at the close Atlantic Ocean and from the Sahara Desert in the of the seventh century and ruled all northwestern south to the boundary of the Spanish zone in the Africa and most of the Iberian peninsula. It is north. The Spanish section is the northern strip bounded on the east by Algeria, on the north by that extends (except for the small internationalized the Mediterranean, the extreme point opposite Tangier area) from a point in the Atlantic about Gibraltar being Ceuta; on the south by Rio de 16 miles south of Larache to the river Moulouya. Oro and Algeria, and on the west by the Atlantic Spain also exercises jurisdiction over the lini Ocean.

enclave and the Cape Juby area on the Atlantic The country is divided into three zones--the Ocean in the extreme southwest of the country. French, the Spanish zone and the neutral Tangier The reigning Sultan of Morocco is Sidi Mohamarea. The Sultan resides in Rabat in the French med, (proclaimed Nov. 19, 1927). He was the third zone, but Fez, Marrakesh and Meknes are accepted son of Mouley Youssef (reigned 1912-1927). as capitals by tradition.

Along the 200 miles of the Mediterranean littoral The French protectorate encompasses the whole run the Riff hills. still unexplored. Through the country from northeast to southwest extend the principally with France, Japan, Belgium, China, Atlas Mountains in five great ranges rising to an United States, Algeria and Italy. altitude of 12,000 ft. Between these ranges lie Morocco came under French influence because fertile, well-watered plains and the northern slopes of its proximity to Algeria. A general rising of the of the mountains are well wooded. Irrigation is tribes (Oct. 1910) culminating in the siege of much used, though all agricultural methods and Fez, called out a French expedition of pacification, implements are primitive.

which occupied Fez (1911). For two decades there. The climate is healthy, especially on the Atlan- after the country was restless, with frequent uptic Coast, which is shielded from the hot winds of risings, and pacification was not completed until the Sahara by the Atlas Mountains, and where the exile of Abd-el Krim (1926) and surrender of there is a "tell' or fertile region. Tangier is a Sidi Ali Hociene, last die-hard chief (1933.) recognized health resort, also Mogador, where the Tangier, a seaport of 60,000 inhabitants, which temperature never rises above 80 or falls below 40. occupies the extreme northwest corner of Africa

The most numerous of the inhabitants are the on the Atlantic, was temporarily internationalized aboriginal Berbers, mountain dwellers, whose fore- by the chief Mediterranean powers (1911-1912). bears thrice conquered Spain, and who so long with a hinterland of 140 square miles, making a maintained the independence of their country. total of 225 square miles. A convention was The plains are mostly occupied by Arabs and a signed (Dec. 18, 1923) and a protocol (July, 1925) mixture of the two races, known to foreigners as by Great Britain, France and Spain, providing for "Moors." The latter are also town dwellers. The its permanent neutrality, security and internationthird race is Jewish, in two sections, one settled alization. Spain, however, reopened the question there from time immemorial, and the other driven (1926) by a demand for full control and the infrom Europe in comparatively modern times, who corporation of Tangier within the Spanish prolive near the ports, and have much of the trade. tectorate. A new accord was signed (July 25, 1928)

The people are agricultural and pastoral. Eggs giving Spain control of policing. A committee of and poultry have become the chief articles of ex- eight consular officers and an international legisport, reaching, even to England. Other important lative assembly of 26 members, form the governexports are skins, hides, wool, beans, barley, lin- ment. seed and wheat, almonds, cummin and gums. The Spanish troops occupied the international area chief imports are textiles, sugar, tea, machinery flanking the Strait of Gibraltar (June 14, 1940) and hardware, candles and spirits. Fruit and vine- "to protect its neutrality." The Spanish military yards are abundant and dates & regular crop. took full charge of the zone (Nov. 4, 1940), ousting Carpets, leather goods, fezzes, woolen and silk the British employes. Great Britain and Spain stuffs are among the manufactures, chiefly for reached a provisional agreement (Feb. 26, 1941), domestic consumption. Mineral deposits are unde- under which Spain promised to refrain from veloped, but much copper, lead and tin are known fortifying the international zone. to exist. An oil field extends from Fez to Laraish. Spain ousted the Moroccan native nominal ruler Phosphate exists in great abundance, estimated at (March 16, 1941), and the ruler's palace was turned 100,000,000 metric tons. Peacetime commerce is over to the Germans as a consular office.

Nepal Capital, Kathmandu-Area, 54,000 square miles-Population (est.), 5,600,000 Nepal is an independent state on the southern long and 20 miles wide, which supports 300,000 inslope of the Himalayas, bounded by Thibet on the habitants and is poted for its 2,700 Buddhist north, by Sikkim and Bengal on the east and by shrines, nearly all lavishly decorated examples of Bengal and the United Provinces of British India Nepalese art. Paton is the largest city and Pashon the south and west. Though friendly, a policy poti a holy center for pilgrims. Ancient Hinduism. of exclusion is followed and travel discouraged. of the majority of the people.

is gradually succeeding Buddhism as the religion The Ghurkas, whose Aryan ancestors from Rajpu- The sovereign is Maharajah Tribhubana Bir tana mixed with the Mongolic aborigines, overran Bikram (born June 30, 1906), who succeeded his the country in the latter half of the eighteenth lather (Dec. 11, 1911.) All power is held by the century, and are the dominant race. From their Prime Minister, always a member of the ruling ranks the British Indian Government recruits family; succession is determined under special regiments of most valuable soldiers. The kingdom rules. maintains an army of 42,000 infantry and 2,500 The first railway, 24 miles long. was opened artillery. There are many fertile valleys lying in (Feb., 1926). It runs from Raxaul, on the Indian the slopes of the bleak and lofty mountains (which frontier, to Kathmandu. include Mt. Everest, altitude 29,141 ft.); and its Foreign trade is almost entirely with British territory runs into the Terai on the plains of India and amounts to about 70,000,000 rupees a India. It has rich forests. Nepal exports rice, year Annual gross revenues are estimated at grain, hides and cattle, and imports textiles, sugar, 12,500,000 The Maharajah receives an annual salt, hardware, etc. The capital is in a most fer- grant of 1,000,000 rupees from the British Governtile valley, cultivated from end to end, 15 miles ment.

Netherlands

(KONINKRIJK DER NEDERLANDEN) Capital, Amsterdam-Area, 12,704 square miles-Population (1939), 8,728,569 The Netherlands, & kingdom in northwestern helmina and the seat of her government, but Europe, is bounded by Germany on the east. Bel- Amsterdam is the sole capital of the Kingdom and gium on the south and the North Sea on the west the inauguration of the King or Queen-in accord

ance with the constitution-takes place in that and north. Its surface is flat, with an average

city. height above sea level of 37 ft. and with about one

of the country's 5,563,960 acres given over to fourth of its land below sea level, reclaimed and agriculture, (including gardens, orchards and pasprotected by dykes, of which there are 1,500 miles. tures), 90% are in holdings of less than 50 acres Drainage of half of the shallow Zuyder Zee, which and more than 50%, of less than 12 acres, with covers 1,350 square miles with an opening into about 360,000 employed on the land. There are the North Sea about 19 miles wide, designed to add

615,165 acres of well cared for forests. Cereals, 900 square miles to the cultivable land, "polders,"

potatoes, sugar beets and other crops are raised. has been under way since 1920. One part of the Commercial fishing engages 20.000 persons. Dairy great dam (114 miles long) connecting the west products are an important industry, the cheese coast with the Island of Wieringen, was completed the very special type of soil found on the edge of

products are famous, and the cattle high grade; on (1925) The other (1796 miles long) connecting the polders and the sand dunes along the coast the island with the eastern shore, was finished tulips and other flowering bulbs and roots are (1932). It has huge tidal sluices to discharge the grown and exported extensively. (The Dutch bulb waters of the "Lake" Yssel, new fresh-water re- is not indigenous to Holland, but originated in servoir fed by the River Yssel, a branch of the Persia, whence it was brought to Holland 375 years Rhine. The cost of the dam was $35,000,000, and ago). The village of Boskoop, with 600 nurseries, the entire expenditure for 30 years on dikes and is the largest center in the world for flowers and drainage will be about $190,000,000. The added ornamental plants. value of fertile soil will be $210,000,000. The first The most important industries are shipbuilding, "polder' of 77 square miles finished, was under the manufacture of machinery, textiles (including crops (1936), and work on the second installment rayon), and chemical products; also brewing and of 203 square miles was finished in April, 1941. distilling and flour milling. Amsterdam is famous The Hague is the official residence of Queen Wil- | for diamond cutting; Delft for pottery. Coal is

found in Limburg. The mines are mostly govern- 6; National Socialists, 4; Liberty Union, 3; Demment owned.

ocrats, 2. Canals, of which there are 4,500 miles, are most Second Chamber-Catholics, 31; Social Demimportant in internal communication; elaborate ocrats, 23; Anti-Revolutionists, 17; Christian Hissystems are in the cities and feed the harbors. toricals, 8; Democrats, 6; Liberty Union, 4; NaThe Rhine and the Scheldt reach the sea through tional Socialists, 4; other parties, 7. the Netherlands and carry enormous traffic, the Under the revision of 1922 Netherland India Scheldt including that from Antwerp.

has been abolished as a colony and made an inThe first Constitution after the reconstruction tegral part of the Kingdom. of the Netherlands as a sovereign state was pro- Germany invaded and occupied the Netherlands mulgated (1814), and revised (1815) after the ad- (May 10-14, 1940) and a German Commissioner, dition of the Belgian provinces, and (1840, 1848, responsible directly to Chancellor Hitler of Ger 1887, 1917, 1922 and 1938). It assures a hereditary many, was made Governor Commissar of the occuconstitutional monarchy. Executive power rests pied areas with a German trade expert to direct exclusively in the sovereign and the States-General economic recovery. Arthur Seyss-Inquart was of two Chambers: First Chamber, 50 members, named Commissar for the duration of the war elected for six years (one-half every third year) with the promise to the Netherlands that its indeby the provincial legislatures, and the Second pendence would be restored after the close of the Chamber, 100 Deputies, elected for four years

war."

Queen Wilhelmina and Cabinet fled for directly. Universal suffrage for citizens of both

England at the time of the invasion and estabsexes over 25 years of age and proportional repre- lished a refugee Government in London. sentation are in force. The Sovereign exercises the Army service was compulsory with every man executive authority through a Council of Ministers. liable from the ages of 19 to 40. There were rethe President thereof corresponding to a Prime cruited annually 30,500, with 1,000 for sea service. Minister. There is a State Council of 14 members, The Navy is maintained for the protection of named by the Sovereign, of which she is President, home waters and the coast and the defense of the to be consulted on all legislative and some execu- East Indian possessions with three cruisers tive matters.

assigned to the East Indian fileet with destroyers, The reigning Sovereign is Queen Wilhelmina submarines and most of the vessels of the Navy. Helena Pauline Maria (born Aug. 31, 1880) who Entire liberty of worship and conscience is guarsucceeded on the death of her father, Willem III, anteed. The royal family belongs to the Dutch (Nov. 23. 1890) and was crowned (Sept. 6, 1898) Reformed Church. The state contributes to the She married Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwer- support of severa ious denominations, in (Prince Consort) (Feb. 7. 1901). He died (July Education is obligatory from ages six to thirteen, 3, 1934). The heir to the throne is Princess Juliana, Instruction is free in both public and denominaonly daughter, (born April 30, 1909) and married tional schools and teachers are paid by the State. (Jan. 7, 1937) to Prince Bernhard zu Lippe-Bies- There are universities in Amsterdam (Two), Utterfeld (born June 29, 1911). They have two recht, Leyden, Delft (Engineering), Groningen, daughters, Princess Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard Wageningen (Agriculture), Rotterdam (Com(Born Jan. 31, 1938) and Princess Irene Emma merce), Nijmegen (Roman Catholic), and Tilburg Elisabeth (Born Aug. 5, 1939).

(Commerce, Roman Catholic). Pieter S. Gerbrandy is Premier.

The monetary unit is the guilder (forin) with an The political complexions of the two chambers average value of $.53, based on the official German (elected May 1937) follows:

rate. First Chamber-Catholics, 16; Social Democrats, Government revenues (1940), were estimated at 12; Anti-Revolutionists, 7; Christian Historicals, 770,005,000 guilders, expenditures 1,015,599,000.

NETHERLANDS INDIES The overseas territories of the Netherlands in mineral riches are tin and oil. Raw materials are the East Indies consist of great islands and archi- of great strategic value. Tin production is also pelagoes lying along the Equator from about 6° regulated. Huge high quality iron ore deposits are

still unused. north latitude to 10° south latitude, between the

The inter-island and coastal traffic is handled by Asiatic mainland and the Philippines, and Aus

a large fleet of small steamers and an extensive tralia. They form the bulk of the Malaysia. Java network of air lines. In peacetime three times is the most densely populated land mass in the weekly airplanes connected the Netherlands with world (821 to the square mile). The great majority the Netherlands Indies. of the natives are Mohammedans. The estimated A colonial army, separate from the home army, (1941) total population of Netherlands Indies is is maintained in the East Indies. There is com67,000,000, of which 250,000 are white. They are pulsory militia service for whites between the ages distributed as follows: Java and Madura, 46,000,000; of 19 and 32 and in the landstorm between 31 and Sumatra, 9,000,000; Borneo, 2,400,000; Celebes, 45. The army consisted (Jan. 1, 1939) of 1.783 4,600,000; rest of the Archipelago, 5,000,000. The reservist officers, 13,263 militiamen, and 17,596 capital is Batavia, Java. The total area is 735,267 in the landstorm. square miles, divided as follows--Java and Madura. The navy in the East Indies normally has three 50.752; Sumatra, 163, 145, Borneo, 206,819; Celebes, cruisers, eight destroyers, 14 submarines and addi48,060.

tional small craft. The main naval base is The islands are luxuriant, even for the Tropics, Sourabaya, with an auxiliary Naval Air Base in and produce annually enormous natural wealth. Ambon. The Naval Air Force consists of 72 seaThe Netherlands East Indies figures in world ex- going hydroplanes and 18 additional planes aboard ports in the following percentages: cinchona ships. Forces were largely increased (1941) by the bark 90%, pepper 85', kapok 82, rubber 33%, threats of war. The budget (1941) carried $220,coconut 30%, hard cordage fibre 25%, palm oil 000,000 for defense measures. products 24%, and tea 17%. Other products of The monetary unit-the guilder-has the same major importance are tobacco and sugar; also foreign exchange valuation as that of the Nethercoffee, cocoa and teakwood. The export of rubber lands. Governmental revenues (1941) were estiis controlled by the International Rubber Regula- mated at 694,140,035 guilders; expenditures at tion Committee for Netherland India. The main '829,304,901,

the

NETHERLANDS WEST INDIES Netherlands Guiana, also called Surinam, is sit- The colony of Curacao consists of a group of uated on the north coast of South America, be- six islands in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of tween French Guiana on the east and British Venezuela. The area of the group is 403 square Guiana on

west; inaccessible forests and miles; of Curacao it is 210 square miles; of Aruba savannas on the south stretch to the Tumuc it is 70 square miles. The population (Jan. 1, Humac Mountains. The area is 54,291 square miles. 1939) is 101.021. Willemstad is the capital. The The population is 177,980. Paramaribo is the chief products are corn, pulse, cattle, salt and capital

phosphates; the principal industry is the refinery The Dutch by the Treaty of Breda (1667) gave of oil. On Curacao the Royal Dutch Shell and on New Netherlands (New York) to England in ex- Aruba the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey change for Surinam.

have large oil refineries, refining the oll from The chief export is aluminum ore "bauxite," and Venezuela The harbor of Curacao is very im65 per cent of the American consumption of this portant. In 1939 nearly 7,000 ships with a gross important raw material comes from Surinam. Other register of about 27,000,000 tons entered the harbor. exports are sugar, coffee, bananas, balata and high These included the many cruise ships whose quality lumber. The Netherland guilder is the passengers bought European cosmetics and other monetary unit. Government revenues (1941) are articles in this duty-free port Government revenues estimated at 4,348,000 guilders; expenditures at (1939) were estimated at 11,822,760 guilders; ex5,846.000.

penditures, 11,587,117.

Nicaragua

(REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA) Capita), Managua-Area, 60,000 square miles--Population (1940) 1,380,287 Nicaragua lies between the Caribbean Sea, with Other products are mahogany and hides and a coastline of 280 miles, and the Pacific (200 miles), skins. Chief imports are textiles, machinery, chemwith Honduras on the north and Costa Rica on icals and flour. the south. The Cordillera range of mountains,

The Constitution (March 12, 1912) amended including many volcanic peaks, runs from north

(1913) provides for a Congress of two Houses, &

Senate of 24 members elected for six years, onewest to southeast through the middle of the country. Between this range and a range of vol-elected for four years by universal suffrage. The

third each two years, and a House of 43 Deputies canic peaks to the west lie Lake Managua, 30 miles President is elected for four years and has a long by 15 miles wide, and Lake Nicaragua, 100 Council of five Ministers. General Anastasio miles long and 45 miles wide, of great importance Somoza was elected President (Dec. 8, 1936) to in the transport system of the country. The Pacific serve until 1940. A new constitution was approved Railroad, running from Corinto to Leon and from by the constituent assembly (March 22, 1939) and Managua to Granada (171 miles), the only one in President Somoza elected for an eight-year term the country is Government owned.

(expiring May 1, 1947.) The Roman Catholic is the The United States acquired by the Bryan- prevailing religion. The teaching of English is Chamarro treaty (1916) the right to construct a compulsory in the schools. canal through Nicaragua and also to build a naval A Central University of Nicaragua was estabbase in the Bay of Fonseca, on the Pacific coast lished (1941) by President Sonazo. The university, and at Corn Island on the Atlantic coast. The located in Managua, consists of schools of mediUnited States paid $3,000,000 for the option.

cine,
law,

arts, pharmacy and engineering, The country has had a stormy politcal history: Nicaragua also has universities in Leon and revolutions have been frequent and it has been Granada. necessary for the United States to land Marines

The National Guard (1939) numbers 3,538 officers there on several occasions to protect American and men with a trained reserve of 4.000. The lives and property.

period of enlistment is for three years and during The country has valuable forests, some gold is that period soldiers are barred from voting. Aviamined, but it is essentially an agricultural and

tion is being developed with the construction of stock raising community. On the broad tropical commercial and military airports. plains of the east coast, bananas and sugar cane The monetary unit is the cordoba with an aver. are cultivated, and coffee is grown on the mountain age value of $.17. The budget (1939-1940) was slopes. The production of gold has attained first estimated to balance at 20,281,429 cordobas. The rank in the country, taking precedence over coffee, (1940-1941) budget was increased to almost 26,which held the lead until 1940.

000,000 cordobas because of war expenditures. Norway

(NORGE) Capital, Oslo-Area, 124,556 square miles--Population (est. 1940), 2,937,000 Norway occupies the west part of the Scandina- signed solely for coast-defense duty and numbered vian Peninsula in Northwest Europe from the approximately 10,000 officers and men. All seafaring Skagerrack, which separates it from Denmark, to men between the ages of 20 and 44 are enrolled on the North Cape in the Arctic Ocean, where on the the active list and are liable to conscription. east it meets Finland. The Kjolen Mountains, After Norway's entry into the war no effort has which separate Norway from Sweden to the east, been spared to build up a better navy and air give to Norway in the northern part but a nar- force. Some 50 Norwegian men-of-war are now row fringe of country washed by the Arctic and active on the seas, among them a number of the North Atlantic Oceans, and cut deep by fjords of destroyers handed over by the United States scenic grandeur. The climate is mild and moist, Government to England and by the British Govon the west coast, but cold and dry in the interior ernment put at the disposal of the Norwegian and in the north and east sections. The country Government, and an air force of about 2,000 men is 1,100 miles long and its greatest width is 270 are on the wings. miles. The coastline, including the fjords and Norway, under its Constitution (adopted May greater islands, is 12,000 miles long, and includes 17, 1814) is a constitutional hereditary monarchy. 150,000 islands,

Independent for centuries, Norway entered into a Norway has only 4,300 square miles of land under union with the Kingdom of Denmark (1381). By cultivation; rivers and lakes occupy 5,000; and treaty (Jan. 14, 1814) the King of Denmark ceded forests 29,455; three-fourths of the land is unpro- Norway to Sweden, but the Norwegian people ductive. Norway is essentially a maritime-coun- declared themselves independent and elected a try.

Danish Prince as their King. The foreign powers The chief agricultural products are wheat, bar- refused to recognize this election; as a result a ley, oats, rye, corn, potatoes and hay. Forests are convention (Aug. 14) proclaimed the independence one of the principal natural sources of wealth of Norway in union with Sweden, and (Nov. 4) Nearly 70,000 men are engaged in cod fisheries: elected Charles XIII, of Sweden King of Nor31,500 in winter herring fisheries, and 30,000 in way. This union lasted until 1905. Disagreements summer herring fisheries. Huge quantities of whale, having arisen, culminating in Norway's claiming walrus, seal, mackerel and salmon are also caught the right to maintain its own consular service. NorMining is an important industry and the country way declared the union dissolved (June 7) and yields silver, copper, pyrites, nickel, iron, zinc and after negotiations a repeal of the union by mutual lead.

agreement was signed (Oct. 26, 1905). After a plebThe country lacks coal but has become a great iscite Prince Charles of Denmark was elected King power producing country by utilizing by electrical and ascended the throne as Haakon VII. transmission, its greatest natural asset-water The legislative power is vested in the Storthing, power

the members numbering 150. elected for four The principal manufactures are food products. years by direct vote on universal suffrage of citimachinery and metal work, paper and pulp. tex. zens, both male and female of 23 years of age. tiles, wood, animal oils, soap and electrochemical | The Storthing discusses and votes on all political products, especially nitrates.

and budgetary questions, but divides itself into The Evangelical Lutheran religion is endowed two sections for questions of legislation, oneby the state and its clergy are nominated by the fourth of the membership forming the Lagthing. King. All religions are tolerated.

and three-fourths the Odelsthing, which consider Education is compulsory from seven to fourteen, the legislation separately, sitting in joint session and the school system is highly organized. There on failure to agree separately, when decision is is, so to speak, no illiteracy. The University of made by a two-thirds majority. The King may Oslo (founded in 1811) is subsidized by the state. exercise the veto twice, but if the same bill is

The Army was the national militia with uni- passed a third time, it becomes law. versal and compulsory service beginning at the age The king of Norway is Haakon VII. (born Aug, of 18 and continuing until 55. The first call was at 3, 1872) second son of Frederick VIII., King of the age of 21 and for 12 years the recruit belongs to Denmark. He was elected King of Norway by the line. Males from 18 to 21 and from 45 to 55 the Storthing (Nov. 18, 1905) and crowned (June belonged to the landstorm, subject to call in na- 22, 1906) married (July 22, 1896) to Princess Maud tional emergency. Service for the ages of 33 to 45 who died (Nov. 20, 1938) third daughter of King was in the landvaern. Military training in all Edward VII. of Great Britain. The heir to the branches was for 90 days. The strength of the throne, Crown Prince Olaf (born July 2, 1903) was army (1939) including officers and men, was ap- married (March 21, 1929) to Princess Martha of proximately 60,000. The Norwegian Navy was de- Sweden, daughter of Prince Charles. A son, Heredi

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