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Canal for twenty years, till such time as Egypt (April 7, 1940) and named Fawzia. could build up a force sufficiently powerful to take The Constitution of 1923 provides for a Parliaover such duties; this Treaty also accorded the ment composed of a Senate (Maglis al Shuyukh) British, as the Ally of Egypt, the use of Alexandria and a Chamber of Deputies (Maglis al Nwwab). and Port Said as naval bases; and, as such, further Two-fifths of the Senators are appointed by the permitted her to move troops over Egyptian terri- King, the remainder elected directly by the people, tory in the event of war or threat of war.

as are the Deputies, Military service is compulsory between the ages The Premier is Hussein Sirry Pasha. of 19 and 27 with recruits called to colors on a The monetary unit is the English pound. The large scale in the expansion of the Army. The budget (1940-1941) estimated revenue at 47.718,000 strength of the Army (1937-1938) was 22,560. The pounds and expenditures at 45.818.000 Air Force consists of 67 planes but is being ex The principal imports are textiles, mineral, panded to 500 by 1944. The Defense Council de chemical and pharmaceutical products; wood and cided (1938) to build a fleet of 36 units, a cruiser, cork articles: paper; metals; machinery and motor minelayers, minesweepers and submarines.

vehicles. Exports are chiefly agricultural products The King of Egypt is Faruk I (born Feb. 11, and cotton. 1920), son of the late King Fuad I and Queen Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is a city of exquisite Nazli.' He succeeded his father (April 28, 1936), I conglomerate charm, whose streets resound to the married (Jan. 20, 1938) Farida Zulfikar, daughter ring of three civilizations. Hundreds of mosques of Yussuf Pasha Zulfikar and granddaughter of attract the eye of the tourist. Excursions are Mohamed Pasha Said, Prime Minister 1910-14 and conducted to the Pyramids and Sphinx of Giza in 1919. A daughter (born Nov. 17, 1938) was and the ruins of ancient Memphis, and the monuchristened Ferial. A second daughter was born ments at Luxor and Karnak.

Ethiopia

(ABYSSINIA: AFRICA ORIENTALE ITALIANA) Capital, Addis Ababa-Area, 350,000 square miles-Population (1939, estimated) 10,000,000 natives, not

Adis Ababa,Area, 350,000 square dinge Amhara tribesm

ie but the Italian Viceroy (Dec.

Ethiopia (or Abyssinia) is a mountainous vol- | bishop of Ethiopia, but the Italian Viceroy (Dec. canic country in northeast Africa. bounded by 11, 1937) decreed the Coptic church in Abyssinia Eritrea (Italian). French Somaliland and British

autocephalous and appointed the Albuna, three Somaliland on the northeast, Italian Somallland

metropolitans and three bishops for the whole of

Italian East Africa. on the southeast, Kenya Colony (British) on the

German scientists describe the Abyssinians as "a south, and the Anglo-Egyptian Soudan on the west.

mixed Hamito-Semitic people," and other ethnoloThe agricultural and mineral resources of the gists assert that the "true Abyssinian type contains country are comparatively undeveloped, and its no Negro blood whatever and none of the Negro wealth of water power is unused.

qualities, either physical or mental." The royal Cattle, sheep and goats are bred. Horses are family claims descent from Menelik, the son of small but sturdy and are widely used as polo King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. ponies; mules and donkeys are raised. Cotton, Ethiopia sought membership in the League of sugar-cane, date palm and coffee are extensively Nations (1923). After an investigation into the cultivated. The coffee is of three types-Harari existence of slavery in the kingdom and the (long berry Mocha), Jimma and Sidamo. There is promulgation of a decree (June, 1923) making also a wild berry known as Abyssinian coffee. Other slave trading punishable by death, the country was important products are hides and skins, wax, bar- I admitted to the League (Sept. 28, 1923). ley, millet (dhurra), wheat, gesho (which serves as Italy conquered Ethiopia in & war which began & substitute for hops) and tobacco. Rubber trees over a border clash (Dec., 1934), and was waged are numerous. Iron is manufactured into spears, until Addis Ababa was captured (May 5, 1936). The knives and hatchets. Gold. coal, copper, sulphur Emperor, Haile Selassie, who had succeeded the and potash salts are also found.

late Empress Waizeru Zauditu (April 2, 1930), and The Franco-Ethiopian railroad (487 miles long, his son, the Crown Prince, Asfaon Wosan, fled the connecting Jibuti and Addis Ababa) carries the capital (May 2, 1936). bulk of produce from the interior to the coast, Premier Mussolini (May 9, 1936) in Rome, although many caravan routes are still widely trav proclaimed the country as annexed to Italy, and eled. The principal exports are hides and skins added the title of Emperor of Ethiopia to King (cattle, goat, sheep, leopard and monkey), coffee, 1 Emanuel III grain, wax, civet and native butter. Chief im A Royal Decree (June 1, 1936) established the ports are salt (from French Somaliland and Su-colony of Italian East Africa, comprising Ethiopia, dan), gray sheetings and other cotton piece-goods Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, with headquarters (from England, India, Japan, and Italy), cotton in Addis Ababa. Haile Selassie was returned to his yarns (from England, India, Japan, Italy, France); throne (May, 1941) after British forces had ocbuilding materials, petrol and kerosene (from Eng cupied Ethiopia. land, the United States and Soviet Russia); sugar, After annexation Italy launched a vast coloniza. glass, soap.

tion program for the country, including the Mahommedanism is still the prevailing religion building of modern motor roads and the improvealthough many Ethiopians adhere to the Coptic ment of the agricultural resources. branch of Christianity. Moslems predominate in Courts are under the jurisdiction of Itallan ofl. Harrar: Christians in Addis Ababa The Coptic cials but native chiefs still administer justice Patriarch of Alexandria has been the supreme head when the sole litigants are Abyssinians. The of the church since the diffusion of Christianity in | Italian lira is the official currency. The budget the fourth century, appointing the Abuna, or head! (1939-1940) balanced at 2, 183,000,000 lire.

Finland

(SUOMEN TASAVALTA) Capital, Helsinki-Area, 131,588 square miles-Population (1938), 3,863,753 Finland formed part of the Kingdom of Sweden | With German intervention, the "Reds" were de: from 1154 to 1809. when it became an autonomous feated and driven back into Russia in two battles Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire. It declared

(April, 1918) and the German troops went home Its independence (Dec. 6, 1917), established 2

in December of that year. The Finnish Diet re

solved (July 17, 1917) to establish a republic, and Provisional Government, and became & republic

a peace treaty acknowledging the independence of (1919). Finland is bounded on the north by Nor

Finland was signed with Russia at Dorpat (Oct. way, on the east by Russia, on the south by the 14, 1920). Gulf of Finland, and on the west by the Gulf of The lake and canal waterways are navigable Bothnia, Sweden and Norway. Finland ceded to for 3.000 miles. Notable are the mighty Imatra the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at the close rapids of the river Vuokski, having in a chanof the Finnish-Soviet war 16,173 square miles of nel about 25 yards wide, an aggregate fall of territory. All this territory was regained (1941) about 72 ft. in 4 distance of 1,400 yards and a in the war between Germany and Russia, Finland volume (the greatest in Europe) of between 480 fighting with the Axis powers.

and 700 cubic metres per second, discharging ultiFinland, after the downfall of the Czar, had mately into Lake Ladoga. representative government restored to her by a Although extending far north into extremely cold Provisional Government. Following the Bolshevist latitudes, with rugged climate and topography. coup d'etat the Diet and Senate (Dec. 6, 1917) | Finland is an agricultural country. Lumber is the proclaimed the independence of the republic. Civil inost important industry. The principal crops are war between the "Reds" and "Whites" followed. rye, barley. oats, potatoes and hay. Other chief industries in the order of their importance are between 17 and 21, not yet enrolled as conscripts. paper and pulp; iron and mechanical works: tex There is also an Air Force and a Coast Defense. tiles: leather, rubber and fur; and chemicals.

The Civic Guards, approximately 100,000, also are Imports are mostly metals and metal goods; a part of the national defense. machinery: minerals and earths; textiles; colonial The Evangelical Lutheran Church is the state produce and spices; oils, fats, and waxes; means religion, although there is absolutely free worship. of transport; cereals; spinning materials. Exports. There are three universities--one in Helsingfors in order of their value, are pulp and paper; timber and two in Turku. and manufactures of wood; food obtained from The President is chosen for six years by an animals; metals and metal goods; leather, hides, Electoral College of 300 chosen by direct vote; he furs; minerals, ores, and products from same; appoints the Cabinet. The President is Risto Ryti, yarn and ropes; matches, ammunition, and other who was elected (1940) after the resignation of explosives; machinery; resins and tars; textiles. | Kyosti Kallio.

The cooperative system has worked throughout In the general election (July, 1939) the GovPinland for nearly 40 years with marked success. ernment coalition bloc, composed of Laborites, There are (1939) more than 7.000 cooperatives with Agrarians and Liberals, increased its majority in a total membership exceeding 900,000 and they

the Diet from 143 to 149. Of the opposition parhandle about 25% of the retail trade and 40% of ties the Conservatives gained three seats while the wholesale.

the Swedish party, representing the minority Universal military service prevails from 17 years population, lost three. Fascists and Nazis operatto 60. Males reaching 21 are summoned to service ing in the Patriotic National League lost seven of for a period of approximately a year for training. I their 14 seats. The voting system is devised for The conscript then remains in the first reserve until proportional representation. 40 years old. The second reserve is comprised of The monetary unit is the mark with an average those between the ages of 40 and 60, conscripts who value of $.02. The budget (1940) produced revenue are considered unfit for active service and youths of 5, 109,594 marks, and expenditures were 5.105,595.

France Capital, Paris(War) Vichy-Area, 212,659 square miles-Population (1936), 39,302,511 France, once a republic, no longer exists as such the Adour, in the extreme southwest corner, Is in the sense of the constitutional laws (1875). It Bayonne with its neighboring seaside resort of

Biarritz. On the Mediterranean coast, which on is now designated the French State and is in a

the west is low, with lagoons and sand dunes, there transitional period, between armistice and peace,

is no great port till the mouths of the Rhone are and its definite regime has not been adopted. The

passed and Marseilles, the second city of the counConstitutional Law (July 10, 1940) provides specifi

try, is reached. Beyond is the great naval base, cally that a Constitution must be drawn and

Toulon, and from there by Nice and Monaco to the ratified by the nation. However, it has been

Italian frontier and beyond runs the beautiful declared officially in France that nothing definite Riviera--the Cote d'Azur can be done along these lines until normal con France, country of arts, letters and science, is ditions are restored and peace signed.

also a land of festivals and gaiety. There are A single political party to assist in the reform historical pageants elaborately presented in beauof the nation and the establishment of a new | titul settings, such as Versailles, St. Germain, regime was created (Aug, 31, 1941) by Chief of I and in some of the many gardens in Paris. State Marshal Petain. He announced that mem France possesses 1,300 thermal springs and 120 bership in the French Legion from the Veterans health resorts. Spas are scattered through the of Two Wars had been extended to include all mountain ranges, notably in Savoy, the Massif those who volunteer their services for the Na Central and the Vosges, Alps. Pyrenees and the tional Revolution. The name of the party is | Jura, as well as in the lower slopes of Normandy, French Legion of War Veterans and Volunteers of Touraine, Provence and many other localities. the National Revolution.

Along the 1,900 miles of French coast bordering on Belgium and Luxemburg are its neighbors on the two seas and an ocean, there are more than 900 north. On the east Germany lies beyond the bathing beaches. Rhine, the boundary: the Jura Mountains and Much of the history of France may be read in Lake Geneva separate it from Switzerland and her art. The prehistoric remains at Les Eyzies the Graian Alps and the Maritime Alps from Italy. in Dordogne, the caves of Monestan in Ariege, On the south is the Mediterranean Sea and Spain, the dolmens and menhirs of Brittany, the arenas with the Pyrennes for the boundary line. On the of Arles and Nimes, all speak eloquently of ancient west lie the Bay of Biscay and the North Atlantic are. Traces of the Merovingian period are to be Ocean, and on the north again the English Chan found in Aix-en-Provence, Frejus and Poitiers; nel and the Straits of Dover separate it from masterpieces of the Romanesque and Gothic England. From north to south its length is about ! abound throughout France: the Renaissance and 600 miles, and from the western extremity near seventeenth century are especially well represented Brest to Strasbourg on the Rhine it is about 560 by the world-famous chateaux and their gardens. miles wide. The coastline on the north is 700 miles among which Villandry. Versailles. Vaux. Sceaux long: along the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay. and Saint-Cloud are particularly famous. Other 865on the Mediterranean 384 miles.

famous castles are Chantilly, St. Germain-en-Lage, It has the highest mountain in Europe west of Fontainebleau, and the Grand and Petit Trianon. the Caucasus, Mont Blanc (15,781 ft.). On the The magnificent public buildings and charming French side of the Pyrenees are several peaks ex private mansions built during the eighteenth and ceeding 10,000 ft. in height.

nineteenth centuries in Paris, Abbeville, Nantes, In the south-central part of France is the so

Tours, Orleans and Bordeaux excite the admiration called Central Plateau, which is bordered on its of tourist and native alike. southeastern side by rugged mountain ranges, be Throughout France there are many famous ginning with the Cevennes, which ascend from the museums including the world-renowned Louvre, Rhone Valley and reach a height of 5,584 ft. in the Carnavalet and others in Paris. The country Mont Lozere, and on its northwestern side by the is noted for beautiful churches and cathedrals, Monts d'Auvergne which attain an altitude of particularly in Paris, Amiens, Beauvais, Reims, 6.000 ft. Further it is bordered by the hills of Chartres, Rouen, Poitiers, Bourges, Strasbourg, Burgundy and Cote d'Or. Still further north Albi and Arles. The chateaux of France, especially are the Vosges, which run parallel with the Rhine; those of the Loire, are well known. Amboise, Blois, their crest formed the boundary line between Luynes, Chenonceaux, Chambord, Sully, Langeais, France and Germany before the World War. Thence Cheverny, Chinon, Loches, Azay-le-Rideau, have the wooded highlands of the Argonne and the been available to tourist inspection for the past Ardennes bear off to the frontier. The western few years. Carcassonne is known for its old fortiand northwestern part of France consists of fertile fied walls. plains save for the hills of Normandy and the There are many popular winter resorts scattered picturesque rocky coast of Brittany.

in mountains of the Vosges, the Jura, the Alps On the North Sea and the Channel are the sea and the Pyrenees. ports of Dunkirk, Calais and Boulogne, with the 1 France has four important rivers, the Seine. great port of Havre at the mouth of the Seine, and | the Loire, the Garonne and the Rhone, the left Cherbourg, an important naval base, between Cape bank of the Rhine from Basle, Switzerland to Hague and Cape Barfleur. In the extreme north-Lauterbourg and a dozen others, all of kreat western projection, sheltered by Cape St. Mathieu. 1 value because of canalization, which binds them is the roadstead of Brest, the great naval station. I together. The waterways total 7.543 miles in Further down the coast is Lorient, St. Nazaire, at length, of which canals cover 3,031. the mouth of the Loire, with Nantes further up the French railways, totalling 26,417 miles, and forriver. Rochefort and La Rochelle. Up the estuary merly owned and operated under seven great railof the Garonne is the important port of Bordeaux, way systems, two of which were state-owned, were fourth city of the republic: and at the mouth of merged (Jan. 1. 1938) into one French National

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Railway system, the Société Nationale des Chemins 1 Third Republic in its struggle against clericalism. de Fer Francais.

It was not too rigidly enforced, however, especially Agriculturally, France is a country of small after the World War of 1914-1918, but schools confarms, the average unit being 24 acres. The French ducted by religious groups were nevertheless illegal, peasant is & frugal individual and grows most of From now on, religious orders will be allowed to what he eats. The land is suited to a variety of resume their teaching under the official control products the most important of which from a and authority of the Ministry of Education. commercial standpoint are wheat, mixed corn, Primary instruction is free and compulsory. The rye, barley, oats, potatoes and beets. A great public schools form the University of France with diversity of fruits are grown, chiefly apples and an enrollment (1937-1938) of 5,436,554 pupils in pears, plums, peaches, apricots, nuts and cherries. 81,500 schools. There are 17 universities in the The fishing industry is extensive. The government country. assists financially in the culture of silk

The University of Paris was founded around The country is rich in minerals, and the basins 1150-1170 and the University of Montpellier existed of Pas de Calais and Lorraine are noted for their as & School of Medicine at the beginning of the huge coal deposits. Subterranean products, besides twelfth century. A faculty of jurisprudence was coal, include lignite, iron ore, bauxite, pyrites, created in the latter part of the century. The mineral oils, auriferous ore, asphalt, rock salt and University of Toulouse also was founded in the potash salts. The iron ore deposits in Eastern twelfth century. France and the bauxite deposits in Central France The country is predominantly Roman Catholic, are among the richest in the world.

only about & million persons adhering to the Manufactures occupy a predominant position in | Protestant faith. The state recornizes no reli the economic life of the nation, and chief among and tolerates all. these are the making of chemicals, silk and cotton France, as a Republic, was governed under contextiles, perfumes and iron products.

stitutional law adopted (1875) and modified (1875France imports more wine than she exports. 1884-1885-1889). Legislative power rested in & France imported (1938) from the colonies 18,566,231 Senate and Chamber of Deputies, with the Depumetric quintals and from foreign countries 198,093. ties elected by manhood suffrage every four years. Exports (1938) to the colonies were 311,636 metric The Senators were elected for nine years, one quintals and to foreign countries 875,186.

third retiring every three years; the election was The principal imports in peace time in the order indirect and made by an electoral body in each of their monetary value are coal and coke, wines, district made up of delegates chosen in the muniwool, vegetable oils and seeds, cotton, cereals. cipal council of each commune, and of Deputies, fruit (fresh and dried), machinery, coffee, copper, councillor-generals and district councillors in each skins, hides. rice, timber. The order of exports. I department. according to value, was machinery, iron and steel, The two Houses united as a National Assembly, wool, cotton cloth, silk cloth, chemicals, minerals,

elected by absolute majority a President of the motor cars, wines, skins and hides, paper, sugar, Republic to serve seven years, meeting immespirits, precious and semi-precious stones. wool

diately whenever & vacancy Occurred. The Presithread. fruits (dried and fresh), drugs, medicines,

dent selected & Cabinet of Ministers, generally perfumes, soaps, cotton thread, timber.

from the two Chambers, but was permitted to go Alsace-Lorraine, returned by Germany to France

outside the membership. In practice the President at the end of the World War, had a population

summoned a leader who could obtain & majority in (1921 census) of 1,709, 749. The census (1921) re

the Chambers in support of his policies as Presiturned the total population of enlarged France as

dent of the Council (Premier) and he made up his 39,209.706, a loss of 395,474 over the previous census

list of Ministers and submitted it for approval to

list of Minis (1911). France, always an attractive country to

the two Houses. The number of portfolios varied. foreigners, counted as residents (1911) 1,132,696.

Each Minister was responsible to the Chambers and (1921) 1,417,357 in the pre-war territory and

for his acts and the Ministry as a whole was re1.550,459, comprising Alsace-Lorraine, an increase

sponsible for the general policy of the Governof foreigners of 284.661. According to these figures

ment. the decrease of French citizens between 1911 and

The unit of local Government was the com1921 was. for pre-war territory. 2.389,884, or,

Imune. Each commune elected by general suicounting the return of Alsace-Lorraine, 813.237.

frage a municipal council which in turn elected a The number of foreigners in France (1936 cen

Mayor, who is both a representative of the comsus) was 2,453,507, a decrease of approximately

mune. the agent of the central Government and 400.000 over 1932. The number of households

the head of the police. Each Department had (1936 census) was 13, 145,184, occupying 9,109,687

representatives of all Ministries and was placed houses.

under a prefect nominated by the Government and France is in the vanguard in the matter of social

having wide functions. The system continues under welfare legislation. Both employers and employees

the French State. contribute to the old-age pension fund. There is

The tenure of office of the Premier was subject also compulsory social insurance against illness,

to the will of the Chamber of Deputies. If the maternity, disablement and death. The legislation

Chamber refused him a vote of confidence, he has been continued by the French State.

tendered his resignation and another Premier was With the belief that the French educational

named by the President. system was partly to blame for poor moral con

The last elected President of France was Albert ditions in France, the French State has embarked upon a reorganization of French education, the

Lebrun (1932-1939). He was born (Aug. 29. 1871) main features of which are as follows:

and elected (May 10, 1932) to succeed Paul DouA. The general outline of the system, based

mer, who was assassinated (May 5, 1932). Lebrun upon a division into primary, secondary and uni

was reelected (April 5, 1939) by the National Asversity education (primary, secondary and superior)

sembly. is not altered:

The war with Germany saw rapid changes of B. The philosophy of education is modified in

Cabinets in 1940. Premier Edouard Daladier and that it is no longer considered beneficial to give too

his Cabinet resigned (March 20) and was succeeded much learning indiscriminately to all French youth.

by Paul Reynaud as Premier the following day. It is contended that too much "theoretical and

The Reynaud Cabinet served until its resignation "encyclopedic' knowledge is not, of itself, the best

(June 16) when Marshal Henri Philippe Petain preparation for the life struggle:

was named Premier and immediately declared for c. In consequence thereof it is deemed advisable peace with Germany. to modify the curriculum of French schools, de

The Third Republic of France came to an end veloping manual training and sports, and reserving

(1940) after the German army had entered Paris. secondary education for those who seek classical following the occupation of Holland Belgium culture and speculative learning:

Luxemburg and northern France. The invasion of D. To emphasize the need of moral, civic and the low countries began (May 10) and within a patriotic teaching, special classes will be devoted month the German forces had seized these lands to moral education and the teaching of history will and had overrun Northern France. German troops be modified; religious schools will be officially entered Paris (June 14) and the Government moved allowed to reopen or to carry on and religious to Bordeaux. The Cabinet, by a vote of 13 to 11, classes will be held in Government schools:

agreed to ask Germany for an armistice. The E. Special attention will be given to the train-| Cabinet, the last under the Constitution of 1875. ing of primary teachers who, in turn, are responsi resigned and President Lebrun asked Marshal ble for the bringing up of most French children: Petain to form a new Government, which entered

F. To readapt the French educational system into negotiations with Germany and Italy for an to present material conditions in France, Various armistice. The armistice with Germany was practical measures have been taken.

signed (June 22) and the one with Italy two days The French State repealed (Sept., 1940) the later. German forces at the time occupied threefamous laws (1904) which nominally denied the Afths of France. right to teach to all religious organizations. This The Government moved to Vichy (July 2) and law was for a long time regarded as one of the Parliament voted (July 9) full powers to Marshal most important pieces of legislation passed by the I Petain to establish a new constitution. The vote

chare have been formedLaw of Julyads outined until Bebrun, also prohibits in France. Th

in the Chamber of Deputies was 395 to 3 and in Minister of State in charge of Activities for the the Senate 225 to 1.

National Council-Lucien Romier. The members of the Chamber of Deputies and

SECRETARIES OF STATE the Senate met in National Assembly (July 10) and (And ministries to which they are attached) passed by a vote of 395 to 3 a Constitutional Law, Education and Youth-Jerome Carcopino (Ingiving to Marshal Petain the power to promulgate terior). "through one or more Acts & new Constitution for Family and Health-Dr. Serge Huard (Interior). the French State", based on the rights of "labor, War-Gen. Charles L. C. Huntziger (Defense). family and the fatherland", to be ratified by the Aviation-Gen. Bergeret (Defense). Nation and applied by the Assemblies to be created. Colonies-Rear Admiral Platon (Defense). This "Constitutional Law" was adopted by a vote Industrial Production and National Equipmentof 569 to 80, with 17 members absent.

Francois Lehideux (Chief of State). By virtue of the power vested in him Marshal Labor-Rene Belin (Finance). Petain issued seven decrees under the heading of Communications-Jean Berthelet (Finance). Constitutional Acts.

Secretary of State for the Vice Presidency of the Under Act No. 1 (July 11), Marshal Petain as- | National Council--Benoist-Mechin. sumed the functions of Chief of the French State, Food Supply-Paul Charbin (Agriculture). heretofore held by Albert Lebrun as President of Minister of State in Charge of Coordinating Nes the French Republic. President Lebrun did not Institutions-Henri Moysett. officially resign but retired. It was assumed that

SECRETARY GENERAL the publication of this act automatically entailed the abolition of the function of the President of

Information and Propaganda-Paul Marion. the French Republic.

DELEGATES GENERAL Under Act No. 2 (July 11) The powers of Marshal

(With the rank and prerogatives of Petain are defined.

Secretary of State) As Chief Executive he will:

Economie Franco-German Relations-Jacques Appoint and remove Secretaries of State who | Barnaud. will be responsible only to him;

North Africa-Gen. Maxine Weygand. Promulgate laws and enforce their execution; Charging that the Government had capitulated Fill all civil and military positions for which no to Germany before it had exhausted all means of other method of choice has been provided by existence, Gen, Charles J. de Gaulle organized law;

(June 23, 1940) a Provisional French National Command the armed forces;

Committee. London recognized "Gen. de Gaulle Exercise the right of pardon and amnesty:

(June 28) as leader of all Free Frenchmen, Negotiate and ratify treaties;

wherever they may be, who rally to him in support Receive envoys of foreign powers who shall be of the Allied cause."French colonies supporting accredited to him;

the Free French movement are French EquaHave the right to declare martial law in one or

torial Africa, New Caledonia, Oceania French more parts of the land:

Cameroons, French East Indies, French West InHe shall not have the power to declare war

dies and French India. Gen. de Gaulle formed a without the previous assent of the Legislative

Council of Defense of the French Empire to "exerAssemblies

cise all the powers of a Government of War in the Temporarily he shall also exercise legislative name of France on all territories where fighting power:

against the enemies of France continues or will Until the formation of new assemblies;

sooner or later be resumed." De Gaulle announced After such formation, in case of foreign tension

(Sept. 25, 1941) a Free French Council to serve or grave internal crisis.

under his presidency as a provisional government Under Act No. 3 (July 11) The Senate and

until they can hand over their functions to a Chamber of Deputies will continue to exist until constitutionally representative French Government. there have been formed the Assemblies provided for

The War Cabinet of Premier Daladier decreed by the Constitutional Law of July 10, the Senate (Sept. 26. 1939) the dissolution of the Communist and Chamber of Deputies are adjourned until | Party in France. The decree, signed by President further order and hereafter will be convened only | Lebrun, also prohibits the propaganda of the Comon the call of the Head of the State; article 1 of munist Internationale in France. The ban remains the Constitutional Law of July 16, 1875, is repealed. I in effect under the French State.

Under Act No. 4 (July 12) M. Pierre Laval was The unit of currency is the franc, stabilized (Feb. appointed successor to Marshal Petain in case the 29, 1940) at 21 milligrammes of fine cold. change was made necessary by events.

The budget (1941-1942) is estimated at 243,600.000.Under Act No. 5 (July 30) A Supreme Court of

000 francs and anticipated revenue 68.205,000,000 Justice was created as a permanent body to pass

francs, or less than one-third of the expenditures. judgment upon such ministers or high offcials as

Two-thirds of the expenditures will have to be have failed in their duty, particularly during the

raised by the sale of Treasury bonds or other forms events that brought about the passage from peace

of borrowing. The budget puts ordinary expendito war prior to September, 1939, and upon indi

tures at 97,000,000,000 francs and supplementary viduals guilty of attempts against the security of

credits for the liquidation of war costs at 37,600,the State.

000,000 francs. Costs of occupation for the first six Under Act No. 6 (Dec. 1) The deposition of

months of 1940 are given as 78,000,000,000 francs Parliamentarians was decreed henceforth by the

with the expectation that for the second year they Chief of the French State and not by the Parlia

will not exceed 100,000,000,000. The national sinkment.

ing fund calls for 9,000,000,000 francs. Under Act No. 7 (Jan. 21, 1941) All members of

The French Army was divided into the Metrothe Government and high officials of the Civil

politan and the Colonial armies. The peace estabService are required to swear allegiance to Marshal

lishment Metropolitan army (1938-1939) consists Petain personally and are responsible to him.

of an active army of 491,000, of whom 421,000 are The Cabinet was reorganized (Sept. 6, 1940) with

for home defense and 70,000 & mobile reserve for Laval as Deputy Prime Minister and later Minister

overseas garrisons. The conscript served two years of Foreign Affairs. Marshal Petain "for high rea

in the active army, and is available thereafter for sons of internal policy" (Dec. 12) dismissed Laval

period of 26 years. and abolished the office of Vice Prernier. At the

The wavy (1941) consisted of two aircraft carsame time he named Pierre Etienne Flandin

riers, 19 cruisers, 36 escort and patrol vessels, 64 Foreign Minister. Flandin resigned his post (Feb.

destroyers and torpedo boats and 97 submarines. 9.1971) and Admiral Jean Francois Darlan was

The personnel of the navy (1939) numbered 4.930 named his successor. The following day Marshal

officers and 69,500 men, with 3,000 to be added. Petain designated Admiral Darlan as his successor

Since the armistice the personnel had been greatly as Chief of the French State should cirsumstances

reduced. make the succession necessary.

The terms of the armistice provided that all Marshal Petain appointed (Jan. 22. 1941) &

naval units, except some left to guard the empire. National Council of 192 members to advise with

be recalled to specified ports and placed under him and to share with him the duties of directing

German or Italian control. Germany declared it the French State.

would not use the French fleet against Great The Government as constituted (Aug. 12, 1941) |

Britain. follows: Chief of State-Marshal Petain.

The armistice terms deprived France of all millPremier. Minister of National Defense, Navy and tary aircraft at home but there is an Air Force Foreign Affairs Admiral Jean Francois Darlan. Overseas. Minister of Justice-Joseph Barthelmy.

The armistice provided for the demobilization of Minister of National Economy and Finance Yves all naval, air and military forces. With the excepBouthillier.

tion of police troops of which a force of 100,000 Minister of Agriculture and Food Supply-Pierre was permitted. Caziot.

All Frenchr youth in their twenties, the former Minister of Interior Pierre Pucheu.

military age, must enroll for six months in the

compulsory National Service organization instead process; electric machinery maintained in the inof the army, which, under the terms imposed by terior an atmospheric pressure slightly higher than Germany, must be recruited entirely from the exterior pressure. Gunners laid their fire by volunteers.

following the indications on a dial, controlled by France constructed a system of fortifications, an artillery Officers in a hermetically sealed arknown as the Maginot line, extending 125 miles mored chamber, who viewed the outside world along the Franco-German frontier from Switzer through panoramic telescopes. Telephone lines land to Luxemburg. Later the line was extended were built through concrete slabs or buried underalong the Franco-Belgian border to the North Sea. ground. The fortifications contained miles of barIt is estimated that the original Maginot line and racks with passages lighted by electricity. Every the extension cost $500,000,000. The extension was precaution was taken to make the line habitable constructed after the declaration of war by France for months. Tons of concrete and steel for more against Germany (1939) and was not as formid obstacles, traps, pits, trenches, gun emplacements able as the original line which took five years to and field fortifications of all kinds as well as conbuild.

crete casements and block houses were added (1940) Trenches linked a series of casemates--shell to the line.. proof vaults with embrasures through which artil The German army in the Battle of France cut lery and machine guns might be fired from one to through all except a few miles of the rear of the 16 miles apart. From this chain, which included line (June 16, 1940) and the French withdrew viran elaborate system of subterranean barracks con tually all of the 500,000 in the line. Later it was nected by tunnels, army officers believed a con reported that the Germans had destroyed the line tinuous barrage might be laid down along the so far as its military value was concerned. frontier. The line was so constructed that troops Germany began to dismantle the line (1941) and were hidden from enemy view and protected by the land was subdivided into small farms and the fortifications against bombardment.

handed down to peasant families under a system Defense against gas was provided by a special established in Germany.

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French Colonies.
Popula-

Popula-
Sq. Mi. tion

Sq. MI. tion IN ASIA

IN AFRICA Syria & Lebanon (Mandate) 57,900 3,630.000 Morocco (Protectorate).. 162.120 6,242,706 French India, 196 304,680 1 Algeria......

847,500) 7,234,684 French Indo-China........ 260,034 22,853,881

48,313 2,608,313

French West Africa.... 1,818,698 14,944,830 Total in Asia..... 318,130 26,778,541 Togoland (Mandate).

21,8931 780,497 IN AMERICA

Cameroon (Mandate).

166,489 2,516,623 St. Pierre and Miquelon....

93 3.9161 French Equatorial Africa 959,256) 3,422,955 Guadeloupe...... 6881 304,239 Reunion.......

9701 312,803 385 246,7121 Madagascar... French Guiana and Inini... 65,041 37,005 Commoro...

790 3,797,936 French Somalliand.....

8,492 44,240 Total in America..... 66,207 593,872 IN OCEANIA

Total in Africa....... 4,272.685 41,806.587 New Caledonia, etc...

8,548 53,245 Tahiti, etc.....

1,520 39,920 Grand total in all colonies. 4,667,090 69,272,365 Total in Oceania,

10,068 93,165|| The Petain Government announced (Sept. 30, 1940) that it would retain full military and civilian control of all French Colonies and Protectorates.

ALGERIA

(L'Algerie) Algeria is in the northern part of Africa, extend- | Algerian Tirailleurs, and 6 regiments of Spahis ing for 650 miles along the Mediterranean Sea, (Arab cavalry). The strength of the garrison at between Tunis on the east and Morocco on the

Algiers and Tunis (1937) was 3,003 officers and west. Both neighbors are French protectorates.

82,722 men. The Air Corps had 2,280 of all ranks The northern territory extends inland approxi

in 5 groups. The army set-up has been changed by

the armistice but no official information has been mately 350 miles; beyond, the four southern terri

given out (Sept. 1941) as to the exact strength. tories extend southward indefinitely into the

French and British fleets fought a battle at the Sahara Desert, merging into French West Africa.

naval base of Oran (July 4, 1940) after the signing On the coast is an area, the Tell, from 50 to 100 of the armistice. miles wide, of very fertile plains with valleys Nationals must serve two years with the army running out from the hills, mainly owned by and then may be called up as reservists in case of Europeans, which is cultivated scientifically. Be mobilization. hind the Tell is the tableland of the Shat with an Agricultural products include wheat, barley, oats, elevation of 3.000 ft., arid, or covered with salt corn, potatoes, artichokes, flax and tobacco. Wine lakes and swamp. The two chains of the Atlas and olive oil are produced. Dates, pomegranates Mountains, reaching to altitudes of 7,000 ft., divide and figs grow abundantly. Cattle grazing is the the country from the Sahara. Algeria has a popu chief agricultural pursuit. There are large delation (1936) of 7,234,684; and area of 847,500 posits of iron, zinc, lead, mercury, copper and square miles. The capital is Algiers. The natives antimony. are Moslems.

The principal imports are textiles, machines, The Northern Territory, area 80,117 square miles, automobiles, petroleum, sugar, coal, iron and steel, is divided into three departments: Algiers, popula cereals and coffee. Exports consist chiefly of wines, tion, 2,240,911; Oran, 1,623,356; and Constantine, cereals, sheep, olive oil, esparto, spirits. Trade is 2.727,766. Each department sends one senator and mainly with France. three deputies to the National Assembly which The unit of currency is the French franc. Gov. alone has the right to legislate for Algeria.

ernmental revenues (1940) were estimated at An army corps of the Metropolitan army (the 2,526, 128,968 francs; expenditures at 2,525,778.285. XIXth) was stationed in Algeria. It included the The Southern Territory, area 767,435 square Foreign Legion: 6 regiments of Zouaves; 6 regi- miles, forms a separate colony under military ments of cavalry (Chasseurs, d'Afrique): 3 of field. I command which acts with the authority and l of heavy artillery, i battalion of engineers, governor and has a separate budget. The Southern and 1 regiment of the flying corps; 12 regiments of Territory has a population (1936) of 642,651.

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ncs expenditupere estimate Gov.

TUNIS

(Afrikiya; Tunisie) Tunis, one of the former Barbary states under of 2.608,313. The native population is composed of the suzerainty of Turkey, is situate on the northern | Arabs and Bedouins. coast of Africa, with the Mediterranean Sea on the The French were obliged to send a military force north and east, Italian Libya on the southeast, the | into the country (1881) to protect Algeria from Sahara Desert on the south and Algeria on the the raids of the Khroumer tribes, which resulted west. The capital is Tunis. The country has an in a treaty (signed May 12, 1881) placing Tunis rea of 48.313 square miles and a population (1936) | under the protectorate of France.

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