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EXTERNAL TRADE OF CANADA, CALENDAR YEARS 1919-39.

(Merchandise only) Imports

Exports

[graphic]

Dollars
Dollars
Dollars
Dollars Dollars

Dollarg
890,847,353 446.073,668 1,336,921.021 1.268,014,533 30,147,672 1,298,162,205

546,863,395 252,615,088 799,478,483 777,149.296 13,994,461 791,143,757 1922 ...

513.330.771 249,078,538 762,409,309 880.408.645 13,815,268 894,223,913 1923.

594,098,589 308,931.926 903,030,515 1,002,401,467 13,584,849 1,015,986,316 1924

528,912,308 279,232,265 808, 144,573 1,029,699,449 12,553,718 1,042,253,167 1925.

561.061,127 329,132,221 890,193,348 1.239,554,207 12,111,941 1,251,666,148 1926

642,448,478 365,893,433 1,008,341,911 1,261,241.525 15,357,292 1,276,598,817 1927.

696,253,024 390,864,9061,087,117,930 1.210.596.998 20,445,231 1,231,042,229 1928.

788.271,150 434,046,766 1,222,317,916 1.339,409,562 24,378,794 1,363,788,456 1929.

849,114,653 449,878,039 1,298,992,692 1.152.416.330 25,926,1171,178,342,447 1930.

647.230.123 361.249,346 1,008,479,479 863,683,761 19,463,987 883,147,748 1931.

416,179,513 211,918,873 628,098,386 587.653,440 11,907,020 599,560,460 1932.

288,425,260 164,188,997 452,614,257 489,883,1121 8,030,485 497,913,597 1933.

235,195.7821 166,018.529 401,214,311 529,449,529 6,034,260 535,483,789 1934

295.566,101 217.903,396 513,469,497 649,314.236 6,991,992! 656,306,228 1935.

306.913.652 243,400.899 550,314,551 724,977,459 12,958,420 737,935,879 1936.

350,903,936 284,286,908 635,190,844 937.824,933 12,684,319 950,509,252 1937...

436,327,558 372,568,767 808,896,325 997,366,918 14,754,862 1,012,121,780 1938...

379,095,355 298,355,999 677,451.354 837,583,917 11,100,216 848,684,133 1939...

427,470.633 323,584.901 751,055,534 924.926,104 10,995,609 935,921,713 1940......

582,937,741] 499,012,978)1,081,950,719 1,178,954,420) 14,263,172 1,193,217,592 The quantity and value of gold produced in 5.094,379 valued at $184, 115,951 (1939). Virtually Canada (1940) were the largest ever recorded in all Canada's newly mined bullion is sold to the the history of the Canadian mining industry. The | Dominion Government through the Royal Canaamount from all primary sources, totaling 5,322,857 dian Mint in Ottawa or the Assay once in Van. fine ounces value at $204,925,995, compared with couver.

Merchandise exports to
Merchandise Imports from

United Kingdom
United Kingdom

(Canadian produce only)
Dollars

Dollars 1920.

231,487,979
1920

341,167,883 1921

123.149.776
||1921..

308,866,522 1922...

136,859,352
1922

374,751,894 1923,

154,478,720
||1923..

360,782,279 1924...

148,891,714
1924.

387,180,147 1925.

162,118,705
1925

492,136.981 1926..

184,707,111
1926.

459,223,468 1927..

182.620.421
1927..

409,546,331 1928..

190.756.736
1928...

446,128,667 1929

194,777,650
1929..

290.294,564 1930

162,632, 466
1930

235.213.959 1931..

109,468,081
1931.

170,597,455 1932..

93.508.143
1932...

178,171,680 1933..

97,878.232
1933..

210,697.224
113,415,984
1934.

270,491,857 1935..

116.670.227
1935..

303,500,846 1936...

122,971,264
1936..

395,351,950 1937...

147.291.551
1937...

402,062,094 1938.

119,292,430
1938...

339,688,685 1939.

114,007, 409
1939.

328,099,242 1940..

161.216,352
1940....

508,095,949
AGRICULTURAL WEALTH AND REVENUE OF CANADA
1938 1939 1940

1938

1939 1940 $000 $000 $000

$000 $000 $000 Current value of larm

Farm animals...... 136.846 170,837 194,913 capital..... .: 4,341,092 4,496,668 4,481,715 Poultry and eggs... 53,748 55,483 61,816 Net value of agricui.

Fruits & Vegetables. 57,095 56.794 61.816 production... 742,020 846,066 886,094 Tobacco...

20,270 19,444 57,358 Gross value of agricul.

Maple products

3,850 3,444 4,209 Production........ 1,062,645 1.224,616 1.235.714

W ool ...........

1,565 1,827 2,645 Field crops.......1 550,069 685,839 651.228

Honey .........

3,057 2,616 2,518 Dairy products.,... 226,155 218,462 240,940! At the outbreak of the war (Sept., 1939) Canada The Royal Canadian Navy went into action when

Canada declared war. At the outbreak of the war was a relatively weak military power, but since

the strength of the Navy was approximately 3.600 has expanded and modernized her armed forces.

men with 13 ships of all kinds. The mobilized Since the beginning of the war Canada has di

strength has since passed 20,000 and it musters verted more and inore of her resources, both

more than 200 vessels, including three destroyers, human and material, into her war effort. The

three armed merchant cruisers, corvettes, mine 1941-1942 direct war expenditures are estimated at sweepers and smaller craft. The strength of the $1,500,000,000

Navy by March, 1942, is expected to reach 27.000 Approximately 300,000 Canadians were serving men and more than 400 ships. (July 1. 1941) in the active armed services at home The personnel of the rapidly growing Royal and abroad. They have enlisted on a voluntary | Canadian Air Force was approximately 55.000 basis for the duration and will go wherever called. (July 1, 1941).

[graphic]

Newfoundland Capital, St. John's-Area, 42,734 square miles-Population (est. 1939) 294,800 Newfoundland. at the eastern end of British covered by John Cabot (June 24, 1497) (Cape BoAmerica, in the Atlantic Ocean, is an island the navista) (August, 1583), formally occupied by Sir size of Virginia or a little larger than Cuba. It is | Humplirey Gilbert, and by the Treaty of Utrecht. separated from Canada by the Straits of Belle Isle, 1713, acknowledged to be British. A Governor was the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Cabot Strait. I appointed (1728).

Newfoundland is the oldest English Colony. Dis-!*Although Newfoundland had enjoyed the status

212 Foreign CountriesNewfoundland; B. W. 1. and Other Brit. Pos.

of a Dominion since the World War, a Royal Com- , sists of the following-Governor and Commandermission of Inquiry, headed by Lord Amulree, ap-in-Chief. Vice-Admiral Sir Humphrey Thomas pointed (Feb. 22, 1933) to investigate the desperate | Walwyn; Commissioners (Newfoundland) J. Alex financial state into which it had fallen, recom Winter, Lewis Edward Emerson, Sir John Charles mended that the Dominion rights be relinquished Puddester (United Kingdom), John Henry Gorvin, until it again became self-supporting. The action Sir Wilfrid Woods and I. Wild. was precipitated by Newfoundland's inability to The principal industries are fishing. lumber, meet the service charges on its debt of about $90, minerals and manufactures. Huge deposits of iron 000,000. The Royal Commission's recommendations ore have been found on Bell Island in Conception were approved by the Newfoundland Parliament Bay Copper, pyrites, coal, gold, silver, and lead (Dec. 2, 1933).

are other minerals. The British House of Commons later put into Government receipts (1940-1941) were estimated effect the financial provision of the Commission's l at $13,525, 616; expenditures, $15,449,965. report and agreed to meet Newfoundland's budget! Sites on Newfoundland were leased to the United deficits. Holders of Newfoundland bonds (other States (1940) for use as defense bases. than about £3,500,000 of pre-war loans) were Labrador the most easterly part of the Ameri. offered the right to exchange for new 3% 10-30 year Sterling stock guaranteed, both as to principal

can continent, comprising 110,000 square miles and and interest, by the United Kingdom.

& population of 4,716, is under the jurisdiction of

Newfoundland. It has 850 miles of coast line and The Parliament was suspended during the emergency and full legislative and executive power was

800 of its inhabitants are Eskimos. The rest are vested in the Governor, acting on the advice of

fishermen of British descent. The interior is heavily a Commission of six, three appointed by the United

| timbered and reputed to be rich in minerals, but Kingdom and three by Newfoundland. This Royal is largely unexplored. The United States estabCommission, which took office (Feb. 16, 1934) con- I lished (1941) a protective outpost in Labrador.

British West Indies and other possessions

JAMAICA Jamaica is situated in the Caribbean Sea, 90 | American. The island figures largely in the history miles south of Cuba, and is the largest and most of the Buccaneers of the West Indies before and valuable of the Britsh West Indies. It has an area during the time of Sir Henry Morgan, once its of 4,450 square miles and population (estimated. | Governor. The old haunt of the pirate, Port Royal, 1940) 1.173,645, (about 20,000 whites). Attached to at the entrance of the harbor, was destroyed and Jamaica for administrative purposes are the Turks sunk (1692) under the sea by an earthquake, and Caicos Islands (population 5,300; area, 226 The principal products are sugar-cane, logwood, square miles), and Cayman Island (population, coffee, bananas, rum, coconuts, ginger, cocoa, 6,182; area, 104 square miles). The capital of pimento, oranges and cigars. Trade is chiefly with Jamaica is Kingston. The British Governor is Sir the United States and Great Britain. Arthur Frederick Richards (appointed June 14, A site on Portland Bight was leased (1940) to the 1938).

United States for a naval base. The climate has attractions for winter tourists. Governmental receipts (1939-1940) are estimated It is estimated 65 to 75 per cent of the tourists are l at £2,737,940; expenditures £2,851,942.

BERMUDA Bermuda is a group of 360 small islands of coral | ment; its parliament dates from Aug. 1, 1620. The formation. about 20 inhabited. in the Atlantic assembly of 36 members is elected there being Ocean. 677 miles southeast of New York and 580 about 2.691 electors (freeholders). miles east of North Carolina. It was settled

The budget (1940) estimated revenues at £256,426

and expenditures £373,687 (1609) by a party of colonists under Sir George

The island, a perennial garden, with a dozen Somers, who were headed for Virginia, but were

winter hotels and famous beaches, is a favorite wrecked on the islands. The area is 19 square

winter resort for Americans and (1940) had 25,521 miles: the population (estimated, 1939) is 31,661.

tourist visitors, about 30 per cent of the pre-war Hamilton is the capital.

average. Effective (July 8, 1940) passports were The Governor is Viscount Knollys (appointed required for entry into Bermuda. From tourists Aug. 27, 1941) to succeed Lieut. Gen. Sir Denis Bermuda derives much of its revenue. There are Kirwan Bernard, resigned.

no taxes on real estate, incomes or inheritances. Conscription for home defense with men between The currency, weights and measures are British. the ages of 18 and 36 was ordered (June, 1940). Sites on the island were granted to the United

Bermuda is a colony with representative govern- States (1940) for use as a naval base,

OTHER POSSESSIONS Barbados is the most eastern of the Windward A site on the island of Mayaguana was leased Islands in the West Indies, lying out in the Atlantic (1940) to the United States for use as a naval base. at 13° north latitude. Its area is 166 square miles; Sponges and sisal are the chief sources of

revenue. Fruit growing is being developed. Trade the population (estimated, 1940) is 195,548. Bridge.

with the United States is three times as heavy as town is the capital.

with any other country. The budget (1939) estiof the total 106,470 acres, 66,000 are tilled, pro

mated revenues at £404,192 and expenditures ducing chiefly sugar, cotton, and tamarinds. Mo

£441,557. lasses and rum are manufactured. Imports are The Governor General is the Duke of Windsor. heaviest from the United States, and exports The Windward Islands lie at the eastern side of heaviest to Canada. Governmental receipts (1939 the Caribbean Sea, west from Martinique. They 1940) are estimated at £526,543; expenditures £535,- 1 are Grenada and the Grenadines, St. Vincent and 182.

St. Lucia. Each has its own local Governinent. Trinidad. with an area of 1,862 square miles and The total area is 821 square miles (Grenada. 133; a population (1940) of 473,455, is the most southerly St. Vincent, 150; St. Lucia, 233; Dominica, 305). of the West Indies. It lies off the north coast of The population is 259,742 (Grenada) (1921) 90.085 South America. Attached to it for administrative St. Vincent (1931) 47.961: St. Lucia (1939) 69.737:

Urposes is the island of Tobago, the population Dominica (1939) 51,959. St. George's on Grenada and area of which are 25,358 and 116 square miles Island is the capital, respectively. The capital is Port au Spain. Trade The chief products are arrowroot, cotton. codra. is heaviest both import and export, with the United sugar, molasses, rum, cocoa, peanuts, cassava. States. Of 1,192,844 acres on the island of Trini limes, fruit, vegetables and spices. The cotton dad. 348.850 are cultivated. Products are mostly grown on Sea Island is considered the best in the asphalt. oil, with derivatives therefrom. The great world. St. Vincent is famous for its arrowroot. asphalt lake, 114 acres in extent, on the island is Dominica was transferred (Jan. 1, 1940) from immensely valuable and seems inexhaustible. the Leeward to the Windward Islands and since

Sites on the island were leased to the United has been governed as a separate colony. States (1940) for å naval base.

A site at Gros Islet Bay was leased (1940) to the The Governor is Major Sir Hubert Winthrop United States for a naval base. Young (appointed 1938).

The Leeward Islands, of the West Indies, situated The Bahama Islands number 20, part of them southeast of Puerto Rico, are part of the Lesser uninhabited, and are in the Atlantic Ocean, off the Antilles. They comprise the islands of Antigua, coast of America. Nassau, on the Island of New Barbuda, Redonda, St, Christopher, Nevis, An. Providence, near the Florida coast, is an attractive guilla, Dominica, Montserrat, Sombrero, and the winter resort for Americans. The area is 4,404 | British Virgin Islands. The area is 727 square square miles) the population (estimated 1939) is miles; population (estimated 1940) is 93,130. 68.903. Nassau is the capital.

The principal products are sugar and molasses (Antigua and St. Kitts), cotton (Montserrat. St., chicle, and cedar, much of which comes to the Kitts, Nevis and Virgin Islands), limes and fruits, | United States. tomatoes and onions (Montserrat). cocoanuts Its area is 8,598 square miles, and population, (Nevis), tobacco and cigars (Virgin Islands), and (estimated, 1940) is 58,759. Belize, population salt (Anguilla and St. Kitts).

16,687, is the capital, A site near Partain Harbor, Antigua, was leased A site on the Demarara River, 25 miles from the to the United States (1940) for use as a naval base. sea, was leased to the United States (1940) for a

British Honduras is situated in Central America, | defense base. on the Caribbean Sea, south of Yucatan, and pro Government receipts (1939) were $1.967,662; exduces chiefly tropical fruits, mahogany, logwood, I penditures $1.967.842.

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OTHER FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Afghanistan

Capital, Kabul-Area, estimated, 250,000 square miles—Population, estimated, 10,000,000 Afghanistan occupies a mountainous country in oil plant, madder, and the asafoetida plant Asia between 610 and 75° east longitude and 29' abound. Wool and skins are the main articles of and 38° 20' north latitude. Its extreme breadth export, together with fruits, nuts and chi. The

imports are textiles, metals and hardware, leather northeast to southwest is about 700 miles, and from

goods, tea and sugar. The chief trade is with the Herat frontier on the west to the Khyber Pass

| India, Russia and Iran. Copper, lead and iron on the east it is 600 miles. It is bounded on the

are found in the country. north by the Turkoman S.S.R. of the U.S.S.R., on

There are no railroads in the country. Merthe east by British India, on the south by Baluchis-chandise is transported on camel or pony back tan (British India), and on the west by Iran. The along the seven important trade routes. The elevation is generally over 4,000 ft. There are three chief trade route is through Khyber pass. There great river basins, the Oxus and the Kabul in the

is a university in Kabul (established 1932). northeast, and the Helmund, which runs southwest The government is monarchial and the laws and through the middle of the country.

customs those of Islam. Legislative power is vested Towering above Kabul are the Hindo-Kush

in a Parliament consisting of the King: a Senate Mountains, 15,000 and 16,000 ft. high and reaching of 45 members appointed for life by the King: and 25,425 ft. 100 or 200 miles to the east. Trade to a National Assembly of 109 elected members. The India flows through the famous Khyber Pass from reigning King is Mohammed Zahir Shah (born Kabul to Peshawur.

1914). He married (Nov. 7, 1931) his cousin. Afghanistan has been called "the land of rocks Umairah, daughter of Sirdar Ahmed Shah Khan; and stones and sanguinary feuds." Its people are and ascended the throne (Nov. 8, 1933) on the nearly all Mohammedans. The Durani have been assassination of his father, Mohammed Nadir the dominant race for 200 years, the Tajiks, Shah. King Nadir proclaimed a new constitution aborigines, being cultivators and traders. Along (1932) under which slavery and forced labor are the frontier are warlike and independent tribes of forbidden; primary education is compulsory and a Pathans. The languages spoken are Pushtu and | Council of State is created. All Afghan men over Persian. The predominant religion is Islam.

20 may vote. It is almost exclusively an agricultural country. Military service is compulsory between the ages with two harvests a year. The fat-tailed sheep is of 18 to 40. The peacetime strength of the army native to the country, furnishing the Afghans their is 60.000. chief meat diet while the fat of its immense tail is The monetary unit is the silver "afghani," a substitute for butter. The apple, pear, almond, worth between nine and ten cents in American peach, quince, apricot, plum, cherry. pomegranate, money. The yearly revenue approximates $20.grape, fig, and mulberry are profuse. The castor-'000.000.

Albania

(SHQIPERIA) Capital, Tirana-Area, 10.629 square milesPopulation (1930 Census), 1,003,124 Albania is mountainous country bounded by | Moslem, who had been President (since Sept. 29, Yugo-Slavia on the north and east, Greece on the 1925) King of the Albanians under the title of east and south and the Adriatic Sea on the west.

Zog. He married (April 27, 1938) Countess GeralIt is an exclusively agriculture and a cattle and

dine Apponyi, of Hungary, a Roman Catholic, for

whom he built a Catholic chapel in the royal sheep raising state. There are important forest

palace. resources and some mineral wealth, both unde

Under the Constitution Albania is a democratic, veloped, because of lack of transport facilities. parliamentary independent monarchy with a single Chief products of the country are tobacco, timber, elected chamber.. wool, hides, furs, cheese, and dairy products, fish, A new civil code replacing the ancient Turkoolive oil. corn, cattle and bitumen. The principal | Arabic civil code, was adopted (April 2, 1929). peacetime imports are cotton and cotton textiles Under it heads of families were ordered to adopt sugar, coffee, benzine and petroleum

surnames. The Albanian Parliament passed a law There are (1938) 1.383 miles of motor high- (March, 1937) forbidding the wearing of veils by ways. There are four seaports, Durazzo being fully Moslem women. equipped. Work was started (1940) on the first A treaty (of Tirana) between Italy and Albania, railroad in the country between Durazzo and a compact of mutual support and cooperation, was Elbasan.

signed (Nov. 27, 1926). It disturbed Europe and esThere is no state religion and there are few

pecially Yugoslavia. A diplomatic break between schools. Primary education is nominally com- the two Balkan countries (June, 1927) was referred pulsory and free under the constitution.

to and settled by the League of Nations. A Racially the Albanians are mainly Ghegs in the defensive 20-year alliance with Italy was signed north and Tosks in the south, the Mason and (Nov. 22, 1927). Dixon Line of Albania's division being the Italy seized Albania (April 7, 1939) and the Shkumbini River. Tosk men wear gold-embroid- King and Queen fled. The Albanian National Asered jackets and wide sashes over plaited knee- sembly offered the crown to King Victor Emmanuel length white skirts almost as full as a ballet of Italy (April 12) and he accepted it. The same dancer's.

day the Chamber of Corporations and the Senate Albania, after centuries of Turkish domination in Rome approved the union of Italy and Albania. and of contention between the Balkan neighbors There is a constitutional monarchy, the throne and Italy, declared its independence (Nov. 28, being hereditary under King Victor Emmanuel's 1912). It fell into a state of anarchy during the dynasty. Legislative, executive and Judicial powers World War. but (June 3, 1917) Gen. Ferrero, reside nominally with the King. There is a legisthen in charge of the Italian forces there, pro- lative Council subject to orders of the King and claimed Albania an independent country and a nothing can go before the Council without the provisional government was set up. Albania had sanction of the King. Francesco Jacomoni, Italian its independence assured under a treaty with Italy minister to Albania at the time of the absorption, (Aug. 2, 1920).

was appointed by the King Lieutenant General The country was proclaimed (Dec., 1924) a re of Albania, a post amounting virtually to that of public, which continued until 1928 when a con Viceroy. Albanian military forces were incorporated stituent assembly called amended the constitution into the Italian Army. to change the government into a monarchy and Under a special agreement with the Italian (Sept. 1, 1928) proclaimed Col. Ahmed Zogu, al Government. Albanian authorities took over the

affairs of their country (1941)...

The monetary unit is the gold franc, the value After the occupation of Greece (April, 1941) the of which has been set by the Italian Government province of Ciamuria, which has a mixed popu- / at 6.25 lire. lation of Albanians and Greeks. was declared a The budget (1939-1940) is estimated to balance part of Albania.

1 at 40,000,000 francs.

Andorra Area, 191 square miles-Population, 5,231, scattered in six villages. Andorra is a republic in a valley of the Pyrenees appointed in equal numbers by the Bishop and the under the suzerainty of France and the Spanish | French government. Bishop of Urgel. It has enjoyed undisturbed

The inhabitants speak Catalan and are chiefly sovereignty (since 1278) and was granted a consti

Roman Catholics. Andorra, the capital, has about tution as a republic by Napoleon (1806.) It pays an

700 inhabitants. Sheep raising is the principal

industry. A good road crosses the country, conannual tribute of 960 francs to France, and 460 necting the Spanish and French frontiers by way pesetas to the Bishop. It is governed by a Council of Sant Julia, Andorre-la-Vieille, les Escaldes, General of 24 elected members. The judiciary is 'Encamp, Canillo and Soldeu.

Arabia Area, estimated, 1,000,000 square miles-Population, estimated, 10,000,000 The Arabians occupy a peninsula in the south- oases or oases-groups scattered throughout the land. west corner of Asia which is bounded on the north The political, economic and social life of Arabia by Iraq and Transjordania and enclosed on the

| varies from the unplanned roving of Nomadic other three sides by the sea-the Red Sea on the

Beduins to a simple civic life in towns in the west, the Arabian Sea on the south and the Persian

interior like Anaiza or Buraida and the more Gulf and Gulf of Oman on the east. Nearly one

highly developed civilization of Mecca, Medina and

Jedda. The patriarchal, tribal organization of the half of Arabia is desert. Rainfall is negligible ex

Beduin is gradually giving way to the communal cept in Yemen and Oman, but there are numerous organization of states and principalities.

SAUDI-ARABIA The kingdom of Saudi-Arabia comprises the sul- , claimed himself King of the Hejaz (1916) Jointanate of Nejd and the kingdom of Hejaz and its ing the Allies in the war. The Hejaz was repredependence. The total area is 350,000 square sented at the Peace Conference by Emir Feisal, miles; the population is 5,250,000.

son of Husein, who became King of the Iraq. The The Hejaz lies on the southwestern part of

King's second son, Emir Abdula, became ruler of Arabia from the Egyptian line to Asir along the

the Transjordania when the Arab state was set up

within the Palestine Mandate. Red Sea. Its area is about 150.000 square miles:

King Husein had himself proclaimed Caliph of its population (estimated). 1.500,000. The Neid

Islam (March, 1924). This did not suit Abdul now includes about 170,000 square miles of the in

Aziz es-Saud Ibn Saud, Sultan of Nejd, able and terior and an estimated population of 3.000.000.

war-like leader of the Wahabis, extreme Moslem almost entirely nomad. The dependencies include

zealots, who had been extending his rule by force El Hasa, Katif, Jabal, Shammar, El Jauf and the

of arms over the Arabian desert. He marched greater part of Asir.

against the Hejaz (1925.) Husein abdicated, his The king of Saudi-Arabia is Abdul-Aziz ibn

son King Ali was driven out and Mecca was capAbdul Rahman al Faisal al Saud (born in 1880).

tured. Abdul Aziz was proclaimed King of the There are two capitals-Mecca population, 80,

Hejaz and Sultan of Nejd (Jan. 11, 1926). 000) and Riyadh (population, 30,000).

Asir, a principality on the Red Sea (area about NO Christians are permitted to stay in Mecca

30,000 sq. m., population, about 750,000) had acand foreign diplomats credited to Saudi-Arabia

cepted the suzerainty of Ibn Saud (1926) and was live in the port city of Jedda.

formally taken over (1933) after an abortive upThe importance of the Hejaz is due to its pos

rising. The Imam of Yemen lying to the South session of the holy cities of Islam-Medina, where

moved troops into Asir and called down on himthe Mosque of the Prophet enshrines the tomb of

self the wrath of Ibn Saud who sent his son Emir Mahomet. who died in the city (June 7, 632) and

Feisal with an army of 45,000 men equipped with Mecca, his birthplace, containing a great mosque

I tanks and modern weapons. After a month's war sheltering the sacred shrine, the Kaaba, in which

the Imam Yahya accepted peace conditions (May is the black stone given by Gabriel to Abraham.

| 13. 1934) and handed over authority to the Emir As many as 150,000 of the faithful make the pil

Feisal while maintaining a nominal independence grimage annually. Medina (population, 20.000) is

for the Yemen. 820 miles from Damascus, and is the terminus of

Saudi-Arabia's defense force consists of a regular the Hejaz railroad. Mecca, the capital, is 200 miles

army of about 1.000. farther south, and is 55 miles from Jeddah (popula

The products are dates, wheat, barley, fruit, tion. 30.000), the chief port on the Red Sea.

hides, wool, and Arab clocks, besides camels, Motor transportation made its appearance (1926)

horses, donkeys and sheep. The value of imports and has been largely developed since. The King

is from $13,000,000 to $5,000,000 yearly. Some has a royal transport of 250 motor vehicles, of

hides, wool and gum are exported. The export of which 30 are high priced passenger cars especially Arab horses to Bombay and camels to Egypt and equipped for desert travel, and the remainder buses. Syria-once a prolific source of income-is now etc., for transports of pilgrims on the 45-mile greatly reduced because of the growing increase highway from Jedda to Mecca. Motor buses for 1 of motor transport. pilgrims run from Nejef on the Euphrates (reached The petroleum resources of the country are behy rail from Bagdad) to Medina, a desert journey ing developed by the Standard Oil Company of of about 600 miles.

California, which has a concession covering the The English gold sovereign is the basis of cur- entire kingdom. rency.

Ibn Saud has seventeen surviving sons, the secThe Kingdom of the Hejaz was a creation of the lond, Emir Feisal, being Viceroy of Mecca. World War. Husein ibn Ali, Grand Sheriff of Mec The religious law of Island is the common law ca, cast off his allegiance to the Sultan and pro-l of the land.

YEMEN The Imamate of Yemen is in the southwest part (population, 40,000). On the plateau of El Jebel. of the peninsula between Asir and the British the most fertile part of Arabia, grain and coffee protectorate. Aden. Its area is estimated at 75. are grown. Hides and coffee are exported. The

Maria Theresa dollar is the common medium of 000 square miles and population at 3,500,000. The

exchange. The ruler of Yemen is Zaidi Imam capital is Sana, & walled city with eight gates | Yahya b. Muhammad b. Hamid ed Din (born (population, 20,000). The chief port is Hodeida 1869).

KUWAIT The Sultanate of Kuwait, with an area of 1,950 | Berlin to Bagdad railroad. Horses, wool, dates square miles, and population estimated at 50.000. and pearls are exported.

| Trade is almost wholly with India, Iraq, Iran extends along the Persian Gulf from Mesopotamia

and the Arab coast and amounts to 5,000,000 ruto Nejd. Its capital, Kuwait (population, 25.000).

pees annually. is an important port on the Persian Gulf, and had the ruler is Sheikh Sir Ahmed ibn Jabir al Subah been selected as seaport terminal of the German (born 1885).

OMAN The Sultanate of Oman occupies the southeast, cains there a political agent. The capital is Musportion of the Arabian peninsula with a coast line cat (population, 4,500). The best camels in Arabia about 1,000 miles long, extending from El Katar are bred in the interior of Oman. The chief exon the Persian Gulf to Ras Sajir on the Arabian ports are dates. Mountain ranges parallel Oman's Sea. It has an estimated area of 82,000 square north coast, some of them 10,000 ft. high and miles and a population estimated at 500,000, chiefly snow-capped. Arabs. The nomadic tribes of the interior after Food supplies and textiles are imported. Trade seven years of rebellion have completely thrown is mostly with India. The Maria Theresa dollar off the control of the Sultan and by an agreement, and Indian rupee are mediums of exchange. (Oct., 1920) have entire home rule and freedom The Sultan of Oman is Saiyid Said ibn Taimur, of trade. The Sultan has for years been sub (born Aug. 13, 1910). He succeeded his father, sidized by the Government of India, which main-1 Seyyid Taimur ibn Feisal ibn Turki (1932).

BAHREIN ISLANDS The Bahrein Islands lie off the Arabian Coast in troleum production is important. Bahrein is an the Persian Gulf and have an area of 250 square independent Arab State under British protection. miles and a Mohammedan population of 120,000. The capital and commercial center is Manama Pearl fishing is the chief industry, the average (population 25,000). The ruler is H. H. Shaikh Sir value being taken each exceeding $5.000.000. Pe-'Hamad ibn Isa al Khalifa, K.C.I.E., C.S.I.

whose Mat. Buenos

deliberative the President'es

Argentina

(REPUBLICA ARGENTINA) Capital. Buenos Aires-Area, 1,078,278 square miles-Population (1940), 13,318.320. Argentina extends from Bolivia 2.300 miles to The population is largely European in origin. Cape Horn and from the ridge of the Andes to the chiefly from Spain and Italy.

Discovered (1516) by a party of Spanish exSouth Atlantic, occupying the greater part of

plorers headed by Juan Diaz de Solis, Argentina southern South America. Its greatest breadth is

remained under Spanish domination until May 25, about 930 miles. It is bounded by Bolivia on the

1810. when the provinces, in a successful revolt, north, Paraguay on the northeast, Brazil, Uruguay

established an independent republic. The years and the South Atlantic Ocean on the east and thereafter until 1852 were years of disturbance Chile on the west.

and civil war. The Constitution adopted (1853) East of the Andes are great plains, heavily and under which, somewhat amended. the rewooded and called the Gran Chaco in the north, public is governed today, is modeled closely after and vast treeless pampas, given over to wheat and that of the United States. There are 14 proycattle raising. stretching south down to the plains

inces, with a high measure of home rule, electing

their own Governors and Legislatures, and ten of Patagonia,

territories administered by Governors appointed by The climate in the center and most thickly

the President, also a Federal District, Buenos settled part is temperate, with slight variations.

Aires, area (72 square miles), whose Mayor is apThe northern tip of the republic is within the

pointed by the President and who is assisted by a tropics and therefore hot, and the southern ex deliberative council elected by the tax-paying tremity is very cold. Rainfall is heaviest in the

inhabitants. northeast and slightest in central west and south. The President of the republic, who must be a Wheat, corn, flax and oats are the principal

Roman Catholic and Argentine by birth, is elected crops. The sugar, wine, cotton and fruit indus

by an Electoral College for a six-year term and is tries are making great progress. Alfalfa 1s

ineligible for re-election. Congress consists of a cultivated in huge quantities. Sheep, cattle, horses, Senate of 30 members, chosen by a special body of goats and pigs form the chief wealth on the

electors for nine years, one-third retiring each ranches. Packing houses have been established on

three years; and a House of Deputies, numbering

three wears and a House of Deputies & large scale and meat refrigeration has become 158, elected by direct vote for four years, one-hall the country's chief industry. Flour milling ranks retiring every two years. Dr. Roberto M. Ortiz second The largest refrigerating plant in the was elected President of Argentina (Sept., 1937) world is in Buenos Aires. It has a daily capacity and assumed office (Feb. 20, 1938). of 5.000 cattle and 10,000 sheep. Argentina supplies Dr. Ortiz relinquished office (July 3, 1940) for more than half the hides imported into the an indefinite period because of ill health and was United States.

succeeded by Dr. Ramon S. Castillo as Acting The mountains of Argentina contain deposits of President. silver, copper and gold. Petroleum is exploited by The Roman Catholic religion is supported by the the government and by private companies; the state, but all creeds are tolerated. Primary eduwells in the Comodoro Rivadavia region stand first cation is free, secular, and compulsory, but among the country's producers.

percentage of illiteracy is still high in some rural Textiles, oils and chemicals, iron, agricultural districts. There are national universities in implements and machinery, glassware and crockery, Cordoba (founded in 1613) Buenos Aires, La Plata, and foodstuffs are the principal imports. Agri Tucuman, Rosario and Mendoza. The language is cultural products comprise from 50 to 65% of the Spanish total exports, and include livestock products, such Service in the Army is compulsory from 20 as meat and living animals, wool, skins, hides, 1 years to 45. The men belong to the First Line Rrain, linseed, flour, etc.

Army for the first ten years, then pass to the NaArgentina's foreign trade (1940) produced an tional Guard for ten years and close their service unfavorable balance of 70,824,000 pesos. Exports with five years in the Territorial Guard, mobilized during the year were 9,447.000 tons valued at only in case of war. There is a trained reserve of 1.427.933.000 pesos. while imports were 8,096.000 300.000 of whom 215.000 are members of the Natons with a value of 1.498,757,000 pesos.

tional Guard and 70,000 the Territorial Guard. Buenos Aires, the capital, with a population The territorial reserve is 100,000 men. of 2,470,000, is the largest city of Latin America Argentine has a Navy of two battleships, three and the second largest Latin city in the world. cruisers, four coast defense ships, 16 destroyers, It lies on the banks of the Rio de la Plata, which | three submarines, 14 patrol ships and minor craft. is here 28 miles wide, 170 miles from the Atlantic The personnel of the Navy is approximately 11.000 Ocean. It is a city of broad, straight streets. There men, including 5,000 conscripts who must do two are about 100 parks. Street-car companies operate / years service. about 500 miles of rails. Besides these, there are The monetary unit is the peso; see Index, FORthree subway lines with a fare equal to five cents EIGN EXCHANGE in American money. In January, February and The governinental budget (1941) estimated reMarch the heat in Buenos Aires is oppressive. The ceipts of 786,733,600 paper pesos; expenditures winter months--the ideal time for tourists are 1.060.976,200. The paper pesos has & nominal June, July and August.

value of $.23.

cases in the years, then the Firrom 2

Belgium (ROYAUME DE BELGIQUE-KONINKRIJK BELGIE) Capital, Brussels-Area, 11,775 square miles-Population (est. 1939) 8,386,553 Belgium is bounded on the north by the Nether- The Scheldt and the Meuse are the principal rivers. lands and the North Sea: on the east by Germany Below Antwerp the Scheldt flows to the North Sea and Luxemburg, on the south by France, and on through the Netherlands and the Belgian Governthe west by France and the North Sea. It has a ment has spent 350,000,000 francs dredging the frontier of 831 miles and a seaboard of 62 miles. I channel as far as Flushing and improving the

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