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ter. St. James's Park was made by Henry VIII as place in the parish church, and innumerable other a private deer park, so were Kensington Gardens records and relics of his life. The Shakespeare and Hyde Park.
Memorial Theater, built by funds subscribed from There are more traditional ceremonies alive in Britain and the United States, is an interesting peace time London than in any other city in the example of modern architecture. Only a few miles world, and clothes of every period from the from Stratford is Leamington Spa, which rose on fifteenth century to the present day are worn as the fame of its saline springs to become one of the
The yeomen of the Guard" at the Tower of country. Nathaniel Hawthorne lived here: George London are in Tudor dress; the band of the Life
Eliot laid the scenes of all her novels in the Guards wears the uniform of Stuart days, the neighborhood. Sulgrave Manor, the home of learned judges in the neighborhood of the Law
Washington's ancestors, is within easy reach. Courts or the Inns of Court wear full-bottomed
Canterbury, 53 miles southeast of London, where wigs and gowns of the late seventeenth century,
St. Augustine founded a Benedictine monastery while "learned counsel" who plead before them
(597), is the ecclesiastical capital of England, faare in the fashion of the eighteenth. The green
mous all the world over for its magnificent cathelivery and black top-hats of the bank messengers dral, and as the See of the Church of England's are only one of many examples of the nineteenth spiritual head, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The century. The best-known ceremony is that of “Changing them, made by praying knees of thousands upon
stone steps leading to the shrine have grooves in the Guard," which occurs daily in the courtyard of thousands of pilgrims who have visited the church Buckingham Palace at 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. when
since long before the time of Chaucer, whose The King is in residence and the Royal Standard Canterbury Tales form one of the masterpieces of Aies over Bickingham Palace. When the King is literature. not in residence the ceremony is held at St. The lakes and highlands of Scotland are noted James's Palace, A famous military ceremony known as "Trooping of poetry and song. Edinburgh, the capital, is an
for their beauty and have been made the subject the Color" is performed on the Horse Guards
attractive city of gray old streets, wide classic Parade. The precision and pageantry of this occa
squares; spires, pinnacles and turrets contesting sion are only equalled by another display of
with one another in a sort of confusion, Points of pageantry, the famous Aldershot Military Tattoos interest to the tourist include Edinburgh castle which, though it takes place 30 miles out of the Capital, is definitely an event of the London lived; Holyrood Palace where the
and season.' The State Opening of Parliament, usually queens lived out their ill-fated lives, and Princes in the beginning of November, when the King Street. Not far from Edinburgh are Loch Lomond rides in his gilded state coach preceded by an and Loch Katrine in the Trossach country, made escort of Life Guards along_streets lined with
famous by Sir Walter Scott. guardsmen, from Buckingham Palace to the Houses
The border country is a loose term describing the of Parliament, is an unequalled piece of pageantry greater part of 100 miles which separates EdinThroughout the year (war excepted) there is al
burgh from the English border line. It is a land ways some variety of sport to watch-international soft green and brown in color, of rounded hills, a lawn tennis at Wimbledon, cricket at Lord's and
land of shepherds with huge flocks. The border has the Oval, Rugby football at Twickenham and other
had the stormiest history in all Britain, expressed club grounds; Association football at half a dozen today in the terms of castles. The abbeys of Melgrounds, of which Arsenal (in North London) is
rose, Jedburgh and Dryburgh are rootless and the best known. There is motor racing at Brook- ruined because of battles long ago. Here the English lands. There are horse races at many courses and Scots fought their battles, the great Border within easy reach of London, of which Epsom, clans fought both sides and filled their stables and Ascot, Sandown Park, Kempton Park and Alexan
barns with their neighbors cattle and horses. This dra Park are the best known. Every Thames-side is the country of Sir Walter Scott, a "Borderer" town has its regatta, and there is the gay interna- himself, whose house in Abbotsford still stands and tional regatta at Henley, some 30 miles from
who is buried in Dryburgh Abbey. London, in June. The annual boat race between On the east coast of Scotland about half-way the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which is between Edinburgh and Dundee is situated the rowed between Putney and Mortlake in early city of St. Andrews, the birthplace of golf. spring, draws perhaps a bigger crowd than any The Protestant Episcopal is the Established event in the London calendar.
Church of England, of which the King is the Despite the lack of plan London is a city of supreme governor, possessing the right to nominate great beauty, not only for its parks, river and to the vacant archbishoprics and bishoprics. There monuments but for the peculiar effect of the
are two archbishops (of Canterbury and York), 41 Portland stone, its most characteristic building bishops and 39 suffragan bishops. material. This stone where beaten by the weather
A recent summary of the active membership of turns almost as white as marble, while on the certain churches in England, Wales, Channel other surfaces its coat is black with smoke. Thus Islands and the Isle of Man showed: London is a city of light and shade; and there are Anglicans
2,294.000 few more beautiful city vistas in the world than
1,262,596 Whitehall on an afternoon in spring,
494, 199 The whole of England abounds in sites of his- Baptists
383,373 toric interest. The “Shakespeare Country" is Calvinistic Methodists
261,287 about 80 miles from London in the county of Presbyterians
.81,715 Warwickshire. It lies at the very gates of the Quakers
19,000 Industrial Midlands. Here is Birmingham, Eng- Christian Scientists
.14,000 land's "Second City," where the automobile, the Wesleyan Reform Union.
13,198 Jewelry and the Chamberlain family come from. Independent Methodists
10,388 The city library boasts the biggest Shakespearean Moravians
3,210 collection in the world. At Stratford-on-Avon one Roman Catholics
*2,361,504 can still see the house where Shakespeare was born, the house to which he retired, his burial *For England and Wales. POPULATION OF CITIES OF OVER 100,000 IN GREAT BRITAIN, 1931 CENSUS PopulaPopula
Popula Cities tion Citles tion Cities
tion 8,202,818 London (Greater).
140,309 City and Adminis
138,274 trative County of
132,965 Glasgow.. 1.088,417 Salford. 223,442 Jllord..
131,046 Birmingham 1,002,603 Plymouth 208.182 Leyton,
128,317 Liverpool 855,688 Sunderland. 185,870 Norwich
126,207 Manchester. 766.278 Willesden 184,410 Stockport
125,505 Sheffield. 511.742 Bolton. 177,235 Blackburn.
122,695 Leeds.. 482.809 Southampton 176.025 Gateshead.
122,379 Edinburgh 438,998 Dundee 175,583 Southend-on-Sea.
120.093 Belfast (1926) 425.156 Aberdeen 167,259 Preston.
119,001 Bristol.. 397,012 Coventry. 167.046 Ealing.
117,688 Dublin (1926) 316.471 Swansea. 164,797 Bournemouth
116,780 311,366 Hull...
115.682 Bradford. 298.041 Birkenhead. 147.803 Huddersfield.
113,475 West Ham. 294.278 Brighton. 147,426 South Shields.
113,452 Newcastle-on-Tyne. 283,166 East Ham.
142,460 St. Helen's.
106.793 Stoke-on-Trent. 276.639 Derby 142,406 Walsall.
103,059 Nottingham 268.801 |Rhondda. 141,344 Black pool.
The Established Church of Scotland is Presbybarley, oats, beans, peas, potatoes, turnips, swedes, terian with 1,285,011 members as compared with mangold and hay. 61,547 Episcopalians and 614,021 Roman Catholics. Great Britain imports about four-Afths of the
There are about 300,000 Jews in the United breadstuffs and fruits she consumes; one half of the Kingdom with approximately 300 synagogues. meat, eggs and dairy products, and one third of
The total number of emigrants of British origin the fish and vegetables. to places other than Europe from (1853-1938) was The country is rich in mineral resources. There 16.710,072.
are huge deposits of coal, the annual output apThe net excess of emigrunts from the United proximates $900,000,000 in value. The yearly proKingdom and Northern Ireland over immigrants duction of limestone, Igneous rock and iron ore is (1930) was 23,540; (1931) it was 8,831. Emigration valued in the neighborhood of $15.000.000 each. for four years to non-European countries was: Other important minerals, in the order of their
1935 1936 1937 1938 value, are-gravel and sand; clay and shale; slate; United States
1.261 1,638 2,423 1.992 sandstone; salt; China clay: fireclay; chalk; gypCanada
1.707 2.281 2,850 3,367 sum; oil shale; lead ore; tin, ore; ganister and Australia
3,747 4,096 4,122 5,427 silica rock; Potters' clay; moulding and Pig-bed New Zealand
.1,206 1,462 1.981 2.425 sand; barytes and witherite; and dolomite. South Africa,
4,136 6,015 5,577 2,425 Great Britain's strength is largely in manufac. Indian and Ceylon 4,873 6,160 5,632 5,540 turing, mining and trade. The key industries with
England, Wales, Scotland, the Isle of Man and their approximate annual peace time output in the Channel Islands have a total land area of American dollars are-food, drink and tobacco, 56,343,000 agricultural acres, divided (1939) as $3.163,815,000; engineering, shipbuilding and vehifollows:
cles. $2.368, 195,000: textiles. $2.220.000.000: public Grazing Pasture Arable England 3,794,000 13,550,000 8,397,000 chemicals. $950,000,000: building and contracting,
utilities, $1,700.000.000; iron and steel, $1,400,000,000; Wales
1.812.000 2,159.000 538.000 $935.000.000; paper and printing, $900,000,000: Scotland
10,465.000 1,623,000 2,935,000 clothing. $860,000.000; non-ferrous metals. $520.Isle of Man
41.000 23,000 53,000 000,000: clay and building materials, $425,000,000: The aggregate number of holdings in Great timber, $340,000,000; leather. $165,000,000. Textiles, Britain (1939) is: From 1 to 5 Acres, 77,773; from 5 woollen and worsted tissues, iron and steel, mato 50 acres, 193,977; from 50 to 300 acres, 149,969; chinery and vehicles (including locomotives and more than 300 acres, 14,235.
shipping) are the key industries supplying the bulk The principal agricultural products are wheat, of the exports.
TONNAGE AT BRITISH HOME PORTS
Cleared With Cargoes
British Foreigo Total
28,928,893 14,131,890 43,060,783 32,515,814 23,452,755 55,968,659 1915,
22,861.738 10,862,166 33,723,904 20,380.530 19,148,832 39,529,362 1916
20,217,334 9.842.214 30,059,548 17.751,953 17,843.941 35,595,894 1917.
18.795,045 4,433,501 23,228,546 16,926,662 9.149.162 26,075,824 1918.
19,819,519 3,414,145 23, 233,664 14,965,692 7.771.639 22,737,331 1919
22,064.874 7,491,078 29,555,952 21,962,895 12.599.212 34,562,107 1920.
25,506,999 10,986,320 36,493,319 23,532, 459 13,193,076 36,725,535 1925.
34,597,114 17.524.710 52,128,700 37,148,012 20,878,931 58,028,317 1930.
40.788.000 22.928,000 63,716,000 42.619.000 23,234,000 65,853,000 1931
38,195,000 22,080,000 60,275,000 38.165.000 20.175.000 58,340,000 1932
35,521,000 20.549.000 56,070,000 34,850,000 20,591,000 55,441.000 1933.
35.363.892 25.064.297 60,428,109 33.856.000 21,796.000 55,653,000 1934.
36,127.000 26.542.000 62,669,000 33,798,662 22.290,908 56,089,570 1935.
36,111,000 27.581.000 63,629,000 34.302,032 23 091.865 57,321.896 1936
38.055.000 29,360,000 67,415,000 34,302.000 22,516.000 56.818.000 1937
39,289,000 31,130.000 70,420.000 35.893,000 25,407,000 61.390,000 1938
38,909,000 29.463.000 68.372,000 34,511.000 24,370.000 58.881,000 The total net tonnage of entrances at ports of ore and scrap; rubber. the United Kingdom with cargoes (1938) was The chief domestic exports are cotton yarns, 68,372,392; clearances were 58,879,331.
manufactures and other textiles; machinery: iron The merchant marine of Great Britain, July 1, and steel manufactures; vehicles including ships 1939, was composed of 6,722 steam and motor ships and aircraft; coal; food and drink; chemicals, of 17,891, 134 gross tonnage, and 289 sailing vessels drugs, dyes and colors; electrical goods and apof 93,024 gross tonnage; total, 7,009 vessels of 17,- paratus; wearing apparel; earthenware and glass; 984,158 tonage.
cutlery, hardware, implements; wool and woollen United States ships with cargoes entering British rags. ports totaled 3,118,798 tons in 1938, 3,302,661 (1937). The most important colonial re-exports (that is. 3,085,763 (1936), 3,004,000 (1935), 2,549,000 (1934). materials imported from the colonies and dominions
Great Britain's principal peace time imports in and re-exported from Great Britain) are, in the the order of their monetary value are-food and order of their monetary value--wool and woollen drink: wood and timber; non-ferrous metals and rags; non-ferrous metals and manufactures; hides manufactures; wool and woollen rags: raw cotton and skins; food and drink; rubber; oil, fat, resin and cotton waste; oils, fats and resins; hides and manufactures; raw cotton and cotton waste: skins; machinery: iron and steel manufactures: leather, machinery, cutlery, hardware, implements: non-ferrous ores and scrap: tobacco; paper and non-ferrous ores and scrap: woollen, worsted yarns cardboard; chemicals, drugs, dyes and colors; Iron and manufactures.
DISTRIBUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN'S TRADE, 1938 Country Imp. Exp. Country
Imp. Exp. Country
1.05 0.44 Canada 8.53 4.78 Argentina
1.04 1.14 Australia
1.06 1.01 New Zealand
0.73 0.86 Un, of 8. Africa. 1.59 8.39 France.
0.79 1.21 Rest of Africa.. 3.05 4.32 Netherlands
3.19 2.79 Switzerland
0.80 0.74 British Malaya. 1.32 2.36 Sweden
2.67 2.49 Dutch E. Indies... 0.69 India, Ceylon, ... 7.43 8.48 Belglurn.
2.02 1.75 Srain
0.73 West Indies, etc... 1.25 1.67 Finland
2.09 1.17 Rumanis.
0.42 0.29 Soviet Russia.
2.12 1.37 Tot. Brit. (Incl.
1.26 1.84 Tot. Foreign(incl. those not enu
1.20 1.61 those not enumerated) ......
0.84 1.10 merated).. 59.61 50.13 There are four railway systems in the United The Government leased (1941) the country's ratlKingdom with a total mileage of 20,080. Public roads for a fixed annual rental of £43.000.000 to highways extend for 179,630 miles.
avoid any increase in rail and freight charges. The
agreement operates from Jan. 1, 1941, retroactively, Army Reserve-men who have completed their for the duration of the war and for at least one service in the Regular Army--the Supplementary year thereafter.
Reserve of Officers and the Supplementary ReThe telephone service is a part of the postal serve, the Militia and the Territorial Reserves. system. The number of telephones in Great Britain Parliament passed (May 22, 1940) the Emergency (1940) was 3,338,929. London in its exchange area Powers Defense Bill that gives the Government had 1,155,093 telephones.
the right to conscript every person and every penny British civilian aircraft flew 5,000,000 miles and in the realm for the duration of the war. carried nearly 30,000,000 airmail letters in 1940. Under the terms of a royal proclamation (Jan.
Social welfare legislation is well advanced in 29, 1941) men between the ages of 18 to 19 and 37 Great Britain. The National Health Insurance Acts to 40 years were called to register for military (1936-38), the Unemployment Insurance Acts service. (1935-36), the Old Age Pensions Act (1936) and To Jan. 11, 1941, 4,500,000 had registered under the Widows', Orphans' and old Age Contributory the British Conscription Act, but the number actuPensions Act (1936-37) make provision for com- ally called to military service was a secret. Prime pulsory insurance against sickness and unemploy; Minister Churchill told Commons (Jan. 22. 1941) ment; and for pensions for widows, orphans and that Great Britain had 4,000,000 men, armed and the aged.
uniformed, including the Home Guard, prepared The minimum age of entry into unemployment not only to defend the homes and hearts of the insurance for boys and girls was lowered from 16 island nation, but also to carry the war overseas. years to 14 (the age at which the juvenile is no The Navy is undergoing a vast expansion program longer required to attend school) (Sept. 3, 1934) but the additional construction has not been aninsurance was extended to cover agricultural nounced in detail although it is known to be large. workers; it was estimated to cover about 700,000 The estimates (1939-1940) provided for a personnel males and 50,000 females.
of 145,000 by March 31, 1940, not including the The most celebrated of British universities are Royal Marine Police. Reserves total 70,000. For Oxford and Cambridge, each with colleges founded 1940 the total naval personnel, including the in the thirteenth century, and inextricably inter- mobilized reserves. was estimated officially to be twined in the fabric of English history. But there 250,000, but this figure has since been increased." are many others in England, London, Durham, The Royal Air Force consists of the Royal Air Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Leeds, Shef- Force, the Air Force Reserve, the Air Force Special field, Bristol, and Reading (1926); in Scotland, St, Reserve, the Auxiliary Air Force, the Auxiliary Air Andrews, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen; and Force Reserve, the Territorial Air Force, and the one in Wales. Elementary education is compulsory Air Defense Cadet Corps. from five to 14 years of age.
The establishment of the Royal Air Force (1939The monetary unit of Great Britain is the pound 1940) was 118,000 exclusive of those serving in sterling with an average value of $4.03.
India. The British Empire Training Plan provides The armed land forces of Great Britain prior to for the training of 20,000 pilots a year. The recruits 1939 were composed of the Regular Army. the are drawn from Great Britain, Australia, New Territorial Army and the Reserve Forces. The Zealand and other parts of the Empire and are Regular Army, commonly known as the British trained in Canada. The plan was reported (1940) Army, serves at home and also overseas. The Terri- as far ahead of schedule. To Civil Aviation there torial Army, corresponding to the National Guard was allotted (1939-1940) £4,787,000 to provide exin the United States, serves only at home in peace pansion and improved equipment for the Empire time, but has been asked to serve overseas in war Mail Service and the establishment of an intertime.
island service in the West Indies. Subsidies also Conscription was adopted (April 27, 1939) and were given to light airplane clubs and for the provides six months of training after which the development of gliding. conscript has the option of entering the Terri- The budget (1941-1942) estimates war expenditorial Army for a period of three and a half years. tures at £3,500,000,000, excluding the cost of supThose who decline are registered in the Regular plies from the United States under the LeaseArmy Reserve. The Reserve Forces consist of the Lend Act.
(Ulster) Six of the nine countles of Ulster, the northeast | Irish Free State (Dec. 1922). The Parliament concorner of Ireland, constitute Northern Ireland, sists of a Senate of 26, and House of Commons of with the parliamentary boroughs of Belfast. 52, both elected with power to legislate in local and Londonderry; they are Antrim, Armagh, Down matters except such as are of Imperial concern or Londonderry, Fermanagh and Tyrone. The country specifically reserved to the Imperial Parliament. has a population (census of 1937) of 1,279,745 Northern Ireland returns 13 members to the House and an area of 5,238 square miles.
of Commons Although it has its own Parliament, Northern The bulk of the taxation is imposed and colIreland is politically a part of the United Kingdom. lected by the Imperial authorities, which makes The Prime Minister is Viscount Craigavon. The certain deductions and remits the remainder to the Governor is the Duke of Abercorn (appointed 1922). local exchequer. The British pound is the moneBelfast is the capital.
monetary unit. The budget (1940-1941) estimated The finest scenery in Northern Ireland is to be receipts at 113,840,000 and expenditures at £13,found on or close to the coast line. From Belfast
700.000. there runs northward along the coast of the county Northern Ireland is preponderantly Protestant. of Antrim the "Corniche" of Northern Ireland, a The religious population follows:
Roman Catholics, perfectly engineered road running for hearly 100 428,290; Presbyterians, 390,931; Protestant Episcomiles, walled off by sheer green and white cliffs on palians, 345,474; Methodists, 55,135; other sects, the landward side.
59,915. Elementary education is compulsory. The The Antrim road takes the visitor to the most Queens University of Belfast (founded in 1849) is a famous of the sights of Northern Ireland, the well-known institution of higher learning. Giant's Causeway, which consists of a perfect Agriculture---particularly the raising of flax and honeycomb of stone columns, 40,000 in all, each live stock--is an important undertaking. The having the shape of a polygon or hexagon. How principal crops include wheat, oats, barley, potathese stones came to be cut to such exact mathe-toes, turnips, fruit and hay. Mineral wealth is matical shapes is still a mystery unsolved by confined primarily to chalk, clay, fireclay, fint, geologists. Along the north coast, at the head of gravel and sand, granite, igneous rock, limestone, a long inlet of the sea, Lough Foyle, is the city of rock salt, sandstone and diatomite. Londonderry. Lough Erne with its 40 islands is one Linen weaving and shipbuilding are the chief in. of the most famous of lakes, and Lough Neagh the dustries. The manufacturing of linen gives direct largest in the British Isles.
employment to about 60,000 persons, the number A separate parliamentary and executive govern- of spindles being 800,000. Ropes and twines, clothment for Northern Ireland was established (1920) ing, aircraft, tobacco, soaps, aerated waters, hosiery and "contracted out” of the newly established and underwear are other important products,
(EIRE) Capital, Dublin-Area, 27,137 square miles--Population (1939), 2,965,854 Ireland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean near is much indented by the sea, affording many inlets the European mainland and separated from Great and coves. Because of a luxurious growth of rich Britain by St. George's Channel, the Irish Sea and green vegetation, Ireland has been called the the North Channel, is a picturesque country con- Emerald Isie." The prevailing winds are westerly, sisting mainly of a central plateau surrounded by conducing to a climate generally mild and moist. isolated groups of hills and mountains. The coast The mean annual temperature ranges from 48 degrees in the north to 52 degrees in the south. The supreme command of the Defense Forces is Dublin has an average temperature of 39 in the vested in him. coldest month and 60 in the warmest. There are The President of Ireland is Douglas Hyde, elected numerous lakes (called loughs), the best known without opposition (May 4, 1938), Eamon de Valera of which are situated in Killarney. The most im- was re-elected Prime Minister (June 30, 1938). portant river is the Shannon, about 200 miles long. Under the terms of a treaty concluded (April 25, Some mountains attain an altitude in excess of 1938) with Ireland. Great Britain surrendered her 3.000 ft. Wildlife is scarce, and there are no treaty rights over the Irish ports of Cobh (Queensknown snakes existent.
town). Bere Haven and Lough Swilly "together A point of interest to visitors is an old castle in with the buildings, magazines, emplacements. Inthe village of Blarney, four miles northwest of struments and fixed armaments" at those ports. Cork, built on a limestone rock on the site of an The agreement also provided for the payment of older stronghold erected (1446) by Cormac | £10,000,000 by Ireland as the final settlement of M'Carthy. Some 20 feet from the top of the castle all the outstanding financial matters between the is a famous stone called the Blarney Stone which, two countries and for an adjustment of the tariff according to tradition, invests great powers of duties, which for three years had curtailed Anglopersuasion on those who kiss it.
Irish trade. Ireland, or Eire, is a sovereign independent state The population of Eire has declined in recent associated for certain purposes with the British years because of emigration. It was estimated at Commonwealth of Nations, The Dublin govern- 2,934,000 (mid-1939) Roman Catholic is the prement exercises jurisdiction over the three southern vailing religion with an enrollment of 2.773,920. provinces of the island-Leinster. Munster and Other chief sects are: Protestant Episcopal, 145,030; Connaught and three countles-Cavan, Donegal Presbyterian, 28,067; Methodist, 9,649, and Monaghan, of the province of Ulster, com- The population of Dublin, with its four suburban prising an area equal in size to New Hampshire, districts, has increased from 383,076 (1911) to an Vermont and Massachusetts. This area became estimated 482,300 (mid-1939). Other cities and known as the Irish Free State (1922) but has been their population (1936) are: Cork, 80,765; Limerick, redesignated "Eire", the Gaelic name for Ireland 41,061; Waterford, 27,968. under the new constitution (effective, Dec. 29. The country is primarily agricultural, chief crops 1937). The Constitution applies to the whole of being wheat, oats, barley, rye, potatoes, turnips, Ireland, but it provides that, pending the re-in- mangels, sugar beets, cabbage, flax and hay.. tegration of the national territory, the laws en- The chief industries (1939) with production in acted by the Parliament established by the Con- pounds follow: grain milling. 10,770,420; tobacco, stitution shall have the same area and extent of 7,676, 129; butter, cheese, condensed milk and application as those of the Irish Free State. margarine. 6.950.028: bread, flour, confectionery,
The government of Eire is bicameral with a Presi- / and biscuits, 5,232,527; brewing, 7,923,446; sugar, dent elected directly by the people for a term of sugar confectionery, jam making, etc., 4,633,369; seven years; a House of Representatives called Dail assembly, construction and repair of vehicles, Eireann; and a Senate (Seanad Eireann). The 2,990,736; clothing manufacture, 1.253,784; printSenate consists of 60 members, eleven of whom are ing, publishing, bookbinding and engraving. appointed by the Taoiseach (Prime Minister), 2,582,465. who is the Head of Government of the remain- Imports (1939) amounted in value to £43,415,139; ing 49, the universities elect six and the balance and exports, £26,892,414. are elected from five panels of candidates estab- Vessels entering the ports of the country in lished on a vocational basis, representing the fol- the foreign trade (1939) numbered 11,903, oř 8.lowing public services and interests (1) National 272,568 tonnage, and 1,468 of 110,344 tonnage Language and Culture, Literature, Art, Education arrived in the coasting trade. and other professional interests that may be de- Elementary education is free and compulsory, and fined by law from time to time; (2) Agriculture the Irish language is a required study in all naand allied interests, and fisheries; (3) Labor. tional schools. The National University of Ireland whether organized or unorganized; (4) Industry (founded 1908), comprising the Constituent coland commerce, including banking, finance, ac- leges of Dublin. Cork and Galway, and Trinity countancy, engineering and architecture; (5) 'Pub. College, Dublin (founded 1591) are institutions of lic, administration and social services, including higher learning. voluntary social activities.
Estimated expenditures for defense (1940-1941) The Senate considers and amends legislation were £6,454,601. A standing army of 14,243 together but has no veto power. The Government exercises with reserves and volunteers of 11,757, making a the executive power. The President, on the advice total of 26,000, all ranks. is maintained of the Taoiseach, summons and dissolves Dail Eire. The monetary unit is the Irish pound, which has ann. He signs and promulgates laws; and (on the the same value as the pound sterling of Great nomination of Dail Eireann) appoints the Prime Britain. Government revenues (1940-1941) are esMinister and other members of the government.
timated at £33,769,000 and expenditures £35,559,000.
British European Possessions
Gibraltar, the rock at the southernmost point Gibraltar is & Crown Colony and the Governor of the Iberian Peninsula, guards the entrance to and Commander-in-Chief is Gen Lord Gort. the Mediterranean. The width of the strait divid
Malta, an island 17 miles long by eight wide and ing Europe from Africa is 14 miles. The Rock has
58 miles due south of Sicily in the Mediterranean heen in British possession since 1713. It has been
Sea and about 180 miles from the African coast. elaborated, tunneled and armed until it is con
has had centuries of stormy his It was an
nexed to the British Empire (1814) following the sidered impregnable. A large and secure harbor Napoleonic wars and has been greatly strengthened has been constructed at its foot. As a naval base and made into a base for repair and refitment for its position is of the greatest strategic importance. the British fleet. The harbor of Valletta has been The Rock is 24 miles long. 34 of a mile wide and improved with a breakwater, but it is not large. 1.396 ft. in height; the area is nearly two square The area of the island is 95 square miles. The miles; a narrow isthmus connects it with the neighboring island of Gozo has an area of 27 Spanish mainland.
square miles which with Comino, one square mile, The fixed population (estimated, 1939) is 20,399. brings the total for the group to 122 square miles. The natives are mostly Roman Catholics. Educa- The civil population (1939) is 268.668. tion is compulsory between five and 14 years of Farming is the prime industry, chief crops being age. The monetary unit is the pound sterling, but wheat, barley. potatoes, onions, beans, vegetables Spanish money circulates freely.
and fruits. Trade is chiefly with Great Britain.
India Capital, New Delhi-Area, 1,808,679 square miles-Population (1931) 352,837,778 The name India describes the central peninsula west mountains, the whole being tropical in genof southern Asia, south of the Himalayas. reaching eral character. The highest point in the world is eastward to Siam, French Indo-China and China. Mt. Everest, 29,141 ft., in the Himalayas, between It is bounded on the north by Afghanistan, Nepal, India and China. Bhutan and Thibet; on the south by the Bay of Approximately 20% of the area is forested Bengal, the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea; among the timber products being sandalwood, teak, on the west by the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea. ironwood, deodar, satirtwood, date palm, cocoanut, Persia and Afghanistan. Its territory is as large sago, banyan and acacia. as that of the United States east of the Rocky The country is essentially agricultural. 70% of Mountain States. Burma was separated from India the people living therefrom. The most important politically (April 1, 1937).
crop is tea and engages the daily employment of The climate ranges from the extremely hot in nearly a million persons. Other principal agriculthe southeast to cooler elevations of the north- tural products are: rice, coffee, wheat, sugar cane,
cotton, jute, linseed, mustard, sesamum, castor officers. The Royal Indian Navy consists of five seed, groundnut and rubber. Corn, barley, tobacco escort vessels, a survey boat, patrol ship and and indigo are also grown.
trawler. India has an unusually wide range of minerals In London the governmental affairs of India are and was famous for its riches even before the time handled by the Secretary of State for India. At of Marco Polo. The country has yielded much gold, New Delhi, the capital of India, there is a British silver, diamonds and rubies to the western world.governor-general and, under the Government of The most important minerals today are coal, India Act (1935), two native legislative chambers, petroleum, gold, lead, manganese, salt, silver, tin, the Council of State and the House of Assembly. mica, copper, tungsten, iron and zinc.
The former consists of 58 representatives of BritThe chief industry, after agriculture, is the ish India, the majority of whom are elected on weaving of cotton cloths, followed by silk rearing a franchise of some 100,000 persons, and the reand weaving, shawl and carpet weaving, wood-mainder of whom are appointed by the native carving and metal-working.
rulers. The Assembly consists of 141 representaCITIES OVER 200,000
tives, 39 nominated of whom 26 are officials and The cities of above 200.000 inhabitants with their
102 are elected. population (census of 1931) are:
The India Act establishes a federation embracing City Pop. City
British India and the Native States with a wide Calcutta (with
measure of autonomny for some of the provinces. suburbs)..... 1,485,582 Lucknow
274,659 These provinces are: Bengal, Bombay. Madras, (alcutta proper.1.161,410 Amritsar.
264.840 Assam, Bihar,
Orissa, Punjab, Sind, Central ProvBombay
1,161,383 Karachi.. 263,555 inces, United Provinces, and Northwest Provinces. Madras
647,230|Cawn pore 243,755 Delhi has, like Washington, a separate adminisHyderabad 466,894 Poona..
233,885 tration. Each Province has a Governor appointed Delhi.. 447,442' Agra
229.764 by the King, & Cabinet and Legislature set up on Lahore 429.747 Nagpur.
215.165 similar lines except that in Assam, Orissa, Punjab, Ahmedabad 313,789) Benares
205,315 Central Provinces and United Provinces there is In British India (1938) there are 226,331 "rec-only one chamber. ognized" educational institutions with 13,831,707 local autonomy. Only in matters affecting India as
The native states of India have always enjoyed scholars; and 17,036 "unrecognized" schools with 521,538 scholars. There are 16 universities. The
a whole such posts and telegraphs, customs and percentage of illiteracy in the nation is high.
currency, have they been subject to British law. Christian missionaries, Catholic and Protestant,
The British Vic and Governor-General of exceed 6,000 in number. They conduct more than India is the Marquess of Linlithgow (born Sept. 12,000 "recognized" schools, operate more than 24, 1887). He succeeded the Marquess of Willingdon 200 hospitals and many centers for welfare work. (April 18, 1936) for a five-year term. There are more than 45 races speaking 200 lan
Gold is hoarded in India by all classes of people, guages, 2,400 castes and tribes, and 700 feudatory
as a reserve against famine. The wealthy princes states. Each cult, caste and tribe adheres strongly have accumulated enormous sums. It was estito its religious beliefs and social rules, many of
mated (1925) that India's hoarded gold amounted to them with fanaticisin. The religious population $2,500,000,000 and its silver hoardings in various (census of 1931) follows-Hindus, 239,195.140; forms to $2,750,000,000. The net recorded imports Muslims, 77,677,545; Buddhists, 12,786,806, Tribal,
of gold into India (1873-1930) totaled $2,800,000,000. 8,280,347; Christians, 6,296,763; Sikhs, 4,335,771; The monetary unit is the rupee with an average Jains, 1,252, 105; Zoroastrians, 109,752; Jews, 24.141. value of $.30. The budget (1941) estimates revenue
The Legislative Assembly (Sept. 1929). by a at £98,802,000 and expenditures £98,725,000. large majority, enacted a law, introduced by a Sikkim is a state of India in the Himalayas, Hindu member, raising the minimum age for
south from Thibet. The area is 2,818 square miles, marriage of girls to 14 years and the age of consent and population (1931) 109,808, composed of Bhuto 16.
tias, Lepchas and Nepalese. It is governed by a Units of the British Regular Army, the Indian Maharajah under a British protectorate. Army, Auxiliary and Territorial Forces, the Indian Cereals, fruits and woolen cloth are the products. Army Reserve, the Royal Indian Navy, the In- The Andaman Islands, 204 in number, are in dian State Forces, the Royal Air Force and the In- the Bay of Bengal, 120 miles from the mainland of dian Air Force form the defense. Members of the Burma. Area is 2,508 square miles, and population British Regular Army in Indian service are paid (1940) 21,028 (aborigines not counted). "Timber by India. The Auxiliary Force is composed of per- wealth is large. The islands have been used as a sons of British extract n and is subject to call for penal colony for life and long-term convicts, but local service. The Indian Territorial Force com- this is being discontinued. There were (1940) 6.069 prises provincial and urban battalions and a Uni- convicts. The natives are pygmy, jungle dwellers, versity Training Corps, all subject to general expert with spear and arrow and 'sa vage. service. The Indian Army Reserve comprises re- The Nicobar Islands, 75 miles from Andaman servists of all arms. The Indian States maintain Islands, have 635 square miles of area and a poputhe Indian State Forces and are trained by British | lation (1931) of 9,481.
BRITISH AND NATIVE STATES IN INDIA, INCLUDING BURMA
Area in Pop.
1931 Ajmer-Merwara 2,711 560,292 Baroda State.
2,443,007 Andamans and Nicobars. 3,143 29,463||Central Indla Agency
51,597 6,632,790 Assam 67,334 9,247,857|| Cochin State.
1,480 1,205,016 Baluchistan. 134,638 868,617||Gwalior State
26,367 3,523,070 Bengal. 82,955 51,087.338|| Hyderabad State
82,698 14,436,148 Blhar and Orissa 111,702 42,329.583|Jammu & Kashmir State
84,516 3,646,243 Bombay Presidency. 151,673 26,398,997 Mysore State..
29,326 6,557,302 Aden.. 80 51,478||Punjab States Agency
31,241 4,472,218 Burma. 233,492 14.667,146 Rajputana Agency
129,059 11,225,712 Central Provinces & Berar 131,095 17,990,937|| Sikkim State
2.818 109.808 Coorg. 1,593 163,327 Travancore State.
7,625 5,095,973 Delhf.
573 636,246Western India States Agency 36,442 3,999,250 Madras
143,870 47,193, 602 North-West Frontier Province 36,356 4,684,364 Total States....
490,333 63,346,537 Punjab 105.020 24.018,639 Total Provinces.
1,318,346 289,491,241 United Provinces..
1,808,679 352,837,778 Total Provinces..
Burma Burma is bounded on the north by Thibet and own. Under the new law, there is a Senate of 36 China, on the East by China and Siam, on the members and a House of Representatives of 132 south by the Bay of Bengal, and on the west by members. the Bay of Bengal and the Provinces of Bengal and The area of Burma (including the Shan States) Assam of British India. Since the first Burma war is 261,610 square miles; population (1931) is 14,(1826) it has been administered as part of British 667, 146. About 85%
are Buddhists. Rangoon is the India.
capital. Under the Government of India Act of 1935, The Irriwaddy River is navigable for 900 miles Burma, which had long sought release, was de- and its tributary, the Chindwin, for 300. tached from British India (April 1, 1937), made a The principal products are teakwood, tin, silver Crown Colony, and given a constitution of her l and petroleum.