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Dimensions of the Earth; Ocean Depths
Source: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and Other Official Agencies Earth temperatures. The average temperature checked by the Naval Hydrographic Office, in Lat. (centigrade) ranges at the North Pole from minus 19 degree 35'00" North, Long. 68 degrees 20'30" 1.0 in July to minus 41.0 in January with a yearly
West, and Lat. 19 degree 35'00" North and Long. average of minus 22.7. The Russian weather ob
68 degrees 08'45" West.
The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has found servers from Moscow who flew to the North Pole
in the Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Nantucket in airplanes and camped near there on a drifting
Shoals, several deep gorges in the southern part of ice fioe in May, 1937, experienced days when the
Georges Bank. Corsair Gorge, near the eastern tip temperature was up to 32 above zero (Fahrenheit). of the Bank, was discovered in 1930, the others in
At the South Pole the range is from minus 6.0 1931 and 1932. The largest gorge is over 20 miles in January to minus 33.0 in July, with a yearly long and 3 miles wide. At the lower end where it average of minus 25.0.
opens upon the ocean floor, it is 2,000 feet deep. and At the equator the average range is from 25.7 20 to 30 miles farther out, the water is 6,000 feet in July to 26.6 in April, with a yearly average of deep. 26.3.
The British Admirality reports that Thompson The superficial area of the earth is 196.950.000 l and Lindsay Islands have vanished from the South square miles—139,440,000 square miles of water | Atlantic, They had been on the charts since 1825. and 57,510,000 square miles of land.
In 1933 several distinct submarine mountains The approximate area, in square miles, by con were discovered off the coast of California by the tinents, is Africa, 11,500,000; America (North) U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the highest of 8,000,000; America (South) 6,800,000; Asia, 17,000, these being "San Juan Seamount," which is 103 000; Europe, 3,750,000; Oceania, 4,000,000; Polar miles southwest of Santa Barbara and rises Regions, 6,205,000.
10,188 feet from the ocean floor of 12,000 feet. The latest estimates of the earth's area place From 1925 to 1939 a number of submarine mounthe fertile regions at 33,000000 square miles, tains have been discovered in the Gulf of Alaska. steppes at 19,000,000 miles; deserts at 5,000,000 The highest and largest of these were found 170 square miles.
miles southwest of Kodiak Island and rise 12,500 "Asia, the largest continent, is about 6,000 miles feet from ocean floor depths of 13,800 feet. from East to West, and over 5,300 miles from The Survey also has found and charted the subNorth to South Africa is 5,000 miles from North merged mouth of the Hudson River. The gorge, or to South. Europe is 2,400 miles from North to submerged channel, extends along the floor of the South, and 3,300 miles from East to West. South Atlantic Ocean out to the true edge of continental America is 4,600_miles from North to South, and North America, about 100 miles south and east of 3,200 miles from East to West. North America is 4,- | Ambrose Lightship off Sandy Hook. 900 miles from North to South, and over 4,000 At the outer portion, toward the submerged miles from East to West.
mouth, the channel or ravine descends 1,330 feet Limits of Continental United States-Cape in scarcely more than a mile, and is 1,600 feet Sable, Plorida, is in latitude 25° 07', longitude below the surface of the water, while the ocean 81° 05'. The extreme south point of Texas is in
bed beside it is only 260 feet deep. latitude 25° 50', longitude 97° 24'.
Other interesting valleys were found by the U. S. The Lake off the Woods projection extends to Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1935 and 1936 on the latitude 49° 23' 04.1" at longitude 95° 09' 11.3". edge of the coastal shelf between Chesapeake Bay The easternmost land is West Quoddy Head,
and Cape Cod. One of these beginning off Chesa near Eastport, Maine, in longitude 66° 57', latitude
peake Bay (postulated by some geologists to be the 44° 49'.
ancient valley of the Potomac River), can be traced Cape Alava, Washington, extends into the Pacific
126 miles eastward from the entrance to Chesapeake Ocean to longitude 124° 44', at latitude 48° 10'. Bay where in depths of 1,500 fathoms (9,000 ft.) it From the south point of Texas due north to the
still continues eastward. forty-ninth parallel the distance is 1.598 miles.
Numerous submerged valleys have been charted From West Quoddy Head west along the parallel to
by the Coast and Geodetic Survey off the coast of the Pacific Ocean the distance is 2,807 miles. These
California where these features often are found distances are computed to mean sea level.
close inshore and are of such magnitude as to rival The length of the Mexican boundary from the
scenic canyons found on land. Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean is approxi
These submarine canyons, variously called mately 2,013 miles.
gorges, valleys, or ravines, some of them over two The length of the northern boundary, excluding
miles below the surface of the ocean, are still Alaska, is 3,987 miles.
puzzles to science. Several explanations have been The geographic center of the United States is in
offered by geologists for the origin of these subSmith County, Kansas, latitude 39° 50' longitude
marine canyons. One of the most obvious explana98° 35'.
tions is that the canyons were carved out by
streams which ran across the continental shelves Some facts on oceans-The last Ice Age, which beran at least 30,000 years ago, is slowly disap
and down the slopes during some past geologic age pearing, as the glaciers keep on melting; but in
when the continental shelves were exposed by a
withdrawal of the sea. Another is that the canAntarctica enough ice remains to encase the entire
yons were eroded by submarine currents caused globe in a layer 120 feet thick,
durins glacial times and within the past million The three great oceans comprise the Atlantic,
years when the colder water flowing from be41,321,000 square miles; Pacific, 68,634,000 square
neath the glaciers was heavily laden by mud and miles, and Indian, 29,340,000 square miles.
silt, and consequently was more dense than the Areas in square miles of seas; Okhotsk, 580,000:
ocean water. It therefore flowed beneath the Yellow, 480,000; Japan, 405,000; Andamin, 300,000 North,
warmer ocean water, and the resulting submarine 230,000; Red, 178,000; Baltic, 160,000
torrents carved out the canyons by a process simiHudson Bay, 472,000.
lar to stream erosion on land today. Others beThere are about 1,000,000 square miles of lake
lieve that the canyons are the result of submarine and river surface on the land, and 1,910,000 square
currents arising from great tidal or seismic waves, miles of islands in the seas.
sometimes known as tsunamis. Another hypothesis The average depth of the ocean below sea level
supposes the canyons to be due to submarine is 12,450 feet.
springs gushing forth from the water bearing strata The deepest place in the ocean yet found is off
of the continental shell under tremendous pressure the Island of Mindanao, in the Philippines Group.
that may have existed when the present Coastal where a sounding of 35,400 feet has been reported.
Plain beds were thousands of feet thick, as they The highest mountain is Mount Everest, in India
may have been over the present Apalachian MounChina in the Himalayas, 29,141 feet.
tains during Tertiary time. For those explanaThis gives a range of about 64,541 feet or nearly
tions involving the lowering of the sea level, or 121 miles between the bottom of the oceans and
the changing of the elevation of the land with the top of the land.
respect to the sea, numerous hypotheses have been The greatest depth in the Atlantic Ocean is north
proposed. One suggestion is that a sudden change of Puerto Rico, 30,246 (the Milwaukee Depth) feet: in the shape of the hydrosphere depressed sea level in the Indian Ocean, 22,968; in the Arctic, 17,850 in low latitudes, and raised it in high latitudes, in the Malay, 21,342; in the Caribbean, 23,748; in which was followed by a re-shaping of the lithothe Mediterranean, 14,450; in the Bering, 13,422; in
sphere, or solid globe as distinguished from its the South Pacific, ("Aldrich Deep'') 30,930; in the two envelopes of air (atmosphere and water (hySouth Atlantic a sounding of 26.575and in the drosphere). Another suggestion assumes that durAntarctic Ocean a sounding of 14.274 feet.
ing glacial times the Polar ice caps were of such The depth north of Puerto Rico in the Nares enormous thickness and extent that the water of Deep was discovered, Feb. 14, 1939, by the cruiser the sea, locked up in glaciers was sufficient to Milwaukee, which was participating in naval ma- ! cause a great and world-wide lowering of the sea peu vers at the time. The new record depth was I level. It is significant, however, that wherever
the canyons have been surveyed, their physio- tude are termed meridians. graphic characteristics are plainly those resulting According to Keith Johnston, a degree of latiirom stream erosion.
tude measures 68.7 miles at the equator and inThe canyons have tributary streams and resemble creases to 69.4 in the vicinity of the poles. to a marked degree the forms commonly found in The mass of the earth has been estimated at rugged lands above the sea that have been dis- about six sextillion, 600 quintillion, short tons, not sected by rivers, such as are found in some of the including the atmosphere. whose weight has been western regions of the United States, where spec- estimated at more than five quadrillion short tons. tacular canyons like the Grand Canyon of the The diameter of the earth at the equator is Colorado River, have been cut.
7,926.677 miles, and through the poles, 7.899.988 Some facts on the earth-The equatorial circum- miles. ference of the earth is 24,902 miles; the meridional The difference between these two diameters is circumference, 24,860 miles.
26.689 miles, and the ratio for the earth's flattenThe lens of one degree of longitude along the ing at the poles is thus 1 part of 297. equator is 69.2 miles. Each degree of longitude The average elevations of the land above ses represents four minutes of time. The lines of longi- level is approximately 2,800 feet.
Hgt. Name and Location in Ft. Name and Location in Ft. Name and Location in Ft. Bridal Vell (Yosemite)
620 Maletsunyane, Basutoland.. 630 Splendor-of-Sun, Nikko, Jap. 350 Chamberlain, Brit. Gulana. . 300 Maradalston, Norway
650 Staubbach, Switzerland.
980 Comet (Rainier Park). 200 Marina, Brit. Guiana 500 Stora Sjotallet. Sweden.
131 Fairy (Rainier Park) 700 Minnehaha, Minnesota.
50 Sutherland, New Zealand.. 1,904 Gastein, Austria (Upper) 207 Missouri, Montana
90 Takkakaw, Brit. Columbia..1,200 Gasteln, Austria (Lower) 280 Montmorency, Quebec.
265 Tannforsen, Sweden..
121 Gavarnle, France, 1,385 Multnomah, Oregon.
850 Taug bannock, New York. 215 Gersoppa, India 830 Murchison, Africa,
120 Tequendama, Colombia. 450 Grand, Labrador, 302||Narada, (Rainler Park). 168 Terni, Italy.
650 Granite (Rainier Park) 350 Nevada (Yosemito).
594|Tower (Yellowstone) Wyo 132 Gwyra, Paraguay-Brazil 374 Niagara, New York-Ontario. 167|Trummelbach, Switzerland.. 950 Handeckfall, Switzerland. 240 Passaic, New Jersey
70 Tugela, Natal..
1,800 Handol, Sweden, 148 Paulo Afonso, Brazil. 265 Twin, Idaho.
180 Harsprang, Sweden.. 246 Pissevache, Switzerland. 215 Vernal (Yosemite), Cal.
317 Henry's Fork. Idabo. 96|Reichenbach, Switzerland 300 Vettis, Norway
850 Herval Cascades, Brazil. 400 Ribbon (Yosemite), Cal. 1,612 Victoria, So. Rhodesia, S. A. 343 Iguassu, Brazil-Argentina. 210 Schaffhausen, Switzerland... 100 Virginia, Canada (N.W.T.).. 315 Llullouette (Yosemite). 370 Seven Falls, Colorado 266 Voringfos, Norway..
535 Kalambo, E. Africa...
705 Skjaeggedalstos, Norway.. 525 Widows Tears (Yosemite). 1.170 Kaleteur, Brit. Guiana 741 Skykefos, Norway, 650|| Yellowstone (upper), Wyo.
109 King Edw. VIII, Br. Guiana 840 Shoshone, Snake Riv., Idabo 210 Yellowstone (lower), Wyo.. 308 King Geo., Cape Prov., S. A. 450 Sluiskin (Rainier Park).
300|| Yosernite (upper). Cal.. 1,300 Kukenaam. Brit. Guiana....12.000 Snoqualmie, Washington.... 268|| Yosemite (lower), Cal., 320
Some of the heights in the above list cover the sum total of two or more leaps of falls in their downward course. The total drop of Tugela, for example, is 2,810 feet.
The Zambezi in flood is about two miles wide. The canyon below the Victoria Falls is from 200 to 300 feet wide and even narrower further down.
The Grand Falls in Labrador, are in the course of the Hamilton river, which in 5 miles, drops 200 feet in a series of rapids and then, with a roar audible 20 miles away, makes a final plunge of 302 feet.
In British Guiana, a tributary of the Karanang River tumbles over a precipice to a ledge about 1,400 feet below, breaking forklike into two drops, down into the valley below. The entire fail is no less than 3,000 feet and this is a conservative estimate
according to Dr. Paul A. Zahl, who, in May, 1938, observed the falls from an airplane, when about 80 miles northeast of Mt. Roraima.
Niagara Falls Is Moving Backwards
Source: Historical and Geological Records The brink of Niagara Falls is receding, or moving | tumbled down into the gorge (Aug. 13, 1934) with back, at the average rate of 21 feet a year. The a deafening roar. That part of the brink had been great cataract. as the outlet of the four Western dry for some time when the break came, owing to Great Lakes which constitute half of the fresh a lessened flow in the Niagara River. water of the world, has a volume of water almost Several hundred tons of rock tumbled from beunaffected by the seasons. The river below Grand neath Table Rock, at the extreme tip of the HorseIsland is 2'2 miles wide, and descends 52 feet in shoe Falls on the Canadian side (Dec. 4. 1934). the last mile. The chasm into which it drops is There have been, frequently, slides of rock from 1,250 feet wide at the falls, 800 feet wide two miles the sides of the gorge below the falls. There was further down, and less than 300 feet at Whirlpool one (April 14, 1935) on the Canadian side near the Rapids.
whirlpool. The rest of Table Rock was blasted Niagars at the lip of the precipice (including away later in 1935, thus finally destroying what Goat Island) has a total width of about 5,300 feet. had been known for many years as Honeymoon Victoria (including Livingstone and Cataract Is- Point.) The American crest of the falls was changed land), has a total width of about 5,700 feet. in appearance on Jan, 24, 1941, when a piece of Iguassu (including the Island of St. Martin) has rock 18 by 10 feet broke of 100 feet north of Luna a width, estimated, of more than 10,000 feet.
Island. The Falls View (Honeymoon) footbridge across Charles Blondin, whose real name was Jean the gorge below the falls was torn away (Jan. 27, Francois Gravelet, crossed Niagara Falls on a wire 1938) by an ice jam. A new one is under construc- tightrope in 1855, in 1859, and in 1860. Gilarma A. tion
Farini (William Leonard Hunt) crossed on a A mass of Table Rock, 160 feet in length and tightrope in 1864. Harry Leslie (in private life from 30 to 40 feet in width, fell off in July, 1818, William Edward Wright) crossed on a tightrope with a "tremendous crash." On December 9th, 1828 June 22, 1865 and Aug. 11, 1865. three immense portions broke from the Horseshoe The feat was done by James E. Hardy of Toronto Falls, causing a shock like an earthquake. Another on July 1 and on July 4, 1896. He balanced himlarge portion fell in the summer of 1829, and the sell on chairs and did dancing steps on the way noise was heard several miles.
over. Undermining of the limestone shelf on its bed of Anna Edson Taylor plunged over the Horseshoe soft shale, coupled with frost action in natural Falls in a barrel Oct. 24, 1901. crevices tore away (Jan. 17, 1931) some of the Bobby Leach went over the Horseshoe Falls in brink of the American Falls. The maximum depth, a barrel, July 25, 1911. up-stream, of the break, was 65 feet and the Jean A. Laussier, of Springfield, Mass., on July width along the crest was about 300 feet. Geo- 4, 1928, went over the Horseshoe Falls in a 758-lb. logically, this action has been going on for ages. rubber ball.
A part of the limestone brink at the lip of the Niagara Falls on the American Side is under the Horseshoe Falls, 200 feet long and at least 25 feet control of the Niagara Frontier State Park Comthick, weighing over 25,000 tons, cracked off and mission.
THE BRITISH EMPIRE
Area and Population
latest oficial estimates
Area, Sa. M. Population
Area, Sq. M. Population UNITED KINGDOM... 94,279 46,213,169 Tristan da Cunha...
32,015 (ex. Monmouthshire) 50,328 37,354,917 | Mauritius Island.
12,144 (Inc. Monmouthshire) 8,012 2,593,014 Scotland...
30,405 4.842,980 NORTH AMERICA, 3,847,597 11,312,240 Northern Ireland, 5.238 1,279,745 Canada..
3,694,863 11,012,724 Isle of Man
772,782 Channel Islands,
761,000 EUROPE (Other).
700,139 Ireland-Eire. 27,137 2,965,854 New Brunswick
412,582 3,690,000 ASIA. 1,951,348 358,786,193 Prince Edward Island.. 2,184
92,000 India 1.808,679 352,837,778
594,534 3,140,000 British Provinces. 1.318,346 289,491.241
921.785 Native States, etc 490,333 63,346,537
4,230 Aden (Prot. and Perim) 112,000
294,800 Bahrein Islands.
CENTRAL AMERICA Maldive Islands.
58,759 British Malaya..
51,172 5,494,264 WEST INDIES, etc.... 12,835 2,332,924 Straits Settlements 1,356 1,406,120 Bermuda.
31,661 Feder. Malay States. 27,540 2,169,313 Bahamas.
68.903 Other Malay States... 22, 276 1.918,831 Barbados
195,548 British North Borneo. 29,500
4,450 1,173,645 Brunei..
93,130 Hong Kong and Ter...
259,742 Palestine (M.)..... 10,429 1,529,559 Trinidad
473,455 AFRICA.. 3,810,009 63,378,513 Tobago...
25,358 Union of South Africa 472,550 9,979,000
345,145 Cape of Good Hope.. 277.169 3,635, 100 Natal.. 35,284 2.018,000 British Guiana.
341,237 Orange Free State 49,647
Falkland Islands and Transvaal 110,450 3,535, 100
3,908 S. W. Africa (M.)..
3,263,196 9,706,116 British South Africa 734,074 3.895,006 Australia..
2,974,581 6,997,326 Basutoland.
660, 650 New South Wales. 309,432 2.770.348 Bechuanaland Prot. 275,000
87.884 1,887,278 Northern Rhodesia. 290,320 1.376,325 Queensland.
670,500 1,015,927 Southern Rhodesia.. 150,333 1,435,560 South Australia.
465,916 British East Africa. 716,315 14,241,502 Tasinania.
241,576 Kenya Col. and Prot.. 224,960 3,500.352
Northern Territory 523,620
6,973 Uganda Protectorate. 93,981 3.790,689
12,263 Tanganyika (M.).
337,000 Nyasaland... 37.374 1,679,977 New Guinea (M.).
666,000 Zanzibar Protectorate.. 1,020
235,428 New Zealand..
103,934 1,640,901 Somaliland Prot..
61,429 British West Africa. 529,756
3,460 Nigeria....... 372,559 20,641,814 OCEANIA.
388,279 34,081 Cameroons (M.)
430,244 868.637 Gold Coast 78,082 3.700.267 FIi Colony
215,030 Togoland (M.).
34,130 Sierra Leone.. 27,925 1,768,480 Gilbert and Ellice Isl'ds 180
93,415 New Hebrides
54.531 Anglo-Egypt. Soudan. 969,600 6,342,477
Other Pacific Islands..
300 Ascension Islaod..
154 St. Helena..
4,622 BRITISH EMPIRE....13,642,218 504,683, 246 (M) British Mandate. The Anglo-Egyptian Soudan and the New Hebrides are Co-dominions.
POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1801-1931
Total for United Kingdom
8,892.536 1.608,420 1821 12,000.236 2,091,621 6.801,827 io 174,868 10.718,716
15,914,148 2,620,184 8.196.597 13,060,497 13,670,432 26,730,929 1861.
20,066,224 3,062,294 5,798,967 14,063,477 14,864,008 28,927,485 1871
22,712,266 3,360,018 5,412,377 15,301,830 16,182,831 31,484,661 1881.
25,974.439 3,735,573 5,174,836 16,972,654 17,912,194 34,884,848 1891.
29,002,525 4,025,647 4,704,750 18,314,571 19,418,351 37,732,922 1901
32,527,843 4,472,103 4,458,775 20,102,408 21,356,313 41,458,721 1911.
36,070,492 4,760.904 4,390,219 21,946,495 23,275,120 45,221,615 1921
37,885,242 4,882,288 No census. •20,430,623 *22,336,907 *42,767.530 1931.
39,947,031 4,842,544 4,229,124 *21,464,711 *23,325,774 *44.790,485 The 1921 and 1931 figures for males and females and total (last three columns), exclude Ireland. By the census, 1936. Ireland-Eire has 2,965,854 population, 1,518,807 males and 1,447,047 females. Northern Ireland (census of 1937) has 1.279.745–623,308 males, and 656,437 females. Total for Ireland, 4,245,599.
Government of Great Britain The British Empire Covers about one-fourth House of Lords is made up of_the peers of the (13,499,557 square miles) of the world's habitable United Kingdom, to wit: the Royal Dukes, the land surface. Its population in the aggregate, Archbishops, the Dukes, the Marquises, the Earls, according to the latest census and official estimates, the Viscounts, 24 Bishops, and the Barons; also 28 Is some 15 millions more than one-fourth of the
Irish peers elected for life; and 16 Scottish peers inhabitants of the world-a total of 504,683,246.
elected for the duration of Parliament. The full
membership of the House of Lords consists of about The Capital of this vast empire is London. The
740 members but the voting strength is about 720. census (1931) returned the population of the
The House of Commons numbers 615 members metropolitan district of London as 8,202,818, an
elected by direct ballot. of this House, England increase of 9.7% since 1921, and the County of London (registration and administrative district)
has 492 members; Wales, 36; Scotland, 74; and
Northern Ireland, 13. Clergymen of the Church of contained in it as 4,470,814. The area of the City
England, ministers of the Church of Scotland and of London is 675 acres; the County of London 74,
Roman Catholic clergymen are disqualified from 850 acres; Greater London 443,455 acres. The
sitting as members, also certain Government estimated population (1937) of Greater London is
officers, Sheriffs, and Government contractors. 8.655,000.
Women have had the right to vote since 1918. The Ruling Sovereign is George VI, third of the House of Windsor, whose title is "by the Grace of
The popular vote in the last two general elec
tions, and the seats won, were as follows: God, King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions Beyond the Seas, Defender of
Nov., 1935 the Faith, Emperor of India." He was born (Dec.
Pop. 14, 1895), son of the late King George V., who died Government Vote Seats Vote
Seats (Jan. 20, 1936) and Queen Mary, daughter of the Conservative. ...11,907,875 471 10,488,626 387 late H. S. H. Duke of Teck and H. R. H. Princess Nat. Labor.. 342,480 13 339,811 8 Mary of Cambridge. He succeeded to the throne on
Liberal Nat'l..., 809,102
866,624 33 the abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. (Dec. National..
90,000 3 97,271 3 10, 1936). The King, as Prince Albert, Duke of York, mar
13,149,457 522 11,792,332 431 ried in Westminster Abbey (April 7, 1923). Lady
6,648,023 52 Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (born 1900), daughter of the
8,325,260 154 Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. They have two
139,517 4 Liberal (Samuel) 1,405,102
1,377,962 17 children: Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary (born
Ind. Lib. (LI. G.) 106,106
65,150 4 Apr. 21, 1926), heir-apparent, and Princess Mar
27,117 1 garet Rose (born Aug. 21, 1930). The children of the late King George V. besides
. 274,499 the present sovereign are: H. R. H. Prince Edward
Total... 8,434.231 95 10,209,505 184 Albert, formerly King Edward VIII, created Duke of Windsor (Dec. 12, 1936) (born June 23, 1894), The Statute of Westminster passed by the House married Mrs. Wallis Warfield (June 3, 1937); of Commons (Nov. 24, 1931) gave formal ratificaH. R. H. Princess Mary, Princess Royal (born tion to the declarations of the Imperial Conferences April 25, 1897), married Viscount Lascelles, K. G., (1926 and 1930), which were participated in by the son of the Earl of Harewood (Feb. 28, 1922) and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern who succeeded to the title on the death
of his Ireland, and the Prime Ministers of the Dominion father (Oct. 6. 1929)-issue, George Henry Hubert. of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, the Viscount Lascelles (born Feb. 7, 1923), and the Hon. Dominion of New Zealand, the Union of South Gerald Davis (born Aug. 21, 1924); H. R. H. Prince Africa, the Irish Free State and the Dominion of Henry (born March 31, 1900), created Duke of Newfoundland. Gloucester (March 31, 1928), married (Nov. 6, 1935) The Conference (1926) defined the Dominions as Lady Alice Montagu-Douglass-Scott, daughter of "autonomous Communities within the British Emthe Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch and Queens- pire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to berry; H, R. H. Prince George (born Dec. 20, 1902), another in any aspect of their domestic or foreign created Duke of Kent (Oct. 9, 1934), married (Nov. affairs, though united by a common allegiance to 29, 1934) Princess Marina, daughter of Prince and the Crown, and freely associated as members of Princess Nicholas of Greece (issue, Prince Edward, the British Commonwealth of Nations. . . . Every born Oct. 9, 1935).
self-governing member of the Empire is master of Parliament is the legislative governing body its destiny In fact, if not always in form, it is for the empire. It consists of two Houses. The subject to no more compulsion whatever."
The Government (Oct., 1941) follows:
Name Prime Minister and Minister of Defense,
Winston Churchill Minister of Supply
Lord Beaverbrook Lord President of the Council
Sir John Anderson Lord Privy Seal..
C. R. Attlee Minister of State.
Oliver Lyttelton Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Anthony Eden Minister without Portfolio
Arthur Greenwood Chancellor of the Exchequer
Sir Kingsley Wood Minister of Labor and National Service
Ernest Beyin The following are heads of Government departments, but are not members of the Cabinet, although in peace time they would be in the Cabinet.
A. V. Alexander Law Officers:
..R. S. Hudson Attorney-General Agriculture and Fisheries
Sir Donald Somervell Solicitor-General.
Sir William Jowitt Air
Sir Archibald Sinclair
Viscount Simon Aircraft Prod., Lt. Col, John T. C. Moore-Brabazon
Sir Walter Womersley Burma
Thomas Johnston Dominion Affairs Viscount Cranbourne, M.P. War Transport
Lord Leathers Duchy of Lancaster. Rt. Hon. Alfred Duff Cooper Trade.
Sir Andrew Rae Duncan Economic Warfare.
Capt. David Margesson
Sir John Reith Food
Lord Woolton Parliamentary Sec'y to Shipping, Col. J.J. Llewellin Health
Ernest Brown Parliamentary Sec'y to Aircraft Home Affairs and Home Security, Herbert Morrison Parliamentary Sec'y to Production, Fred'k Montague India Leopold Amery | Lord Advocate.
James S. C. Reid Information
Brenden Bracken Solicitor-General for Scotland.... Lord Murray The executive government is vested nominally in Minister, who is also First Lord of the Treasury, the Crown, but in actual practice in a committee receives a salary of £10,000 a year. His colleagues of Ministers, known as the Cabinet. The existence are appointed on his recommendations and he disof the Cabinet is dependent on the support of the penses the major portion of the patronage of the majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Crown,
BUDGETS OF GREAT BRITAIN FOR 30 YEARS Year Revenues Expendit's Year Revenues Expendit's Year
Revenues Expendit's End!g
Mar31 1914.. 198,242,897 197,492,969 1924.. 837,169,284 788,840,211|| 1934 809,379,149 778,231,289 1915. 226,694,0801 560,473,5331925..799,435,595 795,776,711|1935.. 804.629.050 797,067,170 1916 336,766,825 1,559,158,377|1926.812,061,658 826,099,778 |1936.. 844,775,143 841,834,441 1917 573,427,582 2,198,112,7101927. 805,701,233 842,395.0271937. 896.596.194 902,193,385 1918.. 707.934,565 2,696,221, 4051928., 842,824,465 838,563,341||1938.. 872,580.000 938,046,000 1919 889.020,825 2.579,301, 188 1929 9.36.434.988 818,040,5231939. 927.285.000 1.024.804.000 1920. |1,339,571,381 1.665,772,928 1930. 814.970.280 829,493,543 1940 1,025,192.000 1,032,217,000 1921.1.425.984,666 1.195,427,877|1931., 857.760.934*81.036,90 1941. 1.408,867,000 3,84,288,000 1922. 11.124.879.873/1.679.186,627||1932. 851.482.281 851.117.944 1942. * 1.636,000,000 *4,206,957,000 1923 914,012,452) 812.496.604|1933. $27.031,184) 859.310.173 *Estimates. Expenditures do not include value of supplies from the United States under Lease-Lend.
Sir Kingsley Wood, British Chancellor of the Exchequer, asked the House of Commons (Feb. 2, 1941) for supplementary votes of credit of £1,600,000,000, of which amount £600,000,000 was to tide over to the end of the financial year (March 31, 1942). The vote brought to £3,300,000,000 the total of supplementary credits for the year as against €2,500,000,000 in 1918, the costliest year of the World War. The Chancellor explained that the rate
of expenditure had risen sharply since his last supplementary demand (Oct., 1940) when it was £64,000,000 weekly and £73,000,000 (Feb. 1941). Or this total £56,000,000 was for fighting services and £17.000.000 for other war services, such as Ministries of Shipping, Food and Home Security. These are lumped in war expenditures and no not include the ordinary expenditures of the State.
PUBLIC DEBT OF GREAT BRITAIN
March 31 1914. 706,154,11091921. 7,623,097,128 1928
7.714,084,295 1935.. 7.800,565,000 1915 1,161,951,702 1922
7. 532,2141929. 7,716,024,047 1936. 7.796.056,000 1916. 2.189.838.245||1923
7,812,562 525 | 1930 7,469,060.000||1937. 7,797,229,544 1917 4,063,644.981|1924 7.707.537,545 | 1931. 7,413,279.0001938
8.026, 127.000 1918 5.921.095.819|1925 7,665,880,405 || 1932
7,433,942,880 1939. 8,163,299.000 1919 7,481,050,442||1926 7,633,722,152 | 1933
7.644,952.000 1940, 8.931,459.000 1920 17.875.641.961||1927
7.652.687.904 || 1934. 7.822.330.000111941 11,394,566,000
BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS FOR 100 YEARS Viscount Melbourne. 1835 William Ewart Gladstone 1868 Herbert Henry Asquith.
1908 Sir Robert Peel 1841 Earl of Beaconstield. 1874 H. H. Asquith (Coalition)
1915 Lord John Russell. 1846 Mr. Gladstone 1889 David Lloyd George.
1916 Earl of Derby 1852 Marquis of Sallsbury 1885 Andrew Bonar Low
1922 Earl of Aberdeen 1852 Mr. Gladstone 1886 stanley Baldwin..
1923 Viscount Palmerston. 1855 Marquis of Salisbury 1886 J. Ramsay MacDonald.
1924 Earl of Derby. .1858 Mr. Gladstone..
1892 Stanley Baldwin..
1924 Vlecount Palmerston, 1859 Earl of Rosebery 1894 J. Ramsay MacDonald
1929 Earl Russell.. 1865 Marquis of Salisbury. 1895 Stanley Baldwin
1935 Earl of Derby 1866 Arthur James Balfour 1902 Neville Chamberlain.
1937 Benjamin Disraeli. 1868 Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman. . 1905 Winston Churchill,
1940 The Imperial Conference (1930) adopted the peals so far as it concerned them the Colonial report of its committee which had been studying Laws Validity Act (1865) which made void any the methods of sweeping away all possible limita- legislation by a Dominion Parliament which contion on Dominion freedom and drafted the Statute flicted with an act of the British Parliament; and of Westminster. This declares that no act of the It declares that a Dominion Parliament has full British Parliament thereafter passed shall extend power to make laws with extra-territorial effect to a Dominion unless the Dominion itself has that is, to control, as do independent states, the requested and consented to the enactment; it re- acts of their nationals beyond Dominion territory.
The United Kingdom Capital, London--Area, 94,279 square miles-Population (1931 and 1939 for Northern Ireland), 46,213, 169
The United Kingdom, or British Isles, lie off the back against steep cliffs. Its history may be read northwest corner of Europe, with the North At- in ancient castles, towers, battle sites and monulantic Ocean on the north and west, the North Sea ments. Traces of every important period in its life on the east and the English Channel separating it may still be seen in cities or in isolated sections of
the country. from the mainland on the south. The Straits of
London, for years the chief metropolis of the Dover, 18 miles wide, divide it from France. The
world. retains its ancient atmosphere-its hisnorthern end of Scotland lies due west from the
toric Houses of Parliament-its famous Tower southern end of Norway.
built by William the Conqueror in the eleventh The climate of the British Isles is equable, mild century, where noted figures in English history and somewhat warmer than that of the continent were tortured and put to death. In London, also, opposite, because of the Gulf Stream modifying the is St. Paul's Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, "the temperature, which is mean at 48 degrees. Rainfall
parish church of the British Empire''; and Westis abundant, averaging 35 inches annually, but is
minster Abbey, where every English monarch has seldom heavy at a given time, so that the precipi- been crowned since William the Conqueror in 1066 tation covers longer periods, and fogs often prevail and where lie buried kings and queens and many in many parts, London Fog," holding much soot
persons who have made the grade in English hisin suspension, being particularly dense at times.
tory or letters. The chapel of Henry VII is the The coastline is tortuous, giving very many har- finest example in England of Tudor Gothic and bors for shipping, and numerous rivers up which contains the tomb of Mary Queen of Scots. The deep sea craft may go.
House of Lords-in which may be seen the double The soil is of varied natural fertility. It is more royal throne (the King's chair is slightly higher sterile in the north, notwithstanding the figures than the Queen's)--and the House of Commons show that the Scotch have attained a relatively are open to visitors without charge on Saturdays high per acre production by intensive cultivation. from 10 A. M. to 3:30 P. M. Many of these land. But centuries of tillage have rendered necessary marks have been damaged by German bombings the elaborate and large use of artificial fertilizers. during the war.
The prevalent precipitation of moisture, together Although Buckingham Palace is now the town with the mild climate, has induced profuse growth residence of the King, it is at St. James's Palace of vegetation of all sorts. The Isles were naturally (built by Henry VIII) that a new King is procovered with forests, which have been largely cut claimed and foreign ambassadors are still "acoff to accommodate so large a population on so credited to the Court at Saint James." small an area with an average of 504.7 to the In the center of London are five parks-St. square mile.
James's, Green Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gar; The United Kingdom is a fascinating country, dens and Regent's Park: the first four adjoin each with its varied topography; its hills and valleys, other; here the well-to-do ride their horses, and moors and heaths, buzzing industries and quiet all London comes out to take the air, to exercise countrysides; narrow winding streets and modern the children or the dogs or to listen to the motor parkways; quaint fishing villages leaning band. In Regent's Park there is an open-air thea