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west, are here' declared ; and while “ the uttermost Sca,” or Mediterranean, marks with perfect precision the western boundary, that on the south is also intimated to be “the Wilderness" or Desert of Arabia, which they had so long traversed, and so recently left.

After the death of Moses, Joshua became the chosen leader of the children of Israel, and to him was the promise again addressed : “ Moses my servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel. Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon that I have given unto you, as I said unto Moses; from the Wilderness and this Lebanon, even unto the Great River, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hiitites, and unto the Great Sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast.” Josh. i. 2–4. Still have we the same extent of territory here marked out; the Wilderness on the south, Lebanon on the north, the Euphrates on the east, and the Mediterranean on the west.

But, at the command of God, the boundaries of the Land, were laid down with the utmost precision by Moses to the children of Israel, while in the plains of Moab. Numb. xxxiv. The citation of this statement, with the introduction of others with which it corresponds, from a parallel passage by Joshua, (xv.) will tend to show in a clearer light the limits of the land in its full extent. " And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, command the children of Israel, and say unto them, when ye come into the land of Canaan, (this is the land that shall fall unto you for an inheritance, even the land of Canaan with the coasts thereof.) Then your South Quarter shall be from the wilderness of Zin, -southward," or leading towards the south, Josh. xv. 1.] along by the coast of Edom, [or Idumea, “ the uttermost part of the south coast.” Josh. xv. 1.]

Having thus given a general statement of the south Quurter, he proceeds to give a specification of the boundaries, which he traces on its different sides, be. ginning with the south: " And your south Border shall be the outmost coast of the Salt Sea, eastward," or


from the south-east corner of the Dead Sea," from the shore of the Salt Sea, from the bay that looketh southward.” Josh. xv. 2. “ And your border shall turn from the south to the ascent of Akrabbim ;" “ or the mountains of Accaba, (signifying “ascent in Arabic) which run towards the head of the Elanitic or Eastern gulph of the Red Sea,” says the Rev. T. H. Horne, of whose distinct views of the boundaries, as obtained from combining the statements contained in the books of Numbers and Joshua, we shall now avail ourselves by a direct quotation—"passing (we may presume, with Clayton,) through the sea-ports of Elath and Eziongeber, or the Red Sea, which belonged to Solomon, (1 Kings ix. 26.) though they are not noticed in this place. Thence it shall pass on to [the wilderness of] Zin, on the cast side of Mount Hor, including that whole mountainous region within the boundary; and the going forth thereof shall be to Kadesh Barnea southwards; and it shall go on to Hazar Addar. [Joshua (xv. 3.) interposes two additional stations, Hezron and Kirkaa, before and after Addar, or Hazar Addar, which are not noticed by Moses ;] and pass on to Azmon. • And the border shall fetch a compass,' or form an angle, • from Azmon,' or turn westwards towards the river of Egypt,' or Pelusiac branch of the Nile; and its outgoings shall be at the sea,' the Mediterranean.

“ • And as for the western Border, ye shall have the Great Sea for a border. This shall be your west border.' The great Sea is the Mediterranean, as contrasted with the smaller seas or likes, the Red Sea, the Salt Sea, and the Sea of Tiberias, or Galilee.

" • And this shall be your north Border: from the Great Sea you shall point out Hor ha-hor, (not • Mount Hor,' as rendered in our English Bible, confoun.ling it with that on the Southern border, but) “the mountain of the mountain, or the double mountain,' or Mount

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** This termination of the southern border, westwards, is exactly conformable to the accounts of Herodotus and Pliny: the former »presenis Mount Casius, lying between Pelusium and ihe Sirbonic lake, as the boundary between Egypt and Palestine Syria, (3, 5.) the latter reckoned the Sirbonic lake itself as the boundary, (Nat. Hist. 5, 13.)”

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Lebanon, which formed the Northern frontier of Palestine, dividing it from Syria ; consisting of two great parallel ranges, called Libanus and Antilibanus, and running eastwards from the neighborhood of Sidon to that of Damascus.

" From Hur ha-hor ye shall point your border to the entrance of Hamath ;' which Joshua, speaking of the yet unconquered land, describes, All Lebanon, towards the sun-rising, from (the valley of) Baal Gad, under Mount Hermon, unto the entrance of Hamath.' (Josh. xii. 5.) This demonstrates, that Hor ha-hor corresponded to all Lebanon, including Mount Hermon, as judiciously remarked by Wells, who observes that it is not decided which of the two ridges, the northern or the southern, was properly Libanus; the natives at present call the southern so, but the Septuagint and Ptolemy called it Antilibanus.-From Hamath it shall go on to Zedad, and from thence to Ziphron, and the goings out of it shall be at Hazar Enan, (near Damascus, Ezek. xlviii. 1.) This shall be your north border.'

" • And ye shall point out your East Border from Hazar Enan to Shephan, and the coast shall go down to Riblah, on the east side of Ain, (“the fountain' or springs of the river Jordan,) and the border shall descend, and shall reach unto the seast] side of the sea of Chinnereth. And the border shall go down to Jordan on the east side, and the goings out of it shall be at the Salt Sea. There it met the northern border, at the south-east corner of that sea, or the Asphaltite lake.

This shall be your land with the coasts thereof round about in circuit.'

“ Such was the admirable geographical chart of the Land of Promise, dictated to Moses by the God of Israel, and described with all the accuracy of an eye-witness. Of this region, however, the Israelites were not put into immediate possession. In his first expedition, Joshua subdued all the southern department of the Promised Land, and in his second the northern, having spent five years in both (Josh. xi. 18.): what Joshua left unfinished of the conquest of the whole, was afterwards completed by David and Solomon. (2 Sam. viii.


3—14. 2 Chron. ix. 26.) In the reign of the latter was realized the Abrahamic covenant in its full extent. • And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river (Euphrates) unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt....for he had dominion over all the region on this side the river (Euphrates), from Tiphsah (or Thapsacus situated thereon) even to Azzah, or “Gaza with her towns and villages, unto the river of Egypt,' southward, and the Great Sea,' westward, (Joshua xv. 47.) even over all the kings on this side the river (Euphrates). 1 Kings iv. 21–24.Horne's Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. Vol. III. p. 4–6.

Such is an outline of the Promised Land, the accurate understanding of which will be greatly facilitated by glanciug upon any Map embracing all its bounds. With the map in view, an ideal line drawn from the Mediterranean on the west, to Thapsacus on the Euphrates in the east, (lat. 35 deg. 20 min. north,) will give the northern boundary; and on the south of Idumea, extend the view from Eziongeber, along the shores of the Red Sea, including the various curvatures

formed by its gulphs, till the line reaches Suez, (the Etham of Scripture, Ex. xii. 20. Num. xxxiii. 6.) and stretching over to Cairo, in lat. 30 deg. north, and lon. 31 deg. 14 min. east, (the Rameses of Scripture, Ex. xii. 37. Num. xxxiii. 3.) traverses the northern bank of the eastern branch of the Nile to the Mediterranean, which gives the southern boundary. This extent of territory, however, Israel has never yet “possessed,which is God's promise explicitly given in the most unqualified terms. In the reigns of David and Solomon, as remarked, the nations occupying the countries adjacent to the then possessions of Israel, even to the full extent of the original grant, were indeed tributary; and in this, it has been argued, the promise of God was fulfilled. But this was not Israel's possessing the land, as promised by God. Nor was there any restriction made in the divine grant to their occupying a part only of the specified territory, and the subjection merely of others. On this principle of interpretation, indeed, it



could not be proved that the Lord had promised them any part of the land for actual possession. For since no such distinction was expressed in the grant, if God's covenant was fulfilled by a part of the promised land having been rendered tributary merely, then certainly might it have been equally fulfilled, had the whole been so also. But Heaven stands pledged to Abraham, that unto his seed shall the whole prescribed territory be given." The land is theirs, in all its length, and in all its breadth ; theirs absolutely, exclusively, and inalienably, by right of Heaven's high investiture. As such it was claimed by them, and this formed their warrant of procedure against its former guilty occupants, whom they were authorized, and commanded to destroy : “ And ye shall dispossess the inhabitants of the land, and dwell therein; for I have given you the land TO POSSESS it." Numb, xxxiii. 53. When in Horeb, concerning the whole land, having its north and north-eastern boundaries “ unto Lebanon unto the Great River, the river Euphrates," God's command was, “ Behold I have set the land before you, go in and possess the land, which the Lord sware unto your fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give unto them, and to their seed after them." Deut. i. 6–8. This whole land “ from the Wilderness, and this Lebanon, even unto the Great River, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the Great Sea”, or Mediterranean, Joshua was commanded to “divide FOR AN INHERITANCE" unto the children of Israel. Josh. i. 4–6. And after an enumeration of the extensive conquests made by Israel, under Joshua, (xii.) at the command of God he gives an account of what remained for them to possess, for it is added, "there remaineth yet very much land To Be POSSESSED.” Josh. xiii. 1. And much of it has ever so remained : “ This is the land that yet remaineth: all the borders of the Philistines, (on the west,] and all Geshuri, (in the north-east.] From Sihor, (the Nile, on the south. Is. xxiii. 3. Jer. ii 18.] even unto the borders of Ekron northward, which is counted to the Canaanite ; five lords of the Philistines; the Gazathites, and the Ashdothites ; the Eshkalonites, the Gittites, and

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