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Broken or Leaking Pipes
See that the pipe conveying main-reservoir air to the high-pressure governor top is connected to the mainreservoir cut-out cock, and that the cock is so put up that the governor-pipe connection will be on the mainreservoir side. If the cut-out cock is located on the opposite side of the engine from the pump governor, connect this governor pipe to a branch of the main-reservoir pipe that can not be cut out; this to insure the pump always being under the control of the governor, for when the main-reservoir cut-out cock is closed the pressure will be exhausted from all other parts of the locomotive air-brake equipment.
BROKEN OR LEAKING PIPES.
Main Brake Pipe (“train line") Under Tender.—When broken or badly leaking, dispense with the use of the train air signal, and use the main signal pipe under the tender in place of the defective brake pipe. Every engine should carry two “combination hose " complete -very short hose with brake couplings on one end and signal couplings on the other end—for use in such cases, and also when the brake-pipe rupture occurs under any car in a passenger train and it may be undesirable to switch the car to the rear of the train. Place the automatic brake-valve on lap, and close the cut-out cock in the signal line supply-pipe near the combined
air strainer and check-valve; close both angle and cutout cocks between rear of tender and first car; separate the brake and signal hose connections between engine and tender, and tender and car; recouple the brake hose from engine to signal hose on tender, and signal hose from rear of tender to brake hose on first car; open cut-out cock at rear of tender, and angle cock at head end of the car; place automatic brake-valve first in release, then in running position, and you are ready to proceed.
Equalizing-Reservoir Pipe.—With this pipe broken, stop the flow of air from the rupture by putting a blind gasket in the union of the tee-fitting by which it connects with the automatic brake-valve; plug the serviceexhaust opening under the brake-valve, and proceed
carrying the brake-valve in running position as usual. In making stops, no results will follow the movement of the brake-valve handle to the service-application position, except that the black hand of the large duplex gauge will instantly drop to zero. Do your service braking by jumping your automatic brake-valve handle over the service-stop shoulder, cutting-in to the emergency position just far enough to draw off brake-pipe air directly, but comparatively lightly, through the “big hole” of the brake-valve. The application can be graduated very nicely, if care is used, noting the amount of brake-pipe reduction that is being made by the black hand of the small duplex gauge. Return the handle to
lap position rather slowly, or some of the forward brakes will "kick off" —release themselves.
Main-Reservoir Supply Pipe to Distributing Valve. With this pipe broken beyond repair, the locomotive brake is inoperative by either brake valve. If broken between the cut-out cock and distributing valve, simply close the cock; if the rupture is between the cut-out cock and main reservoir, plug, or place a blind gasket in the pipe toward the latter pressure: or, if conditions permit, remove the pieces of broken pipe and re-attach the closed cut-out cock, so as to shut off the escape of pressure. Proceed, bearing in mind the absence of locomotive braking-power.
Brake-Pipe Branch to Distributing Valve. — Judging from results on different roads, this is most frequently broken of any part of the E-T-equipment piping. When it becomes ruptured the locomotive and train brakes will apply; lap the automatic brake-valve, permitting the brakes to stop the train; then plug the broken pipe toward the brake-pipe pressure, release train brakes, and proceed. The locomotive brake will not then operate from an automatic application, but can be applied by the independent brake-valve, although the release position must be used to release it.
Brake-Cylinder Pipe From Distributing Valve. — A cracked joint occurring at any point in this pipe line while on the road, if not opened too wide, may not
weaken the pressure in any of the locomotive brakecylinders, but there will be a continuous blow of air from the point of rupture when the locomotive brake is applied. If the pipe is nearly or quite broken off between the distributing valve and brake cylinder cut-out cocks, at the first stopping point close the cock in the main-reservoir supply pipe to distributing valve, and proceed without the locomotive brake. A break in this pipe line between either brake cylinder and its individual cut-out cock, will only deprive the locomotive of the power of that one brake cylinder, for, on account of the small choke-fittings in the brake cylinder cut-out cocks, the pressure can not blow away from the other brake cylinders of the locomotive as fast as the application valve of the distributing valve can supply it. At the first stop, close the cut-out cock in the branch pipe that is affected.
Application-Cylinder Pipe.-As the result of a leak in this pipe, an automatic or independent application might or might not set the locomotive brake, depending upon the extent of leakage, but after placing the brake valve in lap position, the locomotive brake would release itself—if it set at all. If not possible to remedy the defect, plug the application-cylinder pipe toward the distributing valve; the locomotive brake can then be applied as usual by the automatic brake-valve, and released by that valve in running position, but the inde
pendent brake-valve will be powerless to apply or release it.
Distributing-Valve Release Pipe. The breakage of this pipe need not cause any delay, nor will it affect the braking power of the locomotive during an application; but when the automatic brake-valve is placed in release or holding positions the usual effect is not wholly obtainable, the locomotive brake will release at once; and with a long train the train brakes should be held on until coming to a dead stop after all applications while running. The locomotive brake can be applied by the independent brake-valve, but will release if that brake-valve is placed in the lap position.
Feed-Valve Pipe Branch to Excess-Pressure Governor Top.-If it breaks off, plug it toward the feed-valve pipe; the excess-pressure governor top will not then permit the pump to work when the main-reservoir pressure is as high as 45 pounds, while the automatic brake-valve is in release, running, or holding positions; to remedy this, place a blind gasket in the pipe leading from the automatic brake-valve to the chamber under the diaphragm of the excess-pressure top, which completely cuts that governor top out of service; the pump will then be controlled solely by the high-pressure governor top, and will regularly maintain the mainreservoir pressure at the maximum figure. Main-Reservoir Pressure Pipe from Automatic Brake