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Brake Operation. Freight Service and tender brakes promptly release. Then place the independent brake-valve handle in slow-application position and note that red hand of small duplex gauge indicates correct adjustment of the reducing valve; push the handle to quick-application, and then to release, positions to test the return spring, and leave the valve handle in running position.

Before making tests, however, it is advisable to blow out the brake pipe and signal pipe at front of engine and rear of tender, by opening and closing the angle cocks and cut-out cocks a time or two.

ON THE ROAD.

Freight Service.-With long trains the best results are obtained in making service stops by one rather heavy reduction, as experience has proven that light initial reductions are more productive of shocks to the train when, as is most common, there is a difference of braking forces as between the forward and rear portions of the train, due to variance of piston travel, loaded cars ahead and empty ones behind, etc.

To release the train brakes, always use the release position of the automatic brake-valve; leave in that position until assured that all car brakes are released, then move the handle to holding position; when the train has stopped, or if there seems to be no reason for keeping the locomotive brake on any longer, return

the handle to running position. After releasing the train brakes while running, however, and having brought the brake-valve handle back to holding position, leave it there until the tendency toward train stretching is past, and then release the locomotive brake by the running position without danger of the train parting.

After releasing the brakes of a long train, and a few seconds after the automatic brake-valve handle has been returned to running position, move it again to release position for about 5 seconds; this is to insure the permanent release of some of the car brakes that may have started to reapply on account of the drop of brakepipe pressure at the forward end of the train line which always accompanies the return of the brake-valve to running or holding positions after the release of the brakes of a train of some length (this will be noticed by watching the brake-pipe gauge).

Passenger Service.On very long passenger trains, the braking should be done the same as with freight trains, in most respects. In ordinary passenger service, however, there are certain special rules to be observed in operating the E-T brake, as follows: Two application station or service stops should invariably be made, and this method becomes imperative with the original High-Speed Brake. In releasing after the first application, the best results are secured by moving the automatic brake-valve to running position, and thereby

Brake Operation. Passenger Service

releasing the locomotive brake as well as the train brakes; then, the second application will have a smooth and even effect. This is perfectly safe to do with almost any passenger train, as the brake-pipe supply ports through the H-6 brake-valve that are open in running position are as large as the direct-release ports, and the flow of air in the former position is only restricted by the capacity of the feed valve which in the B-6 model is ample for the purpose.

Another good feature of the running-position-release is that the pressure in the brake pipe will not be raised above 70 pounds, and if this is followed by a slight pause of the brake-valve handle in the lap position there will be no brake-pipe overcharge to displace, and the brakes will immediately respond to the second application.

Use of the independent brake-valve should be avoided as far as possible while running with a passenger train, and, if used at all, the greatest care must be exercised in applying and releasing the locomotive brake, to avoid shocks to the train.

General Service.To apply the brakes in emergency, move the handle of the automatic brake-valve quickly to emergency position, and leave it there until the train stops or the danger is past.

When the train and locomotive brakes are applied and it becomes necessary to release the locomotive brake only, it is accomplished by holding the independ

ent brake-valve in the release position until the brakecylinder pressure is partially or completely exhausted, as may be desired, then bring the handle to running position and leave it there. Or, with the train and locomotive brakes applied, if it is desired to increase the braking power of the locomotive, use the application position of the independent brake-valve and return it to running position.

When the automatic brake-valve is in running position an application of the locomotive brake by the independent brake-valve can always be released by simply returning the handle of the latter valve to running position.

Use the independent brake-valve exclusively when without a train; with a train, use it only when absolutely necessary, and then with the greatest care.

Before leaving the engine while doing work about it, or when it is standing at a coal chute or water plug, on the turntable, etc., always leave the independent brake-valve handle in application position.

In case of train parting, or other causes of automatic applications of the brakes, such as a burst hose, use of the conductor's valve, etc., place the handle of the automatic brake-valve in the lap position: this to save the main-reservoir air from blowing away, and to assist the application of the brakes (from an application of this kind the locomotive brake will hold with full

Brake Operation. General Service

power whether the brake-valve is lapped or not; whereas with the No. 5 equipment the locomotive brake could not be applied automatically while the brake-valve was in running position).

In heavy grade service, release position of the automatic brake-valve should always be used. In order to prevent overheating of driving-wheel tires, and to assist the pressure-retaining valves in holding the train while the auxiliary reservoirs are being recharged, it is recommended to work the independent locomotivebrake and the train brakes alternately; this may be done by holding the independent brake-valve in release position while the train brakes are being applied by the automatic brake-valve, and applying the independent brake just before releasing the train brakes.

The independent brake will hold a locomotive with leaky throttle valve, or quite a heavy train on a fairly steep grade after having stopped, if it is solidly applied before the train brakes are released. But remember, always, that when the independent brake is to be relied upon, absolutely, the independent brake-valve must be left in application position, and not be moved back to the position of lap.

When there are two or more locomotives in a train, the double-heading cock must be closed and the handle of the automatic brake-valve carried in running posi

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