An Essay on the Principle of Population: Or, a View of Its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry Into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal Or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions, Том 1
John Murray, Albemarle-Street, 1817 - 507 стор.
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Abyssinia agriculture America appear bers Bruce Captain Cook cattle causes CHAP Charlevoix checks to population China Cimbri consequence considerable considered Cook's Third corn crease cultivation custom deaths Decouv degree destroyed dreadful effect emigration empire extreme famine fertile foundling hospitals frequently Gibbon greater number habits Hist increase Indians industry infanticide inhabitants islands Kalmucks labour land Lettres Edif live lower classes manner marriage marry means of subsistence misery mode mortality nations nature nearly neighbours neral Nootka Sound Norway number of children observes occasion Otaheite Pallas parish pastures perhaps period Perouse plenty plunder polygamy popu poverty prevail preventive check principal probably produce proportion provinces pulation ravages reason Robertson Roman Russ Russian Russian Empire savage says scanty scarcity seems Siberia slaves society soil sufficient Sweden Tacitus Tartars tion Tobolsk torn towns treme tribes Vaud villages Volney wars whole women
Сторінка 4 - The race of plants and the race of animals shrink under this great restrictive law. And the race of man cannot, by any efforts of reason, escape from it.
Сторінка 34 - Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. 3. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery.
Сторінка 133 - Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.
Сторінка 25 - ... there are few states in which there is not a constant effort in the population to increase beyond the means of subsistence. This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of society to distress, and to prevent any great permanent melioration of their condition.
Сторінка 3 - Were the face of the earth, he says, vacant of other plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one kind only ; as, for instance, with fennel : and were it empty of other inhabitants, it might in a few ages be replenished from one nation only ; as, for instance...
Сторінка 23 - Promiscuous intercourse, unnatural passions, violations of the marriage bed, and improper arts to conceal the consequences of irregular connections, are preventive checks that clearly come under the head of vice.
Сторінка 15 - ... half that number. And at the conclusion of the first century, the population would be...
Сторінка 2 - To enter fully into this question, and to enumerate all the causes that have hitherto influenced human improvement, would be much beyond the power of an individual. The principal object of the present essay...
Сторінка 16 - In this supposition no limits whatever are placed to the produce of the earth. It may increase for ever and be greater than any assignable quantity; yet still the power of population being in every period so much superior, the increase of the human species can only be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence by the constant operation of the strong law of necessity, acting as a check upon the greater power.
Сторінка 22 - ... that I here use the term moral in its most confined sense. By moral restraint I would be understood to mean a restraint from marriage from prudential motives, with a conduct strictly moral during the period of this restraint; and I have never intentionally deviated from this sense. When I have wished to consider the restraint from marriage unconnected with its consequences, I have either called it prudential restraint or a part of the preventive check, of which indeed it forms the principal branch.