« НазадПродовжити »
THINGS TO REMEMBER Don't attempt to start the engine with the switch turned off or
without gasoline in the tank. Don't fill the lubricator in the engine, and neglect to lubricate
all other parts of the car. Don't neglect the lubrication of any part of the car. Don't advance the spark when starting the engine. Don't allow the clutch to engage suddenly. Don't apply the brakes suddenly unless absolutely necessary. Don't neglect to inspect the level of the acid in the storage
battery, at least every two weeks, and supply distilled water
if needed. Don't neglect to keep the radiator filled with water, or with a
good anti-freezing solution in cold weather. Don't attempt to shift reverse gear when the car is moving
ahead. Don't attempt to shift from third to second or first gear when
car is running at a high rate of speed. Don't attempt to shift from second to first gear unless the car
is running very slowly. Don't neglect to investigate any unusual sound which may
develop in the car. Don't drive fast or attempt to stop suddenly on wet pavement. Don't neglect to keep the tires properly inflated. Don't release clutch when the throttle is open very wide. Don't let every Tom, Dick and Harry drive your car. Don't let every mechanic, or so-called repair man, make you
·believe that he knows more about the way the car ought to
be built than the manufacturer. Don't use the starter to run the car. The excessive overload
on the battery is very injurious. Don't blame the starter when the engine doesn't start-look in
the gasoline tank. Don't push in starting button when engine is running. Don't forget that using the starter a certain number of times
will exhaust the supply of current in the battery, unless the engine is run sufficiently to recharge it.
Don't allow your car to stand in puddles of oil or water, as
neither one is good for your tires. Remember that the pan, engine and other mechanical parts of
the car should be kept clean. Don't turn corners too fast. While this may seem spectacular,
it is always hard on tires. Never open the throttle too quickly, but give the motor a chance
to pick up gradually. Keep your brakes adjusted. Familiarize yourself with the use of the hand lever brake and
thus be prepared for emergencies. Be sure to release the clutch before shifting gears. Don't accelerate too quickly; this causes the car to jump and
the motor to pound. Examine the car occasionally for loose nuts and bolts. Don't race your engine under any circumstances. Remember that a squeak from the car means oil needed. Never take your car out until you are sure it is properly
lubricated. Be sure your brakes are released before attempting to move car. When you undertake to make any adjustments on your car, be
sure you are right, then go ahead. Never fold the top back when it is wet, as this will cause it to
deteriorate rapidly. Don't let your engine labor going up a steep hill; drop back
to a lower gear if necessary. Don't fail to cover the radiator and hood with a blanket or
robe when the car is left standing in the cold. This keeps much of the heat in the cooling system and facilitates the starting of the motor.
TYPICAL 1917 CONTROL SYSTEMS
Points of Similarity-How to Discover Proper Lever Position-General
Control Hints-Buick-Cadillac Eight-Chalmers-Cole Eight-DortDodge Brothers—Empire-Ford Model “T”—Haynes-Hupmobile Hudson Super Six-Hollier-King Eight-Kissel Kar-Maxwell-Marmon-Mitchell-National-Oakland Model 32-Oakland Model 50% Overland 75—Overland 85-Packard Twin Six-Paige Pierce-ArrowReo-Stearns-Knight-Studebaker-Scripps-Booth-Velie.
It must be evident to the reader that it would be extremely difficult to outline the control systems of all the automobiles at the present time because there are so many different makes which vary from each other in matters of minor detail. Fortunately, practically all cars have almost the same method of controlling the engine speed, changing the gear ratio and controlling the brake and clutch. The steering of all cars is accomplished by means of a hand wheel carried on an inclined steering column in front of the driver. The spark and throttle levers which are used to vary, the engine speed are either carried above the steering wheel, at the top of the column, or are mounted immediately beneath it, one on each side of the steering post. Clutch and brake pedals have the same location in practically all cars.
As a general thing the left pedal actuates the clutch and the right pedal the foot brakes. An additional means of regulating engine speed called the "accelerator" is usually placed close to the brake pedal so that it can be easily operated by the right foot. The gears are shifted by a handle, placed at the center of the car and intended to be operated by the driver's right hand, on most automobiles. As sliding gears, used for changing vehicle speed, are operated on the selective system, there are many cars in which the change speed lever works the same way. The emergency brake actuating handle is almost invariably carried at the side of the gear shift lever, though in some cars, notably the Chevrolet, Dort and Reo, the emergency brakes are operated by a foot pedal placed the same as the service brake pedal of most cars, while the service brake is actuated from the clutch pedal. There are a number of details which differ in the various cars, but these can be easily determined by a little study on the part of the motorist.
How to Discover Proper Lever Position.—In most cars where the spark and throttle levers are placed above the steering wheel, it is usually the function of the shorter one of the two, which is always the upper one, working against the inside of the quadrant, to regulate the spark timing; while the longer one, which works against the outside of the quadrant, and which is the lower lever, regulates the carburetor throttle. In nearly all cars a movement of a longer lever that opens the throttle can be determined by raising the hood and watching the movement of the throttle lever on the carburetor. When the throttle is closed the carburetor throttle lever will rest against a stop screw. The position of the long lever on the steering wheel will then be noted. It will be at one extreme or the other of the quadrant. In most cars the lever is pushed away from the driver to increase the speed of the engine, though in some the movement is directly opposite and the lever is pulled toward the driver. It is general practice to have the spark lever work in the same direction as that controlling the carburetor throttle. The same movement that closes the throttle will retard the spark if the upper lever is used. For example, if the carburetor throttle is fully closed when the lever is near the operator a similar placing of the spark control member will insure a retarded spark.
Most hand brake levers are designed to be worked by a pull, i. e., the brakes are released when the lever is in its extreme forward position and are applied when it is pulled back as far as it can go. There are two systems of shifting the change speed lever. That known as the "cane" shift involves moving the lever without any guiding quadrant. The "gate” shift is the type in which slots are provided in a guiding member to assist