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only two or three minutes. Demountable rims are more expensive than the simpler forms, but the convenience and elimination of time-consuming delay, as well as the saying in labor, more than compensates for the increased cost of equipment.

Numerous forms of demountable rims have been devised, but few have survived the test of time and have received general application. At Fig. 29 a combination of quick-detachable and demountable rims is shown. With this construction the advantages of both types are obtained without disadvantages of any moment, excepting those of cost of equipment. The quick-detachable type of rim makes it possible to change the tires very easily, should this be necessary, and makes for more easy removal for repairing when the damaged tires are restored to their efficient condition. In this form the tire-carrying rim is held on the felloe band by a clamping collar mounted on the stud and forced in place by a nut on the outer end of the stud. The construction is so clearly shown that its advantages will be readily understood.

CHAPTER II

GENERAL STARTING AND DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS Suggestions for Oiling—How Motor Should Be Started—Handling Spark

and Throttle Levers- Why Spark is Advanced-How Greatest Fuel Economy is Secured_Controlling Cars With Friction TransmissionPlanetary Gearset Control–Operating Sliding Gearsets-Stopping the Car-Steering Wheel Position-Conventional Control System—Clutch Actuation Important-Shifting Gears Easily-General Driving Instructions—Rules of the Road and Motoring Courtesies—Things to Remember.

Suggestions for Oiling.–One of the most important points to be observed in connection with gasoline automobile operation is that all parts be oiled regularly. It is not enough to apply lubricant indiscriminately to the various chassis parts, but it must be done systematically and logically to secure the best results and insure the economical use of lubricant. The most important parts are the power plant and transmission system, and the engine is but one point in the car that must be properly oiled at all times to obtain satisfactory results. Some of the running gear parts are relatively unimportant, others demand regular inspection and oiling.

A very comprehensive oiling chart is presented at Fig. 25, this showing practically all of the points on a modern car that require oil as well as giving instructions regarding the character of the lubricant needed and how often it should be applied. af Some of the points are governed by special instructions, these being the clutch, transmission case, timer and rear axle. The points of the clutch which need lubricant vary with the form of the clutch employed. Multiple-disk types which run in oil must t be kept filled up with the proper grade of lubricant. At the other hand, cone and dry plate clutches work better without 59

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any lubricant between the surfaces. When a cone clutch is employed, it is sometimes desirable to soften the leather facings with a little castor oil or neatsfoot oil, if the action is beginning to get hard. A transmission gear case which is moderately tight can be filled with a good grade of steam engine cylinder oil, and real heavy grease should not be used if the transmission shafts run on ball or roller bearings. A heavy cylinder oil will have sufficient viscosity to cushion the teeth of the gears against shock and at the same time it will not be too heavy to flow into the bearings and lubricate them properly.

Neither the transmission case nor the differential case on the rear axle should be filled with the heavy “dope” widely sold, which may contain wood fiber or cork particles to make for more silent gear operation. If gearing is noisy it is either because it is worn or out of adjustment, and the use of nostrums and freak lubricants will not improve their operation. The rear axle differential housing should be filled with a medium, pure petroleum grease as it is possible to get, those having about the consistency of vaseline being the most desirable as lubricants. Light oils should never be used in either the transmission gear case or in the rear axle housing, because these will not stay in place, will leak out and will not have sufficient body to cushion the gear teeth.

The only other point on the chart which needs explanation is lubrication of the timer interior. This should only be oiled when it is a roller contact form, as on Ford cars, and then a few drops of dynamo, magneto or spindle oil applied to the roll and the contact segments once a week is all that is necessary. If the timer is a form using platinum contact points, as on most cars, it does not need any lubricant. Never use graphite grease or any heavy oil in a timer or distributor case because these will not only interfere with regular ignition by short circuiting the current, but they will clog up the timer and prevent the roller establishing proper contact with the segments.

After a car is oiled it is well to go over all the exposed joints with a piece of cloth to remove the accumulation of surplus oil or grease on the outside of the parts, which serves no

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