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and polished surfaces of the other tools have become marred by the edges of the cutting tools.
The roll illustrated has a fair assortment of useful tools of good quality. The outfit consists of three screw drivers, three pairs of pliers, three chisels and one center punch, three drift pins, a set of four files, five wrenches, soldering copper and handle, a file handle, a split pin extractor, small roll of wire solder, one three-cornered scraper, a small tin box containing extra split pins or locking cotters and lock washers, and a ball pein hammer. The wrenches include a set of three double openend spanners, one adjustable monkey wrench and a Stilson or pipe wrench.
A word of caution to motorists who are apt to judge tools merely by the price should be heeded. Many men who are not mechanically informed select even the simpler tools by price rather than quality. As a rule the better quality tools only cost a few cents more and will give satisfactory service during a lifetime, while cheaper ones often cannot endure the work of a single season. Cheap chisels and punches are made of soft, improperly tempered steel; cheap wrenches are made from malleable iron castings, instead of steel drop forgings; low-priced screw drivers have the blades of inferior stock and so flimsily secured in the handle that they will turn on the slightest provocation instead of loosening the screw to which they are applied. The motorist who buys cheap tools is penny wise and pound foolish, and it is better to purchase fewer tools, but good ones, if economy dictates when the purchase is made.
General Supplies. In addition to the tools enumerated there are many miscellaneous appliances that can be carried to advantage. Some of these are necessary only with certain types of cars, and many of the list which follows may be kept at home except when the car is taken on an extended tour which is apt to end at some distance from a convenient base of supplies.
Funnels to fit the water, gasoline and oil containers should be carried, and it is well to use separate funnels for water, oil and gasoline. That used for water should have a spout the full size of the filler opening in the radiator, and it is desirable that it should include a wire gauze screen to filter the water of any particles of foreign matter that might clog the circulating system. The oil funnel should be small, and it can be easily carried by nesting in one of the larger funnels. Sometimes a nest of three funnels may be obtained, one fitting in the other, and the entire set of three takes no more room than one funnel would ordinarily. The gasoline funnel should have a chamois skin through which all fuel would pass when filling the tank. This will remove the water and dirt always present in gasoline and is practical insurance against carburetion troubles.
A collapsible rubber water pail is useful on all types of cars, as it may be used to replenish the supply in the radiator from any wayside source when on the road or to carry water to the car for washing hands after repairs have been made. A small box of some good grease-dissolving hand soap, a clean towel and a piece of toilet soap take so little space that they can be stowed away anywhere, and their value is only apparent when a particularly dirty job of tire replacement or car repairing has been necessary on the road. A hand oil can and an oil syringe are needed to lubricate the various parts, the syringe being especially valuable to force oil at points that would not be easily reached with the hand oiler or that would require more lubricant than could be conveniently supplied by that method. A combination funnel and measure is often carried in place of an oil funnel. The supplies needed to wash the car are shown at Fig. 66.
It is well to carry a gallon can of cylinder oil and a small can of cup grease any time that one is touring away from home when there might be doubt of obtaining the same grade generally used on the car. With the ordinary single-chamber type of gasoline tank it will be found advantageous to carry a spare container holding two gallons of fuel. This occupies but little space and is practical insurance against being stalled by lack of fuel. Extra tungsten bulbs are needed if the car is electrically lighted. A small hand search light is useful in looking at the gasoline level at night or in inspecting various points about the car where the presence of gasoline fumes would make the use of a naked flame dangerous. For more extended working after nightfall, a small portable trouble lamp, which will take its current from the ignition battery, will often demonstrate its worth. A complete set of spark plugs should also be carried.
MOTOR TROUBLES The following suggestions detail in a brief way the causes most apt to produce faulty automobile engine action and outline defective conditions that may be corrected by the motorist. The instructions refer to the Cole Eight car, but apply equally well to any model of other make having battery ignition. The troubles are enumerated under headings denoting easily recognized symptoms of faulty action.
Stopping of Motor
1. Out of gasoline. 2. Disconnected spark plug cable or other loose electrical
connections. 3. Dirty contact points in the distributor or accumulation
of oil or dirt on the under side of distributor cover. 4. Out of engine oil, indicated usually by knocking in the
motor, followed by an abrupt stop. If this occurs, do not attempt to use either the electric starter or hand crank until the motor has been allowed to cool off. Kerosene should be applied to the interior through the pet cocks while the motor is still warm. This usually is a serious matter, and the motor should have the attention of a good mechanic before attempting to put the car into
service again. 5. Can not crank motor. Frozen water pump. Seized motor
bearings or pistons, due to lack of oil. Transmission
engaged. 6. Leaky float in vacuum tank.
Missing of Motor
1. Short-circuited spark plug. Points not adjusted properly. 2. Partially short-circuited or broken terminals. 3. Poor contact between the various ends and clips of wiring. 4. Loss of compression in one or more cylinders. Valves
may be stuck. Valves may need regrinding or reseating. Valve springs may be weak or broken. Cylinder head
gasket blown out. 5. Water in gasoline; the motor runs spasmodically. (This
is the most difficult to separate from other causes and
should be one of the last things looked for.) 6. When motor misses, you may locate the missing cylinder
by opening the priming cock on top of the cylinders, one at a time. A sharp hiss will denote an explosion if accompanied with a flame. After replacing the spark plug in the missing one with a new one, or with one from another cylinder, you will have to determine whether missing is caused by defective plugs or wires leading to same. If the trouble is still continuing, turn over the motor slowly by hand in an endeavor to detect a defect in the compres
sion in the different cylinders. 7. If missing is not due to any of the items mentioned above,
there may be an air leak between the carburetor and intake manifold, or between the manifold and cylinder
block. 8. Wires in the electrical system have been tampered with.
Loss of Power
The motor will not pull on grades or under heavy loads. 1. Loss of compression due to leaky valves. 2. Too rich a mixture through some defect in carburetor,
probably flooding due to grit under float valve. 3. Late ignition. 4. Lack of water in radiator or oil in motor, causing the
motor to run hot. 5. Lack of gasoline. If lack of gasoline through stoppage
of pipe, the motor will spit back through carburetor when
throttle is opened. 6. Poor grade of gasoline, in cold weather, causing too weak
a mixture. 7. Dragging brakes. See that the car can be rolled by hand easily or that it will coast down hill when clutch is released and not slow down. Feel the brake drum with
your hand to determine overheating. 8. Flat tires. 9. Stoppage of the jets in carburetor, due to dirt or sediment
in gasoline. 10. Carbon deposits in combustion chamber. Motor Will Not Start
1. Switch not turned on, or defective contact in switch. 2. Gasoline not turned on, or out of gasoline. 3. Poor grade of gasoline in cold weather, or water in
gasoline. 4. Weak ignition, due to depleted storage battery. 5. If the motor turns over very slowly, your storage battery
has become depleted, due to continuous cranking or prolonged burning of the lamps, with insufficient running of the motor or lack of care in filling battery with distilled water. · If there is good, clean gasoline in the carburetor, and a good spark at the plugs, motor will start if properly
handled. 6. Broken ground wire from battery. Motor Knocks
1. Spark advanced too far. 2. Too rich a mixture. 3. Motor speed too low in pulling on hills or through bad
roads; on direct drive, shift to a lower speed. Loose con
necting rod bearings. (Light knock at high speed.) 4. Crankshaft bearing loose. Heavy pounding at low motor
speeds and under heavy loads. 5. Too much play in valve push rods. (Light tapping sound.) 6. Tapping noise due to improper adjustment.
7. Carbon in cylinders. Water in Radiator Boils
1. Low supply of water.