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23° Fahr. below zero. The proper proportions to be used must be governed, of course, by conditions of locality, but it is better to be safe than sorry, and make the solutions strong enough for the extreme that may be expected.
Oils of various kinds are often used exclusively, as it is obvious that oil and water would not form a very good mix. ture. They are of the character that is often used to lubricate ice-making machinery, and are made especially to withstand low temperatures. The oil will not absorb heat as readily as water, and should only be used where exceptionally good methods of cooling are provided, such as a large radiator, all metal piping and a very positive pump. This oil will attack rubber hose and gaskets, however. It would seem to the writer, from actual experience, that wood alcohol solutions were preferable to others as combining the greatest number of the requirements of a practical anti-freezing compound and being more easily handled.
After due care has been taken with the cooling system to prevent freezing, the next point to observe is the lubrication of the motor. This will depend on the oil system used and the grades of oil which are normally employed. As a general rule, it is well to use a lighter grade in the winter than that utilized during the warmer weather. If the clutch is a multiple-disk member, it should be filled with light oil of as high cold test as it is possible to obtain. If sight-feed glasses and exposed tubing form part of the lubricating system, or the oil tank or mechanical lubricator is carried in an exposed position, it should be remembered that this part should be inspected frequently to make sure that the oiling system is functioning properly.
During cold weather a certain amount of difficulty is always experienced in starting the car, especially when one considers the low grade of gasoline used at the present time. If the motor is provided with compression relief or priming cocks, a small hand oil can should be filled with gasoline and ether mixture, of proportions about half and half, and kept tightly corked to prevent evaporation of the volatile liquids. On a cold morning, when the motor is hard to start, this liquid may be injected into the cylinders through the priming cock, or by removing the spark
plugs if relief cocks are not provided, and the motor will be started without difficulty. During extremely cold weather, if the car is kept in an unheated garage, it is good practice to fill the cooling system with boiling hot water before trying to start. The anti-freezing solution may be saved after it is drawn from the radiator to allow the boiling water to be put in, and after the engine has become heated the water may be drawn out and the cooling solution replaced. Always let the engine run for five minutes before trying to run the car in cold weather. Never start off with the engine cold. Watch the storage battery carefully and make sure it is kept properly charged. . • Maintenance of Body and Upholstery.—Many motorists are at loss to understand the reason for quick deterioration of the brightly varnished surfaces of a motor car body that has been in use for some time. The paint may be blistered or cracked or the finish may be spotted at various points. Bodies that were formerly black will assume a bluish tinge and bright varnish will soon become dull. If the car is an expensive one, the motorist is justified in expecting a degree of finish that will endure; but those who purchase cheaper cars may expect to lose the bright finish after the car has been used for a time. Where cars are manufactured in large quantities, the varnish is often applied before some of the under coats are thoroughly dried, and the result will be a series of blisters. Another result of hasty manu. facture and of putting the car in service soon after painting is spotting. This is produced by dry mud, which extracts some of the oil or gum from the varnish, and may often be caused by actual chemical action of alkaline mud. The mud of city streets, especially at points where there is a great deal of animal traffic, is highly charged with ammonia, and in certain clay or lime districts the mud is very destructive to the varnish luster.
Even when a car has been properly varnished and finished there are many conditions, for which the motorist is directly or indirectly to blame, which will ruin even the highest grade of paint and varnish. For instance, when cars are cleaned at garages, various soaps and washing compounds are used which contain alkaline materials to assist in removing dirt and oil but
Fig. 66.-At Top, Supplies Needed for Washing and Cleaning Cars are
Shown. Method of Washing With Sponge and Hose Illustrated
Below It. which are very destructive to the highly finished, varnished surfaces. Most of the soaps upon the market contain ingredients which have a chemical action on the oils of paint and cause
it to deteriorate. There are soaps which do not damage painted surfaces, but these are usually more costly and require more care and labor to remove the dirt accumulation, so they are not apt to be generally used. The grades of soap that act the quickest in cutting grease are those that will more quickly dull the surfaces of the body.
Some very expert carriage painters go so far as advising that no soap be used on finely varnished surfaces. Some painters advise against dusting off a car and claim that accumulations of this substance should be removed from the surface by washing. It is contended that wiping off the dust will have the effect of scratching the varnished surfaces, and that the best method of removing either dust, dirt or mud is to flush the surfaces with water from a hose. After as much of the dirt has been removed by this method as possible, a sponge may be used, but care must be taken that no grit is permitted to collect beneath the sponge and that the stream of water from the hose be always kept at work ahead of the sponge, as shown at Fig. 66.
If any grease is present on the running gear it should be removed with gasoline or benzine, and, while these substances may deaden the varnished surfaces temporarily, the blemish will not remain if the dull varnish is polished with a clean, soft cloth wet with linseed oil. The finish of many automobiles is ruined by allowing accumulations of oil or asphalt from freshly tarred or oiled roads to remain on the body work. These substances should not be allowed to remain any longer than possible, and if the oil or asphalt has become hardened, it may be dissolved by using naphtha, kerosene, vaseline, or even butter. After the oily accumulations have been dissolved, the car should be very carefully washed to remove all traces of the oily mud or the solvents.
Of course, there are portions of the car where it is difficult to have the paint stay in good condition. The paint is often burned off that part of the hood on a gasoline machine adjacent the exhaust pipe, or on those portions of the hood of a steam car which cover the boiler or burner. Any part of the hood subjected to considerable heat will become discolored after a time, and if
the hood ons of the the hood
the heat is intense the paint will burn and blister. If care is taken to keep the body properly washed by using only the best grade of carriage soap obtainable, and only clean water, sponges and chamois cloths, the body finish will be preserved for a much longer time than if washing is neglected and the mud or dirt allowed to dry on the varnished surfaces. The use of quickacting soaps should be avoided as much as possible, and tar or oil accumulations should be removed as soon as conditions will permit. If a car is kept in a barn or shed housing horses or cattle, or adjacent to a stable, the fumes of ammonia will soon cause a deterioration of the paint and varnish. One should never touch dusty surfaces with the hands or attempt to remove the dust by brushing off with a cloth. As a general rule, an automobile body will need to be gone over every season. The first year that the car is in use the paint should be in good enough condition, if proper attention has been paid to washing, so that a coat of varnish will suffice to restore the body to its pristine brilliancy. A car that has been used more than one season will need both painting and varnishing to make a good job.
The matter of cleaning and caring for tops and upholstery is also one that should be considered to some extent. Mohair or leather tops are usually fitted to high-grade cars; mohair or special fabric materials to medium-priced cars, and imitation leather or mohair substitute on the cheaper cars. In cleaning mohair tops, it is necessary to remove not only dust and dirt, but particles of grease or oily matter thrown up against it by the wheels from either the road surface or portions of the mechanism. Dust should be removed with a moist sponge, while grease or oil stains can be taken off by a sponge and good soapsuds. Leather and imitation leather tops should be treated with some form of preservative. Some dressings may be purchased all ready mixed and may be applied by the motorist himself. Others may be prepared at very little expense. Shabby leather may be made to look brighter by rubbing over the surface with either linseed oil or the well-beaten white of an egg mixed with a little black ink. Before applying any type of dressing, it is advised to go over the surface with neatsfoot oil until it has