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is provided on this car because an automatic spark advance is incorporated in the ignition timer-distributor. In starting this car, evidently there is only one engine control lever to set. The hand throttle does not describe a horizontal arc as in the other systems outlined, but instead is moved over a vertical arc when it opens the throttle. The usual strangler plunger or carburetor

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choke is provided on the cowl board to facilitate starting in cold weather. The ignition switch is placed in the approximate center of the cowl between the speedometer and the oil gage. The steps for starting this car are just the same as recommended for any electrically started machine. The starting switch is operated by a push button that can be easily actuated by the driver's heel.

Velie.—The control parts of the Velie Model 22 are shown at Fig. 65. The clutch and brake pedals are capable of being adjusted to meet the needs of any driver. An electric horn button is located in the center of the steering wheel, as is quite general practice; and but one hand control lever, the throttle, is necessary, as the usual spark control lever is not required because the time of ignition is controlled by a governor and automatically advances or retards as the speed of the motor varies. When the motor is at rest, the spark will always be retarded. As the motor speed is increased by the hand throttle lever, or by the foot accelerator which supplements it, spark timing is advanced to that point best suited for the engine speed. The cowl board is inclined in order that the instruments may be easily read by the driver. From left to right, their order is as follows: carburetor air adjustment and air cutoff, and double switch controlling any combination of lights, ignition and reversing polarity. A single key fits both switches. The indispensable ampere meter and a magnetic speedometer complete the assembly. The starting motor is operated by a simple push button located on the lower dash, where it can be conveniently reached with the foot. The conventional "cane" shift is employed for engaging the various speed ratios.

CHAPTER IV

CARE OF AUTOMOBILES

Winter Care of Automobiles—Anti-Freezing Solutions—Maintenance of

Body Finish, Tops and Upholstery—Care of Storage Battery-Tools and Repair Equipment - General Supplies - Motor Troubles — Road Repair of Tires-Extricating a Mired Automobile.

Winter Care of Automobiles.—While motoring throughout the entire year is not unusual, many owners of cars, especially in those portions of the country where the winter climate is exceptionally severe, put up their car for a period. If the car is to be kept in service, the most important thing to do is to provide some good anti-freezing compound in order to prevent the water in the radiator and cylinders from congealing. There is some difference of opinion regarding the best solution to use to prevent cracked water jackets and burst radiators. Before we attempt to answer the questions often asked regarding the best anti-freezing compound, it will be well to consider the requirements of such compounds. To begin with, it should have no deleterious effects on the metals or rubber used in the circulating system. It must be easily dissolved or combined with water, should be reasonably cheap and not subject to waste by evaporation, and be of such character that it will not deposit foreign matter in the pipes. The boiling point should be higher than that of water to prevent boiling away of the solution at comparatively low temperature.

Solutions of calcium chloride were formerly very popular with motorists, and the writer will first discuss the use of this substance. The freezing point of the solution depends upon the proportions of the salt to the water. An important factor to be considered is that if the parts of the circulation system are composed of different metals there is liable to be a certain electrolytic action between the salt and the dissimilar metals at the points of juncture, a certain corrosion taking place, and the intensity of this corrosive effect is only dependent upon the strength of the solution. As calcium chloride is derived from hydrochloric acid, which has a very strong effect on metals, and as there may be particles of free acid in the solution, a certain undesirable corrosive action may take place unless the salt is reasonably pure.

In using calcium chloride when compounding an anti-freezing solution, care must be taken that commercially pure salt is employed, as the cruder grades will liberate a larger percentage of free acid. The mistake should not be made of using chloride of lime, which has much the same appearance, but whose corrosive action is very great. Galvanized iron tanks and cast aluminum water manifolds and pump casings prohibit the use of this salt, as its destructive action is great on these metals.

It is well to test a solution of calcium chloride for acid before placing in the radiator. A piece of blue litmus paper may be obtained at any drug store and immersed in the solution. If the paper turns red it is a sign that there is acid present. Acid may be neutralized by the addition of a small quantity of slaked lime. The solutions may be made in these proportions:

Two pounds of salt to the gallon of water will freeze at 18° Fahr.

Three pounds of salt to the gallon of water will freeze at 1 5/10° Fahr.

Four pounds of salt to the gallon will freeze at 17° Fahr. below zero.

Five pounds of salt to the gallon will freeze at 39° Fahr. below zero.

It must be remembered that the more salt to the solution, the greater the electrolytic effect, and the greater the liability of the deposit of salt crystals, which may obstruct the free flow of the liquid.

Glycerin is usually considered quite favorably, but it has disadvantages. It often contains free acid, though the action on metals will be imperceptible in average solutions. While it does not attack metal piping to any extent, it is sure destruction to rubber hose, and should not be used in a car in which part of the circulation system piping is of rubber. Glycerin is expensive and it is liable to decompose under the influence of heat, and proportions added to the water must be higher than that of some other substances.

Denatured alcohol is without doubt the best substance to use, as it does not have any destructive action on the metals or rubber hose, will not form deposits of foreign matter and has no electrolytic effect. A solution of 60 per cent water and 40 per cent alcohol will stand 25° below zero without freezing. The chief disadvantage to its use is that it evaporates easily and its boiling point is quite low. Alcohol volatilizes more rapidly than water and the solution is liable to become too light, as proportions of alcohol to water are concerned. The percentage required is shown in the following:

Water, 95 per cent; alcohol, 5 per cent; freeze at 25° Fahr. Water, 85 per cent; alcohol, 15 per cent; freeze at 11° Fahr. Water, 80 per cent; alcohol, 20 per cent; freeze at 5° Fahr. Water, 70 per cent; alcohol, 30 per cent; freeze at 9° Fahr. below zero. Water, 65 per cent; alcohol, 35 per cent; freeze at 16° Fahr. below zero.

Various mixtures have been tried of alcohol, glycerin and water and good results obtained. The addition of glycerin to a water-alcohol solution reduces liability of evaporation to a large extent, and when glycerin is used in such proportions it is not liable to damage the rubber hose. The proportions recommended are a solution of half glycerin, half alcohol, to water. The glycerin in such a solution will remain practically the same, not being subject to evaporation, and water and alcohol must be supplied if the amount of solution in radiator is not enough. The freezing temperatures of such solutions of varying proportions are as follows: Water, 85 per cent; alcohol and glycerin, 15 per cent; freeze at 20° Fahr. Water, 75 per cent; alcohol and glycerin, 25 per cent; freeze at 8° Fahr. Water, 70 per cent; alcohol and glycerin, 30 per cent; freeze at 5° Fahr. below zero. Water, 60 per cent; alcohol and glycerin, 40 per cent; freeze at

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