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or guide segment, though its positions for obtaining the different speeds are just the same. The placing of the spark and throttle lever and the location of the switch box on the side of the steering post are just the same as in the smaller model. The cowl board assembly is simplified by the elimination of the filler cap that projects through on the smaller model. The gasoline tank is carried at the rear on the larger Overland cars and a vacuum fuel feed system is used.

Packard Twin Six.—A very interesting and somewhat unusual sectional view of the Packard Twin Six car, shown at Fig. 58, outlines the various parts of the transmission and control system, as well as important parts of the mechanism and body. In this the change speed and emergency brake levers are mounted at the extreme left of the car, and not in the center, as is usual practice. Spark and gas control levers are mounted above the steering wheel on the steering column, and the control board and switch are attached to the column below the wheel and braced to the cowl board. As the fuel supply is by pressure feed, an air pump for pumping up pressure in the tank after the car has been standing for a time is also attached to the steering column. Preliminary to starting the motor the first step is to put the change speed lever in neutral position and to set the hand brake by pulling it back toward the driver. The hand throttle lever on the steering wheel which regulates the carburetor throttle is opened about one sixth. The auxiliary air valve hand wheel, which is a part of the control group, is turned toward Gas, indicated below it. In cold weather, or with a cold motor, turn the hand wheel all the way around to Choke. If the car has been standing for some time, use the hand pump to obtain initial pressure on the gasoline tank. Of course, as soon as the engine starts a power driven pump will maintain the required pressure automatically. Set the spark lever at mid-position. Crank the motor by pressing down on the starting button, convenient to the operator's heel. After the motor starts, turn the air valve wheel toward Air and set at the point at which the motor runs best. Close the throttle until the motor runs slowly. The left pedal actuates the clutch, that on the right the service brake.


Fig. 58.—Sectional View of Packard Twin Six Chassis, Showing Power Generating, Speed Changing and

Power Transmission Parts.

The spark lever should be advanced half way or more before attempting to start the car. To obtain low speed, the change speed lever is moved laterally inboard, or toward the right, then straight back. To obtain second speed, move the lever outboard, or to the left, and straight ahead. To obtain the third speed,

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pull the lever back in the outboard position. The reverse gearing is engaged in the forward inboard position.

Pierce Arrow.—The control system parts of the Pierce Arrow automobile are clearly shown in the illustrations at Fig. 60. Inasmuch as all of the parts are designated by letters, and a suitable key provided, it will not be necessary to explain the parts or their functions in detail. The instructions that have been previously given for setting the spark and throttle levers, putting the gear shift lever in neutral position and locking the emergency brake apply just as well to this car. If the car has


Fig. 60.—Dash Assembly, Engine Speed Control and Gear Shift Lever of Pierce Arrow Cars.

been standing for a time it will be desirable to pump up pressure with the hand pressure pump handle V. For starting, the spark and throttle levers are placed as shown in the inset. The ignition switch is put into action by unlocking it with the special key provided for the purpose and then setting the starting switch handle Y on the switch position indicated by the letter

There are four possible positions of the switch handle, the one marked B indicating “battery ignition"; the one marked M, at the other side of the switch, putting on the magneto ignition; the position O means that the switch is off, while the letters M,B show that both ignition systems are in use. Pressing on the starting button U should bring the electric starting motor into action and turn the engine over, The Pierce Arrow cars are provided with a four-speed sliding gear transmission, so that the control system is somewhat different than in the simpler three-speed shifts. The change speed lever is guided by an unusual form of H-slot segment having one long slot and a shorter one. To obtain the reverse speed, the gear shift lever is moved from its neutral position and to the extreme end of the longer slot, in the position indicated as reverse in the large detail view of the levers. It is necessary to pass through the first speed before the lever will go into reverse. There are three possible positions for the gear shift lever in the long slot. The extreme forward position gives reverse; that just ahead of the neutral notch gives first speed, and that at the back of the sector gives second speed. The third speed forward is obtained at the forward end of the short slot, and the high speed at the back end.

Reo.—The control system of the Reo cars is very simple and but one hand lever is used. As will be seen by reference to Fig. 61, the clutch pedal will release the clutch when moved about half way of its possible travel. Further movement applies the service brake. The brake pedal is provided with a latch so that it may be locked at any desired point and the car held from moving by virtue of the emergency brake. The usual spark and throttle levers are carried above the steering column. The lighting switch is at the left side of the steering post, immediately below the hand wheel, while the ignition switch is on the

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