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Fig. 41.—Dodge Brothers Motor Car Control System.

Dodge Bros. car, as given at Fig. 41, follow conventional practice for the most part. In this the spark and throttle levers are carried below the steering wheel and at the right side of the steering column. The top lever controls the throttle and the lower one the spark. A combination ignition and lighting switch

is placed at the extreme left of the cowl board and immediately below it is the carburetor “choke” control. The instructions previously given for starting the other cars apply just as well to this one. The spark is retarded when the short lever on the steering column is pulled as far back toward the operator as it will go. The throttle lever is in the closed position when it is at the retard end of the sector. The gear shift lever is moved


Fig. 42.—Control Group and Dash Assembly of the Empire Model 60.

to the left and forward to obtain the slow speed, and to the left and back for reverse; moving it over to the right and pulling it back gives the intermediate speed, while moving to the right and forward engages the direct drive gears.

Empire.—The driver's compartment of the Empire Model 60 is clearly outlined at Fig. 42, this being lettered to show the various parts of the control system very clearly. In this car the spark and throttle levers are carried above the steering wheel and at the top of the steering column. The lighting switch is placed at the extreme left of the cowl board. The first member to the right of the steering column on the cowl board is the ignition switch, this being followed by the ampere meter, dash lamp, oil gage and the speedometer. The latter is at the extreme right. In this car the spark and throttle levers are moved away from the driver to advance the spark and open the throttle. Before starting the motor, the hand throttle and spark levers on the steering wheel should be set about one third of the way up. Next unlock the ignition switch and push in the left-hand button. Pull out the air regulator plunger and press the starting button as far as possible. The starting button is placed in the center of the dash, just above the floor boards. After releasing the clutch, the control lever should be shifted to the left with the right hand and pulled back. This engages the slow speed. Sometimes it happens that the gears in the gear box are so lined up that they will not mesh. If there is any difficulty in securing proper engagement, push the control lever back into neutral position, let the clutch back in and allow the motor to turn for a few seconds. Repeat the operation as before, throwing out the clutch pedal and pulling the gear shift lever over to the left and then back. To change the second speed, push the control lever to the right, after passing through neutral, and then as far forward as possible. The high speed is on the same side as the intermediate and opposite it. Similarly, the reverse is opposite the low speed and on the same side.

Ford Model T.-The Ford car is one of the most popular of the moderate-priced automobiles, and over 1,000,000 of the Model T are now on the road. The control system of this car

is extremely simple, and yet it is different from that of any other automobile. The gearset, which is found only on this car, is a planetary type which gives two forward speeds and a reverse motion. The conventional form of steering wheel is used to control the direction of car travel, and spark and throttle levers are mounted on the steering column beneath the wheel to control


· Fig. 43.-The Distinctive Control System of the Ford Planetary

Transmission Used on Model T Cars.

the speed of the power plant. No accelerator pedal is ordinarily provided. It is in the method of obtaining the various speed ratios that the control system is distinctive. As will be seen by referring to Fig. 43, three pedals and a hand lever are pro. vided on the left side of the car. The pedal on the extreme left is used to control the high and low speed clutches and is marked C. That next to it, which is marked R, is used to constrict the reverse band of the transmission and obtain reverse

motion. The pedal at the right, which is provided with a letter B cast on its surface, is used to apply the foot brake.

The hand lever engages the high speed or direct drive clutch when thrown forward, and when pulled back it actuates the emergency brake. An interlocking connection is provided so the emergency brake cannot be applied without releasing the direct drive clutch. The lever may be set in a neutral position and the clutch will be released without applying the brake when it is approximately vertical. When the high speed is in and the hand lever is thrown way forward, the high-speed clutch may be released by a light pressure on pedal C, and a further movement of this pedal will apply the low speed. Thus one pedal gives control of both high and low speeds forward, and the clutch can be released in exactly the same manner as that of a sliding gear car when it is desired to slow up, such as for turning a corner, descending a hill or passing another vehicle.

Before starting the car the hand lever must be in a vertical position, this releasing the clutch and applying the emergency brakes. To start the car, after the engine has been started in the usual manner, the foot is placed on the clutch pedal to keep it in a neutral position, while the hand lever is thrown as far forward as it will go. The engine is then accelerated and the clutch pedal is pushed forward until the slow-speed band tightens around the drum of the transmission and the car gathers headway on the lower ratio. After it has attained a certain momentum, the clutch pedal is allowed to drop back gradually into the high-speed position. The foot may then be removed until such times that the clutch must be disconnected. Before applying the foot brake, which is done by pressing with the right foot upon the pedal marked B, the clutch pedal should be put in neutral position with the left foot.

To reverse the car, it must be brought to a standstill. The engine is kept running and the clutch is disengaged with the hand lever, which is placed in the neutral position but not pulled far enough back to apply the emergency brake. The reverse pedal, marked R, is then pushed forward with the left foot, leaving the right one free to use on the brake pedal as needed.

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