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writer of this (the parish priest) has seen ferent apartments, till the vapour from foe fifty of the inhabitants assembled there, burning branches condenses into opaque on the first day of the year, dancing by clouds, and coughing, sneezing, wheezing, moonlight, with no other music than gasping, and other demonstrations of suftheir own singing."
The operator, aware that In Mr«Stewart's “ Popular Superstitions the more intense the" smuchdan,” the of the Highlands," there is some account more propitious the solemnity, disregards of the Candlemas but, on new year's these indications, and continues, with eve, as introductory to the new year. streaming eyes and averted head, to inThe term Candlemas, applied to this sea crease the fumigation, until in his own son, is supposed to have originated in defence he admits the air to recover the some old religious ceremonies performed exhausted household and himself. He by candlelight. The Bull is a passing then treats the horses, cattle, and other cloud, which Highland imagination per- bestial stock in the town with the same verts into the form of that animal; as it smothering, to keep them from harm rises or falls or takes peculiar directions, throughout the year. When the gudeof great significancy to the seers, so does wife gets up, and having ceased from it prognosticate good or bad weather. The coughing, has gained sufficient strength more northern nations anciently assigned to reach the bottle dhu, she adıninisters portentous qualities to the winds of new its comfort to the relief of the sufferers : year's eve. One of their old legends in laughter takes place of complaint, all the Brand may be thus versified-the last line family get up, wash their faces, and reeking out the verse:
ceive the visits of their neighbours, who If New Year's eve night-wind blow south,
arrive full of gratulations peculiar to the It betokeneth warmth and growth;
day. Mu nase choil orst, “My CandleIf west, much milk, and fish in the sea;
mas bond upon you
is the customary If north, much cold, and storms there will be ; salutation, and means, in plain words, If east, the trees will bear much fruit
“ You owe me a new year's gift.” A If north-east, flee it man and brute.
point of great emulation is, who shall Mr. Stewart says, that as soon as night salute the other first; because the one sets in it is the signal with the Strath- who does so is entitled to a gift from the down highlander for the suspension of his person saluted. Breakfast, consisting of usual employment, and he directs his at- all procurable luxuries, is then served, the tention to more agreeable callings. The neighbours not engaged are invited to men form into bands with tethers and partake, and the day ends in festivity. axes, and, shaping their course to the Riding stang, a custom that will be juniper bushes, they return home laden observed on hereafter, prevails in some with mighty loads, which are arranged parts of England on new year's day to round the fire to-day till morning. A cer the present hour.
The “ stang tain discreet person is despatched to the cowl-staff; the cowl is a water-vessel, dead and living ford to draw a pitcher of borne by two persons on the cowl-staff, water in profound silence, without the which is a stout pole whereon the vessel vessel touching the ground, lest its virtue hangs. " Where's the cowl-staff ?" cries should be destroyed, and on his return all Ford's wife, when she purposes to get retire to rest. Early on new year's morn Falstaff into a large buck-basket, with two ing the Usque-Cashrichd, or water from handles; the cowl-staff
, or stang,” is the dead and living ford, is drank, as a produced, and, being passed through the potent charm, until next new year's day, handles,the fat knight is borne off by two of against the spells of witchcraft, the malig- Ford's men. A writer in the Gentleman s nity of evil eyes, and the activity of all Magazine, 1791, says, that in Westmoreinfernal agency. The qualified highlander land and Cumberland, on the 1st of Jathen takes a large brush, with which he nuary, multitudes assemble early in the profusely asperses the occupants of all morning with baskets and stangs," and beds; from whom it is not unusual for whoever does not join them, whether him to receive ungrateful remonstrances inhabitant or stranger, is immediately against ablution. This ended, and the mounted across the “ stang,” and carried, doors and windows being thorcughly shoulder height, to the next public-house, closed, and all crevices stopped, he kindles where sixpence liberates the prisoner, piles of the collected juniper, in the dif- Woinen are seized in this way, and car
ried in baskets—the sex being privileged large amount, and the fancy articles ex. from riding“ stang,” in compliment, per- ported in the first week in the year to haps, to the use of side-saddles. In the England and other countries, is computed same part of the country, no one is al at one-fourth of the sale during the twelve lowed to work on new year's day, how- months. In Paris it is by no means únever industrious. Mr. Ellis shows that it common for a man of 8,000 or 10,000 was a new year's day custom in ancient francs a year to make presents on new Rome for tradesmen to work a little only, year's day which cost him a fifteenth part for luck's sake, that they might have con of his income. No person able to give stant business all the year after.
must on this day pay a visit empty-handed. A communication in an English journal Every body accepts, and every man gives of January 1824 relates, that in Paris on according to the means which he possesses. new year's day, which is called le jour Females alone are excepted from the charge d'étrennes, parents bestow portions on of giving. A pretty woman, respectably their children, brothers on their sisters, connected, may reckon her new year's preand husbands make presents to their wives. sents at something considerable. Gowns, Carriages may be seen rolling through the jewellery, gloves, stockings, and artificial streets with cargoes of bon-bons, souvenirs, flowers, fill her drawing-room; for in Paris and the variety of et cæteras with which it is a custom to display all the gifts, in little children and grown-up children are order to excite emulation, and to obtain bribed into good humour; and here and as much as possible. At the palace the there pastrycooks are to be met with, car new year's day is a complete jour de rying upon boards enormous temples, pa- fête. Every branch of the royal family is godas, churches, and playhouses, made of then expected to make handsome presents fine flour and sugar, and the embellish- to the king. For the six months preceding ments which render French pastry so in- January 1824, the female branches were viting. But there is one street in Paris busily occupied in preparing presents of to which a new year's day is a whole their own manufacture, which would fill year's fortune—this is the Rue des Lom- at least two common-sized waggons. The bards, where the wholesale confectioners duchess de Berri painted an entire room reside; for in Paris every trade and pro- of japanned pannels, to be set up in the fession has its peculiar quarter. For se- palace; and the duchess of Orleans preveral days preceding the 1st of January, pared an elegant screen. An English this street is completely blocked up by gentleman who was admitted suddenly carts and waggons laden with cases of into the presence of the duchess de Berri sweetmeats for the provinces. These are of two months before, found her, and three every form and description which the most of her maids of honour, lying on the carsingular fancy could imagine; bunches of pet, painting the legs of a set of chairs, carrots, green peas, boots and shoes, lob- which were intended for the king. The sters and crabs, hats, books, musical in- day commences with the Parisians, at an struments, gridirons, frying-pans, and early hour, by the interchange of their saucepans; all made of sugar, and co visits and bon-bons. The nearest relations loured to imitate reality, and all made are visited first, until the furthest in blood with a hollow within to hold the bon-bons. have had their calls; then friends and acThe most prevailing device is what is quaintances. The conflict to anticipate called a cornet, that is, a little cone orna each other's calls, occasions the most agreemented in different ways with a bag to able and whimsical scenes among these draw over the large end, and close it up. proficients in polite attentions. In these In these things, the prices of which vary visits, and in gossiping at the confecfrom one franc (tenpence) to fifty, the tioners' shops, which are the great lounge bon-bons are presented by those who for the occasion, the morning of new choose to be at the expense of them, and by year's day is passed; a dinner is given those who do not, they are only wrapped by some member of the family to all the in a piece of paper; but bon-bons in some rest, and the evening concludes, like way or other must be presented. It would Christmas day, with cards, dancing, or not, perhaps, be an exaggeration to state any other amusement that may be prethat the amount expended for presents on
ferred. One of the chief attractions to a new year's day in Paris, for sweetmeats foreigner in Paris is the exhibition, which alone, exceeds 500,000 francs, or 20,000l. opens there on new year's day, of the sterling. Jen ellery is also sold to a very finest specimens of the Sevres china manu.
factured at the royal establishment in the good year. In the hilarity of the season neighbourhood of Versailles during the let him not forget that to the needy it is preceding year.
a season of discomfort. Undoubtedly, new year's gifts originated in heathen observances, and were
There is a satisfaction grossly abused in after ages ; yet latterly
In doing a good action : they became a rational and pleasant mode and he who devises liberal things will of conveying our gentle dispositions to find his liberality return to him in a full wards those we esteein. Mr. Audley, in tide of happiness. An economist can his compendious and useful “ Companion afford to be generous.“ Give me neither to the Almanack," says, with truth, that poverty nor riches," prayed the wise man. they are innocent, if not praiseworthy; To him who is neither encumbered by and he quotes this amiable sentiment from wealth, nor dispirited by indigence, the Bourne: “If I send a new year's gift stores of enjoyment are unlocked. to my friend, it shall be a token of my friendship; if to my benefactor, a token
He who holds fast the Golden Mean, of my gratitude ; if to the
And lives contentedly between
The little and the great, this season must never be forgot, it shall Feels not the wants that pinch the poor, be to make their hearts sing for joy, and
Nor plagues that haunt the rich man's door, give praise an adoration to the Giver of
Embitt'ring all his state. all good gifts." The Jews on the first day of their new year give-sumptuous enter
The tallest pines feel most the pow'r tainments, and joyfully wish each other
Of wintry blasts ; the loftiest tow'r
Comes heaviest to the ground; “ a happy new year.”
The bolts that spare the mountain's side is not yet obsolete even with us; but the
His cloud-capt eminence divide, new year's gift seldom arrives, except to And spread the ruin round. honest rustics from their equals; it is scarcely remembered with a view to its
The well-inform’d philosopher use but by young persons, who, “unvexed
Rejoices with a wholesome fear,
And hopes, in spite of pain; with all the cares of gain," have read or
If Winter bellow from the North, heard tell of such things, and who, with
Soon the sweet Spring comes dancing innocent hearts, feeling the kindness of And Nature laughs again. the sentiment, keep up the good old cus
If hindrances obstruct thy way, tom among one another, till mixture with the world, and “ long experience, makes
Thy magnanimity display,
And let thy strength be seen; them sage," and sordid.
But oh! if fortune fill thy sail New year's day in London is not ob With more than a propitious gale, served by any public festivity ; but little Take half thy canvass iu. social dining parties are frequently formed
Cowper. . amongst friends; and convivial persons
CHRONOLOGY. may be found at taverns, and in publicans' parlours, regaling on the occasion. Dr 1308. On the 1st of January in this Forster relates, in his “ Perennial Calen- year, William Tell, the Swiss patriot, asdar,” that many people make a point to sociated himself on this day with a band wear some new clothes on this day, and of his countrymen, against the tyranny of esteem the omission as unlucky: the their oppressors. For upwards of three practice, however, from such motives, centuries the opposition was carried on, must obviously be confined to the unin- and terminated by the treaty of Westformed. The only open demonstration phalia in 1648, declaring the independof joy in the metropolis, is the ringing of ence of Switzerland. merry peals from the belfries of the nu 1651. On the 1st of January Charles II. merous steeples, late on the eve of the was crowned at Scone king of the Scots. new year, and until after the chimes of Charles, when a child, was weak in the the clock have sounded its last hour. legs, and ordered to wear steel - boots.
On new year's day the man of business Their weight so annoyed him that he Spens new account-books. “A good be- pined till recreation became labour. An ginning makes a good ending." Let every old rocker took off the steel-boots, and man open an account to himself; and concealed them; promising the countess 30 begin the new year that he may expect of Dorset, who was Charles's governess, 'n say at its termination—it has been a that she would take any blame for the act
on herself. Soon afterwards the king, in. “It is very cold this morning, is it Charles I., coming into the nursery, and not ?'--Very cold, sir.' Very cold seeing his boy's legs without the boots, indeed, isn't it?'- Very cold 'indeed, angrily demanded who had done it? “ It sir.'— More than usually so, isn't it, was I, sir," said the rocker, “ who had even for this weather? (Here the serthe honour, some thirty years since, to at- vant's wit and good nature are put to a tend on your highness, in your infancy, considerable test, and the inquirer lies on when you had the same infirmity where- thorns for the answer.) “Why, Sir ... with now the prince, your very own son . I think it is.' (Good creature! There is troubled ; and then the lady Cary, is uot a better, or more truth-telling ser(afterwards countess of Monmouth) com vant going.) 'I must rise, howevermanded your steel-boots to be taken off, Get me some warm water.'—Here comes who, blessed be God, since have gathered a fine interval between the departure of strength, and arrived at a good stature." the servant and the arrival of the hot Clare, chaplain to Charles II., at the time water; during which, of course, it is of the affair happened, related this anecdote 'no use' to get up
The hot water to old Fuller, who in 1660, contemplating comes. • Is it quite hot ?'-'Yes, sir.' “ the restoration," tells the story, and — Perhaps too hot for shaving : I must quaintly exclaims, “ the nation is too wait a little ? —No, sir; it will just do.' noble, when his majesty shall return from (There is an over-nice propriety someforeign parts, to inipose any other steel tiines, an officious zeal of virtue, a little boots upon him, than the observing the troublesome.)
• Oh — the shirt — you laws of the land, which are his own stock- must air my clean shirt :_linen gets very ings, that so with joy and comfort he may damp this weather.'— Yes, sir. Here enter on what was his own inheritance." another delicious five minutes. A knock The nation forgot the “steel-boots,” and at the door. "Oh, the shirt—very well. Charles forgot the “ stockings.'
My stockings I think the stockings had 1801. January 1. The Union of Great better be aired too.'— Very well, sir.' Britain with Ireland commenced accord- -Here another interval. At length every ing to act of parliament, and the event thing is ready, except myself. I now was solemnized by the hoisting of a cannot help thinking a good deal-who new royal Aag on the Tower of London, can ?-upon the unnecessary and villainaccompanied by the firing of guns there ous custom of shaving; it is a thing so and in St. James's Park. On the 3d the unmanly (here I nestle closer)-so effeking received the great seal of Great minate, (here I recoil from an unlucky step Britain from the lord chancellor, and into the colder part of the bed.)-No woncausing it to be defaced, presented to him der, that the queen of France. took part a new great seal for the United Kingdom. with the rebels against that degenerate On the same day, January 1st, 1801, king, her husband, who first affronted her Piazzi, the astronomer at Palermo, dis- sinooth visage with a face like her own. covered a new primary planet, making an The emperor Julian never showed the eleventh of that order: he called it Ceres, luxuriancy of his genius to better advanfrom the goddess of that name, who was tage thar: in reviving the flowing beard. highly esteemed by the ancients of Sicily. Look at cardinal Bembo's picture-at
Michael Angelo's—at Titian's—at Shak: speare's—at Fletcher's—at Spenser'smat
Chaucer's--at Alfred's-at Plato's. 1 Usually at this period the rigour of cold could name a great man for every tick of is severely felt. The indisposition of lie-a- my watch. Look at the Turks, a grave beds to face its severity is pleasantly pic- and otiose people-Think of Haroun Al tured by Mr.Leigh Hunt, in a paper in the Raschid and Bed-ridden Hassan—Think Indicator. He imagines one of those of Wortley. Montague, the worthy son of persons to express himself in these terms: his mother, a man above the prejudice or
“On opening my eyes, the first thing his time-Look at the Persian gentlemen, that meets them is my own breath rolling whom one is ashamed of meeting abou forth, as if in the open air, like smoke out the suburbs, their dress and appearance of a cottage-chimney. Think of this are so much finer than our own-Lastly, symptomn. Then I turn my eyes side- think of the razor itself-how totally opways and see the window all frozen over. posed to every sensation of bed-how Think of that. Then the servant comes cold, how edgy, how hard ! how utterly
different from any thing like the warm may help you to cut yourself, a quivering and circling amplitude, which
body, a frozen towel, and an ewer full of Sweetly recoinmends itself ice; and he that says there is nothing to Unto our gentle senses.
oppose in all this, only shows, at any rate, Add to this, benuinbed fingers, which that he has no merit in opposing it."
Gymnastics for Youth. This engraving represents simple me- plates to his work, for teaching which thods by which, at this season especially, his explanations are numerous and clear. the health of young persons may be maintained, and the constitution invigorated. Two round parallel bars at two An unseasonable occurrence in the feet distance from each other, on round cellar of the late sir Joseph Banks may be standards three or four feet high, firmly acceptable in the mention, and excite fixed in the ground, will afford boys the particular sympathy in persons who reineans of actively exerting their limbs and create with the juice of the vine: as a fact, muscles : and if the ends of a pole be let it may tend to elucidate the origin and into opposite walls or fastened to trees, nature of vegetable fungi, particularly of the boys may be taught to climb single that species termed mushroom. The ropes, and hold on while swinging by worthy baronet had a cask of wine rather them. The engraving is placed before too sweet for immediate use; he therefore the eyes of parents and teachers with the directed that it should be placed in a celhope of directing their attention to gym- lar, in order that the saccharine matter it nastic exercises, as diversions for youth, contained might be more perfectly decomand they are referred to a practical trea- posed by age. At the end of three years, he tise on the subject by Mr. Clias, that may directed his butler to ascertain the state of be safely used. His judicious reasoning the wine, when, on attempting to open the must convince every reader of their im- cellar door, he could not effect it, in conseportance to the rising generation, and quence of some powerful obstacle. The that it is within the means of all classes door was cut down, and the cellar found of persons to let boys acquire a know- to be completely filled with a firm fungous ledge of the feats represented in the vegetable production—so firm that it was