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wickedness, and finishes a lasting mořument to his infamy. 'The mischiefs done by him in that unhappy country, during the three years of his iniquitous administration, are such, thal many years, under the wisest and best of prætors, will not be sufficient to restore things to the condition in which he found them: for it is notorious, that, during the time of his tyranny, the Sicilians neither enjoyed the protection of their own ori. ginal laws ; of the regulations made for their benefit by the Roman senate, upon their coming under the protection of the commonwealth ; nor of the natural and unalienable rights of nien. His nod has decided all causes in Sicily for these three years. And his decisions have broken all law, all precedent. all right. The sums he has, by arbitrary taxes and unheard-of iinpositions, extorted from the industrious poor, are not to be computed. The most faithful allies of the commonwealth have been treated as enemies. Roman citizens have, like slaves, been put to death by tortures. The most atrocious criminals, for money, have been exempted from the deserved punishments; and men of the most unexceptionable charac. ters, condemned and banished unheard. The harbours, though sufficiently fortitied, and the gates of strong towns, have been opened to pirates and ravagers. The soldiery and sailors, be longing to a province under the protection of the cominon. wealth, have been starved to death; whole fleets, to the great detriment of the province, suffered to perish. The ancient monuments of either Sicilian or Roman greatness, the statues of heroes and princes, have becn carried off; and the temples stripped of the images.-Having, by his iniquitous sentences, filled the prisons with the most industrious and deserving of the people, he then proceeded to order numbers of Roman ridizens to be strangled in the gaols: so that the exclamation,
I am a citizen of Rome!" which has often, in the niost dishill regions, and among the most barbarous people, been a protection, was of no service to them; but, on the contrary brought a speedier and a more severe punishment upon ther.
I ask now. Verres, what thou hast to advance against this charge? Wilt thou prefend to deny it? Wilt thou pretend, that any thing false, that even any thing aggravated, is alleged agaiast tbee? Had any prince, or any state, committed tae same outrage against the privilege of Roman citizens, ; should we not think we had sufficient ground for demanding : Baustaction ? What punishment ought, then, to be inflicted ! | Spou a tyrannical and wicked prætur, who dared at no great
er distance than Sicily, within sight of the Italian coast, to put to the infamous death of crucifixion, that unfortunate and innocent citizen, Publius Gavius Cosanus, only for his having asserted his privilege of citizenship, and declared hisintention of appealing to the justice of his country, against the cruel oppressor, who had unjustly confined him in prison at Syracuse, whence he had just made his escape ? The unhappy man, arrested as he was going to embark for his native country, is brought before the wicked prætor. With eyes darting fury, and a countenance distorted with cruelty, he orders the helpless victim of his rage to be stripped, and rods to be brought : accusing him, but without the least shadow of evi.. dence, or even of suspicion, of having come to Sicily as a spy. It was in vain that the unhappy man cried out, “ I am a Roman citizen: I have served under Lucius Pretius, whois now at Panormus, and will attest my innocence."*The blood-thirs ny prætor, deaf to all he could urge in his own defence, or. dered the infamous punishment to be inflicted. Thus, fathers, was an innocent Roman citizen publicly mangled with scourg ing; whilst the only words he uttered, amidst his cruel sufferings, were, “I am a Roman citizen!" With these he hoped to defend himself from violence and infamy. But of 80 little service was this privilege with him, that, while he was thus asserting his citizenship, the order was given for his execution,-for his execution upon the cross !
O liberty! O sound once delightful to every Roman ear! O sacred privilege of Roman citizenship!-once 'sacred !now trampled upon !But what then! Is it come to this ? Shall an inferior magistrate, a govenor, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, bind, scourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen? Shall neither the cries of innocence expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, northe majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance ?
I conclude with expressing my hopes, that your wisdom and justice," Fathers, will not, hy suffering the atrocious and unexampled insolence ot' Caius Verres to escape dne punishment, leave room to apprehend the danger of a tetal subversion of authority, and the introduction of general an. archy and confusion
SECTION II. Speech of ADHERBAL to the Roman Senate, imploring their FATHERS !
protection against JUGURTHA. "It is known to you, that king Micipsa, my father, on his death-bed, left in charge to Jugurtha, bis adopted son, con junctly with my unfortunate brother Hiempsal and myself the children of his own body, the administration of the kingdom of Numidia, directing us to consider the senate and people of Rome as proprietors of it. Ile charged us to use our best endeavours to be serviceable to the Roman cominonwealth ; assuring us, that your protection would prove a defence against all enemies; and would be instead of armies, fortifications, and treasures. While
my brother and I were thinking of nothing but horr to regulate ourselves according to the directions of our de ceased father-Jugurtha--the most infamous of mankind!breaking through all ties of gratitude and of common hu manity, and trampling on the authority of the Roman com monwealth, procured the murder of my unfortunate brother; and has driven me frommy throne and native country, though he knows I inherit, from my grandfather Massinissa, and my father Micipsa, the friendship and alliance of the Romans.
For a prince to be reduced, by villany, to my distressful circumstances, is calamity enough ; but my misfortunes are heightened by the consideration that I find myself obliged to solicit your assistance, fathers, for the services done
you by my ancestors, not for any I have been able to render you in my own person. Jugurtha has put it out of my power to deserve any thing at your hands ; and has forced me to be burdensome, before I could be useful to you. sind yet, if I had no plea, but my undeserved miseryma önce powerful prince, the descendant of a race of illustrious monarchs, now, without any fault of my own, destitute of every support, and reduced to the necessity of begging foreign assistance, against an enemy who has seized my throne and my kingdom-il my unequalled distresses were all I had to plezd—it would become the greatness of the Roman commonwealtli
, to protect the injured, and to check the triumph of daring wickedness over helpless innocence.But,to provoke yourtesentment to the utmost, Jugurtha has driven me from the very domin ions, which the senate and people of Rome gave to myances. lors; and, from which, my grandfather, and my father, under your umbrage, expelled Syphax and the Carthaginians. Thus,
fathers, your kindness to our family is defeated ; and Jugur. tha, in injuring me, throws contempt upon you.
O wretched prince! Oh cruel reverse of fortune ! Oh father Micipsa! is this the consequence of thy generosity; that hie, whom thy goodness raised to an equality with thy own children, should be the murderer of thy children ? Minst, then, the royal house of Numidia alıvays be a scene of havoc and blood ? While Carthage remained, we suffered, as was to be expected, all sorts of hardships irom their hostile attacks ; our enemy near; our only powerful ally, the Roman commonwealth, at a distance. When that scourge of Africa wag no more, we congratulated ourselves o: the prospect of established peace. But, instead of peace, behold the king. doin of Numidia drenched with royal blood! and the only siirviving son of its late king, flying from an adopted inurder. er, and seeking that'safety in foreign parts, which he cannot command in his own kingilom.
manner-Oh! whither shall I fiy? If I return to the royal palace of my ancestors, my father's throne is seized by the murderer of my brother. \Vhat can I there expect, but that Jugurtha should hasten to inbrue, in my blood, those hands which are now reeking with my brother's ? If I were to fly for refuge, or for assistance to any other court, from what prince can I hope for protection, if the Roman commonwealth give me up ? From my own family or friends I have w expectations. Ny royal father is no more. lle is beyond The reach of violence, and out of hearing of the complaints", of his unhappy son. Were my brother alive, our mutual sympathy would be some alleviation. But he is hurried out of life, in lijs carly youth, by the very hand which should have been the last to injure any of the royal family of Nuinidia. The bloody Jugurtha has butchered all whom he suspected to be in my interest. Some have been destroyed by the lingering torment of the cross. Others have been given a prey to wild beasts ; and their anguish made the sport of men more cruel than wild beasts. If there be any yet alive. they are shut up in dungeons, there to drag ozt a life niore intolerable than death itself.
Louk down, illustrious senators of Rome! from that height of power to which you are raised, on the unexampled distresses of a prince, who is, by the cruelty of a wicked in, truder, become an outcast from all mankind. Let not the crafty insinuations of him who returns murder for adoption prejudice your judgment Do not listen to the wretch whe
has butchered the gon and relations of a king, who gave
him power to sit on the same throne with his own sons. I have been informed, that he labours by his emissaries to prevent your determining any thing against him in his absence ; pretending that I magnify my distress, and might, for him, have staid in peace in my own kingdom. But, if ever the time comes, when the due vengeance from above shall overtake him, he will then dissemble as I do. Then he, who now, hardened in wickedness, triumphs over those whom his violence has laid low, will, in his turn, feel distress, and suffer for his impious ingratitude to my father, and bis blood-thirsty cruelty to my brother.
Oh murdered, butchered brother! Oh dearest to my heart now gone for ever from my siglit !but why should I lament his death ? He is, indeed, deprived of the blessed light of heaven, of life, and kingdom, at once, by the very person who ought to have been the first to hazard his own life, in defence of any one of Micipsa's family. But, as things are, my brother is not so much deprived of these comforts, as de livered from terror, from flight, from exile, and the endlesę train of miseries which render life to me a burden. He lies full lowy, gored with wounds, and festering în bis own blood But he lies in peace. He feels none of the miseries which rend my soul with
agony and distraction, while I am set up a spectacle to all mankind, or the uncertainty of human affairs, So far from having it in my power to punish his murderer, I am not master of the means of securing my own life. So far from being in a condition to defend my kingdom from the violence of the usurper, I am obliged to apply for foreign protection for my own person.
Fathers ! Senators of Rome! the arbiters of nations ! to you I fly for refuge from the murderous fury of Jugurtha. By your affection for your children ; by your love for your country; by your own yirtues ; by the majesty of the Roman commonwealth ; by all that is sacred, and all that is dear to you-deliver a wretched prince from undeserved, unprovoked injury ; and save the kingdom of Numidia, which is your own property, from being the prey of violence, usur, pation, and cruelty.
SECTION IIT. The APOSTLE Paul's noble defence before Festus and AGRIPPA
AGRIPPA said unto Paul, thou art permitted to speak for chyself. Then Paul stretched forth his hand, and answered for himself.