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Supposing that originally other beings, nesides men, had disoluyod me commands of the Almi.lity, and thin the circumstaner were well known to us, there would tall all empinasis epon the word inans in the bit line ; and hence it would read thius;
solf moon's first disobedience, and thir fruit," &c. But if it were a norious trulli, :hat mankind had transgressed in no peculiar manner more than once, the emphasis would tall on fissi ; and Die line be read,
“Of man's first disobedience," &c. Again it nitting death (as was really the case) to leve been an un heard of and dreadful punishment, loronzhit will man in consequence oi his transgression ; on that supposition the third line would be read,
“ Brought lealh into the world," &c. But if we were to suppose that mankind knew there was such an evi as ifrath in other regious, thougl, the place thev inhabited had been free from it till their tra::sgression, the line would run thus :
“ Brought death into the world, Sc The superior emphasis finds place in the fullowing short sentence, whic:li admits of four uistinct weanings, each of which is ascertained oy the emphasis culy.
« Do you ride to town to day? The following examples illustrate the nature and use of the inferior emphasis :
" Many persons mistake the lare for the practice of virtue."
“ Shall I reward his services with falschood. Shall I forget him who cannot forget me
“If bis principles are salse, no apology from himself can make them righl : if founded in Iruth, no censure from others can make them wrong."
"Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not lull;
6 Strong withovi raye : without o'erflowing, full." “ A friend exaggerates man's rirtues ; an enemy, his crimes.'
“ The wise man is happ, when he gains his own approbation; the fool, wwen lie gains that or others."
The superior emphasis, in reading as in speaking, must be delerinin. ed entirely by the sense of the passage, and always made alike ;, but as to the inferior emphasis, laste alone seems to have the right of fixing its situation and quantity:
Among the number of personis, who have had proper opportunities or learning to read, in the best inanner it is now fanylii, very few could be selected, who, in a given instance, would use the interior omphasis alike, either as to place or quantity. Some persous, ii:deed, use scarce ly any degree of it: and others do not scruple to carry it far beyou.ch huy thing to be found in common discourse ; and even sometimes thirrey i upou words so very trilling in themselves, that it is evide:tly s
with no other view, than to give greater variety to the modulation, Notwithstanding this diversity of practice, there are cerainly proper boundaries, within which this emphasis must be restrained, in order to make it meet the approbation of sound judgment and correct taste. It will doubtless have different degrees of exertion, according to the greater or less degrees of importance of the words upon which it operates ; and there may be very properly some variety in the use of it but its application is not arbitrary, depending on the caprice of readers.
As emphasis often falls on words in ditferent parts of the same sentence, so it is frequently required to be continued with a little variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following sentences exemplify both the parts of this position. "If you seek to make one rich, study not to increuse his stores, but to diminish his desires." “ The Mexican figures, or picture writing, represent things not words: they exhibit images to the eye not ideas to the understanding."
Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every word is emphatical: as, “Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains !" or, as that pathetic expostulation in the prophecy of Ezekiel, “Why will ye die !"
Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed, in words separately pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are arranged in senten. ces; the long being changed into short, the short into long, according to the importance of the word with regard to meaning. Emphasis al80, in particular cases, alters the seat of the accent. This is demon. strable from the following examples “ He shall increase, but I shall decrease." “ There is a difference between giving and forgiving.” “lo this species of composition, plausibility is much more essential than probability.” In these examples, the emphasis requires the accent to be placed on syllables, to which it does not commonly belong.
In order to acquire the proper management of the emphasis, the great rule to be given, is that the reader study to attain a just concep• tion of the force and spirit of the sentiments which he is to pronounce. For to lay the emphasis with exact propriety, is a constant exercise of good sense and attention. It is far froin being an inconsiderable attainment. It is one of the most decisive trials of a true and just taste ; and must arise from feeling delicately ourselves, and from judging accurately of what is fittest to strike the feelings of others.
There is one error, against which it is particularly proper to cantion the learner; namely, that of multiplying emphatical words too much, and using the emphasis indiscriminately. li is only by a prudent re serve and distinction in the use of them, that we can give thern any weight. If they recur too often ; is a reader atteinpts to render every thing be expresses of high importance, by a multitude of strong em phases, we soon learn to pay little regard to them. To crowd every sentence with emphatical words, is like crowding all the pages of a book with Italic characters; which, as to the effect, is just the same as to use no such distinctions at all.
* By modulation is meant that pleasing variety of voice, which is perceived in uttering a sentence, and which, in iis nature, is perfectly distinct from emphasis, and the tones of einotion and passion. The young reader should be careful to render his niodulation correct and easy; and, for this purpose, should form it upon the model a judicious and accurate speakers.
Tones are different both from emphasis and pause!; consisting in the Lotes or variations of sound which we cmploy, in the expression of our sentiments. Emphasis affects particular words and phrases, with a degree of tone or inflexion of voice; but tones, peculiarly so called, affect Bentences, paragraphs, and sometimes even the whole of a discourse.
To show the use and necessity of tones, we need only observe, that the mind, in communicating its ideas, is in a constant state of activity, einotion, or agitation, from the different effects which those ideas produce in the speaker. Now the end of such communication being, not merely to lay open the ideas, but also the different feelings which they excite in bim who utters them, there must be other signs than words, to marifest those feelings; as words uttered in a monotonous manner can represent only a similar state of mind, perfectly free from all activity and emotion. As the communication of these internal feelings was of niuch more consequence in our social intercourse, than the mere conveyance of ideas, the author of our being did not, as in that conveyance, leave the inven. tion of the language of emotion to man; but impressed it himself upon our nature, in the same manner as he has done wiih regard to the rest of the animal world; all of which express their various feelings, by various tones. Ours, indeed, from the superior rank that we hold, are in a high degree more comprehensive; as there is not an act of the mind, an exertion of the fancy, or an emotion of the beart, which has not its peculiar tone, or noie of thie voice, by which it is to be expressed; and which is suited exactly to the degree of internal feeling. It is chiefly in the proper use of these tones, that the life, spirit, beauty, and harmony of delivery consist.
The limits of this Introduction do not admit of examples, to illustrate the var.ety of tones belonging to the different passions and emotions. We shall, Lowever, select one, which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation af David over Saul and Jonathan, and which will, in some degree, elucid=łe what has been said on this subject. “The beauty of Israel is slain upon tiy high places; how are the mighty fallen! Tell it not in Gath; publist. it not in the streets of Aske lon; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph. Ye mountains of Gilloa, let there be no dew nor rain, upon you, nor fields of offerings; for ibere the shield of the mighty was vilely cast away; the shield of Saul, as the ugh he had not been anointed with oil." The first of these divisions expresses sorrow and lamentation: therefore the note is low. The next contains a spirited command, and should be pronounced much higher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetic address to the moun. tainy where his friends had been slain, must be expressed in a note quite different from the two former; not so low as the first, nor so high as the second, in a manly, firm, and yet plaintive tone.
The correct and natural language of the emotions is not so difficult to be attained, as most readers seem to imagine. If we enter into the spirit of the author's sentiments, as well as into the meaning of his words, we shall not fail to deliver the words in properly varied tones. For there are few people, who speak English without a provincial note, that have not an accurate use of tones, when they utter their sentiments in earnest dis. course. And the reason that they have not the same use of them, in read. ing aloud the sentiments of others, may be traced to the very defective end erroneous method, in which the art of reading is laught; whereby all the vari.»!?, nalurral, ripressive tonns of speecli, are suppressed : and o few inicial, innovaning proceding noirs, are substituted for them.
bius obres promiend 10 raders, an altention in the tone and lan 11n of onmotions, WVP must be understood in duit with properlinutaiion Windo mbio.is Hepressary is iliis quoint; its it is in other things. For when din: 3:7900 strictly imitative, il assumes a theatrical manner. and
...!improper, as well as give oili10 the bearers; because it is inc...sen loin ihai delicacy and modesty, which are mdispensa. ble on 3.
casions. The speaker who delivers his own enutions militst bor
Doplose lo be more vivid and animated, than would be proper in l. 12:50:1 who relates them at second band.
IVe siia: conclude this section with the following rule, for the tone's that indicate the passions and emotions. "In reasing, let all your tones op exporession be borrowed from those of cominon speech, but, in some degrer, more faintly characterised. Let those tones which signity any disagreeable poussion ofthe mind be still more faint th411 those whirli m. dicate agreable emotion: ; and, on all occasions, preserve yourselva from bring so far aileted with the subject, as to be able to proces through it, with that easy and inasterly manner; which hus its good e fects in this, as well as in every other ari.
Pauses. Pauses or rests, in speaking or reading, are a total cessation of the voice, during a perceptible, and in many cases, a measuralile space of time. Panses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the bearer. To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in odrlivery: and that he inay, by these temporary resis, relieve Ilio organs of spurch, which otheririse would be soon tired by continued action : 10 the frarer, thill the ear also may be relieved from the la. tigne, which it rould otherwise endure from a continuity of sound; and that the understandill' may have sufficient time to mark the distinction of rollences, and their several members.
There are two kinds of pauses: first, emphatical panses; and next such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphaticul pause is generally made after something lias been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to lis tlie bearer's atention. Sometimes, before such a thing is said, 'le usluerit in with a pause vttliis nature. Such pauses have the same effect as a strong emphasis; and are subject to the same rules: e3scially to the cantion, of not repeating them loo trequently. tior as che excite incommon attention, ind of course raise expectation, if the importance of the matter be not fully answeruble to such expecta tion, they occasion disappointment and disgusi.
But the most frequent and the principai use vi pauses, is to mark the divisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to draw his breath ; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pau. ses is one of the most nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, the managernent of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to oblige is to divicht: words from one another, which have so intimate a connexion, that iney onght to be pronounced with the same Horpatlı, and without the least separation. Many a sentence is musera. by manzled. and the force est ihe emphasis totally lost, liy divisious heing made in :lie wrong place. To avoid this, "very one, while he is radius sivuld lw very uircful to provide a juil supply ut kruuti fur
what he is to utter. It is a great mistake to imagine, that the preath must be drawn only at the end of a period, when the soice is allowed * lah. It may ensity lop gathered ai the intervals of ille prosio.dd, when the voice is suspended only for woment : and, by this management, one may always have a suiticieni tock for carrying on the longest sen. tence, without iinproper interruptions.
Pauses in reading must generally be formed upon the manner in which we ulter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation : and not upon the stiff artificial manner, which is acquired trom reading books according to the colomon punctuation. It will by ro means top rustfi. sent to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses, which ought to be made in reading. A mecha. mical attention to these resting places, las perhaps been one cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stopy, and a uniforın cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is too assist the reader in discerning the grammatical construction; and it is
only as a secondary object, that they regulate lis pronumriation. On this head, the following direction may !se of use : « Though in reading great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense ; and their correspondent times occasionally length ened beyond what is usual in common speech.
To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not only be made in the right place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these pauses is intiinated; much more than by the length of them, l bich can seldom be exactly measured. Soinctimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper; sumetimes a degree of cadence in ihe voice is required ; and sonetites that peculiar tone and cadence which denote the sentence LG be finished. In all these cases, we are to regulate orselves by at. tending to the manner in which nature teaches us to speak, when en. anged in real and earnest discourse with others. The following sen. tence exem;lifies the suspending and the closing pauses : " Hope, the balın of lite, sooths is under every misfortune. The first and second pauses are accompanied by an inflection of voice, that gives the hearer a. expectation of something further to complete the sense : the inflec. tion attending the third pause signifies that ile sense is completed.
The preceding example is an illustration of the suspending pause, in its simple state: the following instance exhibits that pause with a de. gree of cadence in the voice; “If content cannot remove the disqui. studes of mankind, it will at least alleviate them."
The suspending pause is often, in the same sentence, attended with both the rising and the falling infection of voice; as will be seen in this example : « Moderate exercise , and habitual temperance', strength. 'p the constitution."
As the suspending pause may be thus attended with both the rising and the falling inflection, it is the same with regard to the closing palise: it adunits of both. The falling inflection generally accompanies it;
but is not sufrequently connected with the rising inflection. Interroga. live sentences, for instance, are often terminated in this manner: 83, "Am I ungrateful'?" "Is he in earnest ?"
Bilt where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun or adserb, it is commonly terininated by the falling inflection : as, 6. What aas he gained by his folly ?" “ Who will assist him?" " Where is the vessanger ?" « When did he arrive ?** • The rising infection is depuced by ube acuit; the falling, by we crave accente