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way, under whatsoever despicable circum- compassion. The incidents grow out of the stances it may appear; for as no mortal subject, and are such as are the most proauthor, in the ordinary fate and vicissitude per to excite pity; for which reason the of things, knows to what use his works whole narration has something in it very may some time or other be applied, a man moving, notwithstanding the author of it may often meet with very celebrated (whoever he was) has delivered it in such names in a paper of tobacco. I have light- an abject phrase and poorness of expresed my pipe more than once with the writ- sion, that the quoting any part of it would ings of a prelate; and know a friend of look like a design of turning it into ridicule. mine, who, for these several years, has But though the language is mean, the converted the essays of a man of quality thcughts, as I have before said, from one into a kind of fringe for his candlesticks. end to the other, are natural, and therefore I remember, in particular, after having cannot fail to please those who are not read over a poem of an eminent author on judges of language, or those who, notwitha victory, I met with several fragments of standing they are judges of language, have it upon the next rejoicing day, which had a true and unprejudiced taste of nature, been employed in squibs and crackers, and The condition, speech, and behaviour of by that means celebrated its subject in a the dying parents, with the age, innocence, double capacity. I once met with a page and distress of the children, are set forth of Mr. Baxter, under a Christmas pie. in such tender circumstances, that it is imWhether or no the pastry-cook had made possible for a reader of common humanity use of it through chance or waggery, for not to be affected with them. As for the the defence of that superstitious viande, I circumstance of the robin-red-breast, it is know not;
but upon the perusal of it, I con- indeed a little poetical ornament; and to ceived so good an idea of the author's piety, show the genius of the author amidst all that I bought the whole book. I have often his simplicity, it is just the same kind of profited by these accidental readings, and fiction which one of the greatest of the have sometimes found very curious pieces Latin poets has made use of upon a paralthat are either out of print, or not to be lel occasion; I mean that passage in Ho' met with in the shops of our London book- race, where he describes himself when he sellers. For this reason, when my friends was a child, fallen asleep in a desert wood, take a survey of my library, they are very and covered with leaves by the turtles that much surprised to find upon the shelf of took pity on him. folios, two long band-boxes standing up
Me fabulosæ Vulture in Appulo, right among my books; till I let them see Altricis extra limen Apulie, that they are both of them lined with deep
Ludo fatigatumque somo erudition and abstruse literature. I might
Fronde nova puerum palumbes
Texerelikewise mention a paper-kite, from which I have received great improvement; and a
*Me when a child, as tird with play, hat case, which I would not exchange
Upon th' Apulian hills I lay
In careless slumbers bound, all the beavers in Great Britain. This
The gentle doves protecting found, my inquisitive temper, or rather imperti
And cover'd me with myrtle leaves.' nent humour, of prying into all sorts of I have heard that the late Lord Dorset, writing, with my natural aversion to lo- who had the greatest wit tempered with quacity, give me a good deal of employ- the greatest candour, and was one of the ment when I enter any house in the country; finest critics as well as the best poets of his for I cannot for my heart leave a room, be- age, had a numerous collection of old Engfore I have thoroughly studied the walls lish ballads, and took a particular pleasure of it, and examined the several printed in the reading of them. I can affirm the papers which are usually pasted upon same of Mr. Dryden, and know several of them. The last piece that I met with upon the most refined writers of our present age this occasion gave me most exquisite plea- who are of the same humour. sure. My reader will think I am not se- I might likewise refer my readers to rious, when I acquaint him that the piece Moliere's thoughts on this subject, as he has I am going to speak of, was the old ballad expressed them in the character of the of the Two Children in the Wood, which Misanthrope; but those only who are enis one of the darling songs of the common dowed with a true greatness of soul and people, and has been the delight of most genius, can divest themselves of the images Englishmen in some part of their age. of ridicule, and admire nature in her sim
This song is a plain simple copy of na- plicity and nakedness. As for the little ture, destitute of the helps and ornaments conceited wits of the age, who can only of art. The tale of it is a pretty tragical show their judgment by finding fault, they story, and pleases for no other reason but cannot be supposed to admire these probecause it is a copy of nature. There is ductions which have nothing to recomeven a despicable simplicity in the verse; mend them but the beauties of nature, and yet because the sentiments appear when they do not know how to relish even genuine and unaffected, they are able to those compositions that with all the beaumove the mind of the most polite reader ties of nature, have also the additional adwith inward meltings of humanity and vantages of art.
Od. iv. Lib. 3. 9.
No. 86.] Friday, June 8, 1711.
* Thy beard and head are of a different dye:
Short of one foot, distorted in an eye;
Ovid. Met. Lib ii. v. 447. Should'st thou be honest, thou'rt a devilish cheat.'
I have seen a very ingenious author on
this subject, who founds his speculations THERE are several arts which all men on the supposition that as a man hath in are in some measure masters of, without the mould of his face a remote likeness to having been at the pains of learning them. that of an ox, a sheep, lion, a hog, or any Every one that speaks or reasons is a other creature; he hath the same resemgrammarian and a logician, though he blance in the frame of his mind, and is submay be wholly unacquainted with the rules ject to those passions which are predomiof grammar or logic, as they are delivered nant in the creature that appears in his in books and systems. In the same man- countenance. Accordingly he gives the ner, every one is in some degree a master prints of several faces that are of a differof that art which is generally distinguished ent mould, and by a little overcharging the by the name of physiognomy; and naturally likeness discovers the figures of these seforms to himself the character or fortune veral kinds of brutal faces in human feaof a stranger, from the features and linea- tures.* I remember in the life of the faments of his face. We are no sooner pre- mous Prince of Conde, the writer observes, sented to any one we never saw before, but the face of that prince was like the face of we are immediately struck with the idea an eagle, and that the prince was very of a proud, a reserved, an affable, or a well pleased to be told so.
In this case good-natured man; and upon our first go therefore we may be sure, that he had in ing into a company of strangers, our bene- his mind some general implicit notion of volence or aversion, awe or contempt, rises this art of physiognomy which I have just naturally towards several particular per- now mentioned; and that when his coursons, before we have heard them speak a tiers told him his face was made like an single word, or so much as know who they eagle's, he understood them in the same
manner as if they had told him, there was Every passion gives a particular cast to something in his looks which showed him the countenance, and is apt to discover it- to be strong, active, piercing, and of a self in some feature or other. I have seen royal descent. Whether or no the differan eye curse for half an hour together, and ent motions of the animal spirits, in differan eyebrow call a man a scoundrel. No- ent passions, may have any effect on the thing is more common than for lovers to mould of the face when the lineaments are complain, resent, languish, despair, and pliable and tender, or whether the same die in dumb show. For my own part, I kind of souls require the same kind of haam so apt to frame a notion of every man's bitations, I shall leave to the considerahumour or circumstances by his looks, that tion of the curious. In the mean time I I have sometimes employed myself from think nothing can be more glorious than Charing-Cross to the Royal Exchange in for a man to give the lie to his face, and to drawing the characters of those who have be an honest, just, good-natured man, in passed by me. When I see a man with a spite of all those marks and signatures sour rivelled face, I cannot forbear pitying which nature seems to have set upon him his wife; and when I meet with an open in- for the contrary, This very often happens genuous countenance, think on the happi- among those, who instead of being exaspeness of his friends, his family and his rela- rated by their own looks, or envying the tions.
looks of others, apply themselves entirely I cannot recollect the author of a famous to the cultivating of their minds, and getsaying to a person who stood silent in his ting those beauties which are more lasting, company, Speak, that I may see thee.' and more ornamental. I have seen many
But, with submission, I think we may an amiable piece of deformity; and have be better known by our looks than by our observed a certain cheerfulness in as bad a words, and that a man's speech is much system of features as ever was clapped tomore easily disguised than his countenance. gether, which hath appeared more lovely In this case, however, I think the air of than all the blooming charms of an insothe whole face is much more expressive lent beauty. There is a double praise due than the lines of it. The truth of it is, the to virtue, when it is lodged in a body that air is generally nothing else but the in- seems to have been prepared for the reward disposition of the mind made visible. ception of vice; in many such cases the
Those who have established physiogno- soul and the body do not seem to be felmy into an art, and laid down rules of lows, judging men's tempers by their faces, have Socrates was an extraordinary instance regarded the features much more than the of this nature. There chanced to be a air. Martial has a pretty epigram on this subject:
* This refers to Baptista della Porta's celebrated Crine ruber, niger ore, brevis pede, lumine læsus: Treatise De Humana Physiognomia: which has ran Rem magnam præstas, Zoile, si bonus es.
through many editions both in Latin and Italian. He Epig. liv. 1. 12. died in 1615.
great physiognomist in his time at Athens, not at all displeased with themselves upon who had made strange discoveries of men's considerations which they had no choice in; tempers and inclinations by their outward so the discourse concerning Idols tended to appearances. Socrates's disciples, that lessen the value people put upon themthey might put this artist to the trial, car- selves from personal advantages and gifts ried him to their master, whom he had of nature. As to the latter species of mannever seen before, and did not know he kind, the beauties, whether male or female, was then in company with him. After a they are generally the most untractable short examination of his face, the physiog- people of all others. You are so excessively nomist pronounced him the most lewd, li- perplexed with the particularities in their bidinous, drunken old fellow that he had behaviour, that to be at ease, one would be ever met with in his whole life. Upon apt to wish there were no such creatures. which the disciples all burst out a-laugh- They expect so great allowances, and give ing, as thinking they had detected the so little to others, that they who have to do falsehood and vanity of his art. But So- with them find in the main, a man with a crates told them, that the principles of his better person than ordinary, and a beautiart might be very true, notwithstanding his ful woman, might be very happily changed present mistake; for that he himself was for such to whom nature has been less libenaturally inclined to those particular vices ral. The handsome fellow is usually so which the physiognomist had discovered much a gentleman, and the fine woman has in his countenance, but that he had con- something so becoming, that there is no quered the strong dispositions he was born enduring either of them. It has therefore with, by the dictates of philosophy. * been generally my choice to mix with
We are indeed told by an ancient author,t cheerful ugly creatures, rather than genthat Socrates very much resembled Silenus tlemen who are graceful enough to omit or in his face; which we find to have been do what they please ; or beauties who have very rightly observed from the statues and charms enough to do and say what would busts of both, that are still extant; as well be disobliging in any but themselves. as on several antique seals and precious Diffidence and presumption, upon acstones, which are frequently enough to bc count of our persons, are equally faults; met with in the cabinets of the curious. But and both arise from the want of knowing, however observations of this nature may or rather endeavouring to know ourselves, sometimes hold, a wise man should be par- and for what we ought to be valued or neticularly cautious how he gives credit to a glected. But indeed I did not imagine these man's cutward appearance. It is an irre- little considerations and coquetries could parable injustice we are guilty of towards have the ill consequences as I find they one another, when we are prejudiced by, have, by the following letters of my corresthe looks and features of those whom we do pondents ; where it seems beauty is thrown not know. How often do we conceive ha- | into the account, in matters of sale, to those tred against a person of worth, or fancy a who receive no favour from the charmers, man to be proud or ill-natured by his aspect, whom we think we cannot esteem too
• June 4. much when we are acquainted with his real •MR. SPECTATOR, -After I have assurcharacter? Dr. Moore, in his admirable ed you I am in every respect one of the System of Ethics, reckons this particular handsomest young girls about town, I need inclination to take a prejudice against a man be particular in nothing but the make of for his looks, among the smaller vices in my face, which has the misfortune to be morality, and, if I remember, gives it the exactly oval. This I take to proceed from name of a prosopolepsia.
a temper that naturally inclines me both to speak and hear,
With this account you may wonder No. 87.] Saturday, June 9, 1711.
how I can have the vanity to offer myself
as a candidate, which I now do, to a society -Nimium ne crede colori. Virg. Ecl. ii, 17. where the Spectator and Hecatissa have Trust not too much to an enchanting face. been admitted with so much applause. I
Dryden. don't want to be put in mind how very deIt has been the purpose of several of my fective I am in every thing that is ugly: I speculations to bring people to an uncon- am too sensible of my own uzworthiness in cerned behaviour with relation to their per- this particular, and therefore I only prosons, whether beautiful or defective." As pose myself as a foil to the club. the secrets of the Ugly Club were exposed •You see how honest I have been to conto the public, that men might see there fess all my imperfections, which is a great were some noble spirits in the age, who are deal to come from a woman, and what I * Cicer. Tusc. Qu 5. et De Fato.
hope you will encourage with the favour of † Plat. Conviv.
your Í A Greek word, used in the New Testament, Rom.
" There can be no objection made on the fi. '11, and Eph. vi. 9: where it is said that “God is no side of the matchless Hecatissa, since it is respecter of persons.". Here it signifies a prejudice certain I shall be in no danger of giving her against a person formed from his countenance, &c. too the least occasion of jealousy : and then a hastily.
joint-stool in the very lowest place at the idolaters; but that from the time of pubtable, is all the honour that is coveted by lishing this in your paper, the idols would • Your most humble and obedient servant, mix ratsbane only for their admirers, and
* ROSALINDA.' take more care of us who don't love them. 'P.S. I have sacrificed my necklace to
• I am, sir, yours, put into the public lottery against the com
Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures ?
Virg. Ecl. iii. 16. • MR. SPECTATOR,-Upon reading your
• What will not masters do when servants thus prelate dissertation concerning Idols, I cannot but complain to you that there are, in six
May 30, 1711. or seven places of this city, coffee-houses
* MR. SPECTATOR, I have no small kept by persons of that sisterhood. These value for your endeavours to lay before the idols sit and receive all day long the adora- world what may escape their observation, tion of the youth within such and such dis- and yet highly conduces to their service. tricts. I know in particular, goods are not You have, I think, succeeded very well on entered as they ought to be at the custom many subjects; and seem to have been conhouse, nor law-reports perused at the versant in very different scenes of life. But Temple, by reason of one
beauty who de- in the considerations of mankind, as a Spectains the young merchants too long near tator, you should not omit circumstances Change, and another fair one who keeps which relate to the inferior part of the the students at her house when they should world, any more than those which concern be at study. It would be worth your while the greater. There is one thing in particuto see how the idolaters alternately offer lar which I wonder you have not touched incense to their idols, and what heart-burn- upon, and that is the general corruption of ings arise in those who wait for their turn manners in the servants of Great Britain. to receive kind aspects from those little I am a man that have travelled and seen thrones, which all the company, but these many nations, but have for seven years last lovers, call the bars. I saw a gentleman past resided constantly in London, or withturn as pale as ashes, because an idol turned in twenty miles of it. In this time I have the sugar in a tea-dish for his rival, and contracted a numerous acquaintance among carelessly called the boy to serve him, with the best sort of people, and have hardly a “Sirrah! why don't you give the gentle found one of them happy in their servants. man the box toʻplease himself?” Certain This is matter of great astonishment to it is, that a very hopeful young man was foreigners, and all "such as have visited taken with leads in his pockets below the foreign countries; especially since we canbridge, where he intended to drown him- not but observe, that there is no part of the self, because his idol would wash the dish world where servants have those privileges in which she had just drank tea, before she and advantages as in England. They have would let him use it.
no where else such plentiful diet, large I am, sir, a person past being amorous, wages, or indulgent liberty. There is no and do not give this information out of envy place where they labour less, and yet where of jealousy, but I am a real sufferer by it
. they are so little
respectful, more wasteful, These lovers take any thing for tea and more negligent, or where they so frequentcoffee ; I saw one yesterday surfeit to make ly change their masters. To this I'attrihis court, and all his rivals, at the same bute, in a great measure, the frequent robtime, loud in the commendation of liquors beries and losses which we suffer on the that went against every body in the room high road and in our own houses. That that was not in love. While these young of this kind is, that a careless groom of
indeed which gives me the present thought fellows resign their stomachs with their hearts, and drink at the idol in this man- mine has spoiled me the prettiest pad in ner, we who come to do business, or talk the world, with only riding him ten miles; politics, are utterly poisoned. They have and I assure you, if I were to make a regisalso drams for those who are more enam- ter of all the horses I have known thus oured than ordinary; and it is very common abused by negligence of servants, the numfor such as are too low in constitution to ber would mount a regiment. I wish you ogle the idol upon the strength of tea, to would give us your observations, that we Auster themselves with warmer liquors: may know how to treat these rogues, or thus all pretenders advance, as fast as they that we masters may enter into measures can, to a fever, or a diabetes. I must re- to reform them. Pray give us a speculation peat to you, that I do not look with an evil in general about servants, and you make eye upon the profit of the idols, or the di- me
Yours, versions of the lovers; what I hope from
•PHILO-BRITANNICUS. this remonstrance, is only that we plain •P. S. Pray do not omit the mention of people may not be served as if we were grooms in particular.'
This honest gentleman, who is so desirous that there were no such thing as rule and that I should write a satire upon grooms, distinction among us. has a great deal of reason for his resent- The next place of resort, wherein the ment; and I know no evil which touches all servile world are let loose, is at the entrance mankind so much as this of the misbeha- of Hyde Park, while the gentry are at the viour of servants.
ring. 'Hither people bring their lackeys out The complaint of this letter runs wholly of state, and here it is that all they say at upon men-servants, and I can attribute the their tables, and act in their houses, is licentiousness which has at present pre- communicated to the whole town. There vailed among them, to nothing but what an are men of wit in all conditions of life, and hundred before me have ascribed it to, the mixing with these people at their diversions, custom of giving board-wages. This one I have heard coquettes and prades as well instance of false economy is sufficient to de- rallied, and insolence and pride exposed bauch the whole nation of servants, and (allowing for their want of education) with makes them as it were but for some part as much humour and good sense, as in the of their time in that quality. They are politest companies. It is a general observaeither attending in places where they meet tion, that all dependents run in some meaand run into clubs, or else if they wait at sure into the manners and behaviour of taverns, they eat after their masters, and those whom they serve.
You shall frereserve their wages for other occasions. quently meet with lovers and men of inFrom hence it arises, that they are but in a trigue among the lackeys as well as at lower degree what their masters them- White's or in the side-boxes. I remember selves are; and usually affect an imitation some years ago an instance of this kind. A of their manners; and you have in liveries, footman to a captain of the guards used frebeaux, fops, and coxcombs, in as high per- quently, when his master was out of the fection as among people that keep equi- way, to carry on amours and make assignapages. It is a common humour among the tions in his master's clothes. The fellow retinue of people of quality, when they are had a very good person, and there are very in their revels, that is, when they are out many women that think no further than the of their master's sight, to assume in a hu- outside of a gentleman: besides which, he morous way the names and titles of those was almost as learned a man as the colonel whose liveries they wear. By which means himself: I say, thus qualified, the fellow characters and distinctions become so fa- could scrawl billet-doux so well, and furmiliar to them, that it is to this, among nish a conversation on the common topics, other causes, one may impate a certain in- that he had, as they call it, a great deal of solence among our servants, that they take good business on his hands. It happened no notice of any gentleman, though they one day, that coming down a tavern stairs know him ever so well, except he is an ac- in his master's fine guard-coat with a wellquaintance of their master's.
dressed woman masked, he met the colonel My obscurity and taciturnity leave me at coming up with other company; but with a liberty, without scandal, to dine, if I think ready assurance he quitted his lady, came fit, at a common ordinary, in the meanest up to him and said, "Sir, I know you have as well as the most sumptuous house of too much respect for yourself to cane me entertainment.-Falling in the other day at in this honourable habit. But you see there a victualling-house near the house of peers, is a lady in the case, and I hope on that I heard the maid come down and tell the score also you will put off your anger till I landlady at the bar, that my lord bishop have told you all another time. After swore he would throw her out at window, little pause the colonel cleared up his counif she did not bring up more mild beer, and tenance, and with an air of familiarity whisthat my lord duke would have a double pered his man apart, “Sirrah, bring the mug of purl. My surprise was increased, lady with you to ask pardon for you;' then in hearing loud and rustic voices speak and aloud, 'Look to it, Will, I'll never forgive answer to each other upon the public affairs, you else.' The fellow went back to his by the names of the most illustrious of our mistress, and telling her, with a loud voice nobility; till of a sudden one came running and an oath, that was the honestest fellow in, and cried the house was rising. Down in the world, conveyed her to a hackneycame all the company together and away! coach. The alehouse was immediately filled with But the many irregularities committed by clamour, and scoring one mug to the mar- servants in the places above-mentioned, as quis of such a place, oil and vinegar to such well as in the theatres, of which masters an earl, three quarts to my new lord for are generally the occasions, are too various wetting his title, and so forth. It is a thing not to need being resumed on another occatoo notorious to mention the crowds of ser- sion. vants, and their insolence, near the courts of justice, and the stairs towards the supreme assembly, where there is a universal No. 89.] Tuesday, June 12, 1711. mockery of all order, such riotous clamour
-Petite hinc, juvenesque senesque and licentious confusion, that one would Cras hoc fiet. Idem cras fiet. Quid ? quasi magnum,
Finem animo certum, miserisque viatica canis. think the whole nation lived in jest, and Nempe diem donas sed cum lur altera venih