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the “populist " party that "Government should make loans to the. people at 2 per cent. per annum. The policy would probably lead to inflation of currency. City and Country Taxes. II. Max. WEST.

The continued study of the distribution of property taxes between city and country points to the conclusion that the farmers are overtaxed on their personal property.

American Academy of Political and Social Science (Philadelphia). Taxation of Quasi-Public Corporations in Ohio. F. C. Howe.

Securities as a means of Payment. CHARLES A. CONANT. Economic Aspects of British Agriculture. J. F. CROWELL.

Very cheerless aspects are exhibited with the aid of English official papers.

In the Yale Review (Newhaven) for 1899, Mr. Frank L. McVey describes the tin-plate combination recently formed in America.

There is an article in the International Journal of Ethics for October, 1899, on the Moral Aspect of Consumption, by Mr. Charles Devas, who, it will be remembered, discussed a similar subject in a previous number of the ECONOMIC JOURNAL.

1

La guerre

Journal des Économistes (Paris).

September, 1899. civil du capital et travail. G. DE MOLINARI. Darwinisme Social. G. AMBON.

October
Les travaux parlementaires de la Chambre des Députés (1898–9). ANDRE

LIESSE. Le monument de Schulze-Delitzch, A. RAFFALOVICH,
Les impôts en Italie. P. A. Ghio. Le problème des trusts
E. W. BEMIS.

November.
De l'origine des Cash-Crédits" des banques crossaises. E. Sarous.

Mouvement agricole. La culture des écciales en France, à dix ans de distance, 1889 à 1898. E. GRANDEAU. Revue des publications économiques en langue française. M. ROUSZEL. Le positivisme d'Āug.-Comte est il scientifique ? CH. LIMOUSIN. banques aux Etats-Unis. G. FRANÇOIS.

Revue de l'Économie Politique.

July, 1899. Les boulangeries coopératives en Angleterre. F. ROCKELL. Les carac

tères et les modalités des cartels. R. LIEFMANN. La legislation sociale en 1898. H. LAMBRECHTS. La représentation des intérêts dans le parlement. E. VILLEY. L'union du crédit de Bruxelles. H. DENIS. [Fifty years experience of the organisation of credit.]

August-September.
Les Finances et les services industrielles de la ville de Genêre.

P. DU
ACHARD.

Les Reformes démocratiques de l'impôt. P.
MAROUSSEM.
L'union du crédit du Bruxelles .... (suite). H.

C.
DENIS.

Le nouveau régime de la Banque de France.
BROUILLET.

October-November,

Une cuvre posthume du M. Ugo Rabbeno. La question foncière dans les

colonies de l'Australie. RICCARDO DALLA VOLTA. Le point de vue concret .. [The empirical economist ought especially to beware of the words “work and capital ” and “value.”] Les travailleurs de l'aiguille dans l'East End de Londres vers le milieu du XIXe siècle. ANDRÉ E. SAYOI'S. Le nouveau régime de la Banque de France. CHARLES BROUILLET. La politique agraire en Allemagne ...

GEORGES BLONDEL.

In L'Economiste Français of 16th September, M. Leroy-Beaulieu discusses the bearing of the then probable outbreak of the South African war on the interests of French investors in the mines of the Rand, and decides that, whether England has a walk-over, or whether, hampered by a guerilla war, she patches up a humiliating peace with the usual plasticité Britannique, the shareholders have no serious loss to apprehend.

The Bulletin de l'Institut International de Statistique, Vol. XI. (St. Petersburg, 1899), contains several curious papers relating to the movement of population. M. Raseri investigates the variations in the numbers of births and deaths according to the time of day. In the Commune of Cremona the maximum mortality is in the early afternoon, the minimum mortality in the small hours of the morning; the maximum mortality corresponding to the minimum of natality, and conversely. In another paper M. Raseri exhibits variations in the age of marriage according to economic conditions ; concluding that the fecundity of the principal European States has not diminished in the latter half of this century. Mr. Jacques Bertillon treats a somewhat similar subject, comparing the natality in different urban districts distinguished as very poor, poor, in easy, very easy circumstances, rich and very rich. For Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and London, the same rule holds : the richer the district the smaller the natality, as measured by the number of births per 1,000 women between 15 and 50 years of age [in the case of Vienna, per 1,000 married women). The effect on the movement of population in Russia exercised by variations in the crops and in the price of cereals since 1801 is traced by M. Pokrovsky.

Jahrb. f. National Oekonomie (Jena).

August, 1899.

Die Wechselbriefe König Ludwigs des Heiligen .... SCHAUBE.

In the Miscellanies, Herr Trap Cordt, Director of the town (städtischen) statistical bureau in Kopenhagen, adduces statistics showing that the proportion of children at the younger ages is greater the fewer the number of rooms in the house. Referendar H. Gerland discourses on prison-work, with special reference to the conditions of North America. Romolo Broglio explains the causes of the depression in the straw-plaiting industry of Tuscany : abroad the competition of China and Japan, at home the competition between different classes and change of fashion. Dr. Bortkevitch argues on the philosophical principles of probability against Herr Stumpf.

September, Zur lage des höheren Lehrerstandes in Preussen. W. LEXIS. Zur

Entwickelunggeschichte des Kapitalzinses. JOSEF KULISCHER.

A comprehensive review of recent writers on Currency, by Prof. Lexis, deserves notice.

October,
Die Verhältnisse des Kohlenbergbaues in den Vereinigten Staaten ...,

J. E. GEORGE. Der Aussenhandel der Vereineigten Staaten
1898. M. DIEZMANN.

Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft (Vienna).

Band VIII, Heft IV. In this number Prof. Böhm-Bawerk continues to discuss some thorny questions in the theory of capital, taking Prof. Lexis to task.

HEFT V. Die theorie der Grenz-productivität. Prof. GIOVANNI MONTEMARTINI.

A learned study in margins. Marginal productivity physical and economic, surpluses, subjective and objective, the “dynamic political economy” of Prof. Patten, the marginal productivity of the several factors of production-not only the classical three but also (4) economic organisation, (5) length of the productive process (Produktionsumwege)

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—are discussed in the light of recent literature. Two specimens must suffice.

“ The classical theory of rent conceived as we meet it in Ricardo and Mill is overthrown (umgestürzt) by the scientific analysis of facts and the mathematical statement' (aufstellung) of the problem ; since the margin of profitableness for applications of labour and capital to different qualities of land is according to the correct theory the same."

"Walras shows us that the competition of the entrepreneur and those with whom he deals (der an dem Tausche Betheiligten) is a way of tentatively solving the equations of productive equilibrium. When competition between entrepreneurs acts (vorhanden ist), their income, or gain (Gewinn), is forced down to a minimum, and a point of equilibrium is reached in which the entrepreneur has neither gain nor loss."

The current number (1899, No. 4) of the Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, &c., (Leipsic) has an article on English mercantile policy in the 17th and 18th centuries by Prof. Schmoller. In the preceding number there is an article by Prof. Lexis on a new . . . labour and value theory, referring to the not quite recent work of Leo von Buch, which Prof. Lexis does not agree with, yet regards as deserving attention.

Ekonomiste Tidskrift (Stockholm).

The problem of the incidence of taxation forms the subject of articles in the seventh and eighth numbers of this journal. In the former Dr. Cassel criticises the position taken up by Knut Wicksell as to the determinateness of the incidence of an income tax, and the following number contains a reply. The seventh and eighth numbers also contain interesting articles on industrial development in Sweden, continued in the ninth number. In No 10 Mr. Flodström pleads for an early publication of much important statistical matter, if only in preliminary form, that its usefulness and interest inay not be impaired through delay.

Giornale degli Economisti (Roma).

September, 1899.

In Morte del Prof. Ugo Mazzola. M. PANTALEONI and A. CABIATI. La Limitazione della Terra e la Causa Prima dei Fenomeni Economici. G. VALENTI. Socialismo e Liberismo. F. PAPAFAVA.

No. 36.-VOL. IX.

Y Y

October

Utilita Limite et Costo di Produzione. D. BERARDI. Come Funziona la Coste dei Conti Italiana. E. GIRETTI.

November. La Terra Libera la Generazione del Profitto. G. VALENTI.

Utilità Limite e Costo di Riproduzione. D. BERARDI. La Legge del Massimo Sforzo. E. GIRETTI. Un Nuoro Libro sul Governo Locale Inglese. D. ZANICHELLI.

La Reforma Sociale for September contains an interesting article on the great English Colonial Companies, over the well-known name of Riceardo Dalla Volta.

NEW BOOKS.

BADEN-POWELL (G.). The Origin and Growth of Village Communities in India. London: Sonnenschein and Co. 12mo. 2s. 6d.

CHAPMAN (S. J.). The History of Trade between the United Kingdom and the United States. London: Sonnenschein and Co.

CROOKES (Sir W.). The Wheat Problem : Based on Remarks made in Presidential Address to the British Association at Bristol in 1898. London: Murray. New York: Putnams. 8vo. Pp. 218. 3s. 6d.

GRAHAM (WILLIAM). English Political Philosophy from Hobbes to Maine. London: Edward Arnold. 1899. Pp. 413.

HULL (HENRY CHARLES). The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, together with the Observations upon the Bills of Mortality, more probably by Captain John Graunt. Cambridge: at the University Press. 1899. 2 vols. Demy 8vo, with three facsimiles. Pp. sci, 700. Price 25s.

[Reviewed above, p. 564.)

METCALF (J.). The Case for Universal Old Age Pensions. With Introduction by Charles Bouth. London : Simpkin, Marshall. 8vo. Pp. 228. 3s.

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