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LABOR

BY

MAX S. HA YES

As might be easily surmised, the de- ency could be interpreted in no other cision of Justice Wright, in the Federal way than that the defendants recanted Court in the District of Columbia, find - and acknowledged committing a crime ing Samuel Gompers, John Mitchell and in boycotting an unfair product and Frank Morrison guilty of contempt of standing upon their rights of free speech court for boycotting Bucks stoves and and maintaining a free press.

It is a ranges while under a restraining order pleasure to announce that the defendants and sentencing the union officials to serve are not in sympathy with the undigni. terms of imprisonment of six months fied, cowardly and blubbering proposito a year, has stirred up organized labor tion of prostrating themselves before the throughout the North American conti- Big Stick and humbly craving the pardon nent as nothing has done in the present of the chief executive and the master generation. Stacks of resolutions con- class that he represents. demning the decision and columns upon The three penalized officials, backed columns of editorials and communica- by the Federation executive council, have tions in the labor press denouncing Judge given notice that they will fight the Wright and his edict in all languages Wright decision to the highest court in indicate that the union people have been

the land, and an appeal for voluntary ' worked up to a high pitch of excitement contributions from unions and individand that they are beginning to realize uals, friends and sympathizers, has been that capitalism has forced a crisis upon issued, and the attorneys for the defendthem that can no longer be dodged and ants are mapping out an elaborate plan must be met.

of campaign that will result in this case But just what to do under the prevail. becoming historic and epoch-making. But ing circumstances—there's the rub. Un- the mass of organized workers seem to fortunately, judging the sentiment as re- be in a quandary as to what to do beflected in the labor press, the great bulk sides resoluting and spending an enorof the organized workers are still of the mous sum of money in an effort to se. opinion that to hurl invective at the cure justice at the hands of a prejuhead of Wright and to denounce govern- diced and hostile judiciary. The union ment by injunction until they are red in membership seems to have a child-like the face will somehow relieve the situ- faith or hope that the United States. ation or cause capitalism and its hench- Supreme Court may reverse the lower men to relent in waging war upon union court decision and its own famous (or labor. Some few officials and newspa- infamous) verdict in the celebrated Debs pers, but only a few, thank goodness, While some of the distinguished displayed the yellow streak by begging legal luminaries who sit upon the Sufor mercy, supplicating Roosevelt to preme Court bench may be approaching pardon Gompers, Mitchell and Morrison, their dotage, it is hardly reasonable or who contend that they have done no natural to expect that they will decide wrong, and, therefore, executive clem- in favor of Gompers, Mitchell and Mor

case,

rison at this juncture and acknowledge contempt of court in order that the pubthat they were wrong in sending Debs lic might become accustomed to the new to Woodstock. Of course, if the de- era of oppression. Now, by making anfendants happened to be meat trust rob- other test case, capitalism intends to bers, railway magnates or oil trust kings clinch its advantage and establish its there might be some reason to anticipate claim to govern through its courts once a favorable verdict, but being working- and for all time. Legislative and admen those in the prisoners' dock can ministrative bodies are to be regarded hardly hope to escape the enforcement of as subordinate to the judiciary. In“lor'n order” as interpreted by the class deed, Justice Wright says so in plain in control of the various branches of the terms. He declares bluntly what most government.

judges has held secretly, viz.: that the So we are going in for spending a big courts, having established the right to pile of money in battling against the pass upon the constitutionality of laws inevitable. But it will be money well enacted by Congress and other legislative spent. While the workers

may
have

vague bodies, are, therefore, superior to the and indefinite or no notions of what legislative and administrative branches. to do at present, besides adopting reso- He declares further that the people do lutions, getting warm under the collar not enjoy the fundamental rights of free and contributing their cash to the de. speech and free press; that there are fense fund, it is a hundred to one shot no laws guaranteeing such rights; that that they will learn a whole lot as the Congress is merely forbidden to enact case drags along. No matter how timid laws prohibiting free speech and free or unresponsive some conservative and press, and, consequently, the various reactionary leaders or officials may be, it istates can take whatever action they can be accepted as a settled fact that choose relating to these alleged rights. there will be more general and wide- This distinguished jurist having taken spread agitation of a political character this advanced position, it naturally folthan was ever before known on this con- lows that he becomes the spokesman of tinent. And it will be class-conscious the capitalist class, and that the claim politics at that. While a fairly good that legislative bodies are subordinate blaze started in last year's campaign, to the judiciary and that our vaunted Judge Wright has ignited a prairie fire rights of free speech and free press do which, while it was hoped would drive not exist in fact become fixed principles out organized labor, will prove of grave

that will be upheld so long as capitalism consequences to American capitalism and is in control of the political power of at no remote period.

state and nation. The workers have been given another The progressive element in the labor object lesson, and they will learn very movement foresaw these various moves rapidly that certain rights they be- on the chess-board of capitalistic rulelieved inviolate no longer exist. When they were bound to follow in logical Debs was sentenced to prison fourteen sequence after the Debs case was de years ago the progressive element in the cided. The Socialists in the labor movelabor movement declared that, so far as ment appealed to their fellow-workers to the workers were concerned, their rights take political action and strike at their of trial by jury, free speech and free persecutors at the ballot-box, but their press, had received a death-blow. True, pleadings fell upon deaf ears. "We will capitalism and its tools did not push compel the capitalist class to concede their advantage with unseemly haste. us our rights by resorting to the inGrad ually, only here and there, union dustrial strike and boycott,” the conmen were thrown into prison for alleged servatives declared, and the rank and

workers who have been the target for a raking fire from the batteries of capitalism for several years.

Now, when the manufacturers believe the organization is crippled by the heavy financial load, another attack is made. The bosses imagine that the union is on the ragged edge of bankruptcy and will be unable to support the men who are virtually locked out in withstanding a long siege. It remains to be seen whether their judgment is sound. The hatters are an old organization and good fighters. Their label is universally popular and the firms that will continue to use it will have a tremendous advantage in the market.

file nodded assent. “You Socialists are too radical,” was the cry. Well, the rains from heaven descend upon the just and unjust alike. Just so the injunction bludgeon is wielded against the rad ical and conservative alike, and it seems to be the irony of fate that Messrs. Gompers, Mitchell and Morrison, three of the ultra-conservatives, who have been among the most uncompromising opponents of radicalism, should be made to feel the iron heel at this juncture.

But the Socialsts in the labor movement will go along with the procession. They will do their share in making every sacrifice required, and one thing more, they will doggedly persist in voting against capitalism and its entire brood of parties, judges and politicians. All that the Socialists will ask in return is, not for privileges for themselves, but that the rank and file discard their timidity and fossilized conservatism and read and think and act along the lines marked out by their fellow workers of every civilized country in the world. The crisis is here; it's do or die now. Socialism or slavery! Which?

As if the United Hatters of North America did not have troubles enough in meeting the enormous financial burden as a result of the damage suit verdict obtained against them by Loewe, the manufacturer at Danbury, Conn., now the Associated Hat Manufacturers have begun what appears to be a war of extermination against that ill-fated union. While the attack of the employers' association is ostensibly directed against the use of the union label only, the fight

being waged to establish the open shop and cripple the organization by placing a premium upon scab labor. The hatters deserve a lot of sympathy and help. Martin Lawlor, their general secretary, informed me a short time ago that the Loewe case would cost them at least $200,000. That means more than $20 per capita must be paid by these

The threatened contest between the marine trades and the employers' associations and corporations on the Great Lakes will not be postponed until navigation opens. The struggle has commenced and preliminary skirmishing between the engineers and seamen on the one side and the Vessel Owners' Association and the United States Steel Corporation on the other side is being engaged in. The steel trust, through its subsidiary corporation, the Pittsburg Steamship Company, precipitated the fight by declaring for the open shop and forcing its engineers to sign individual agreements, which many of them did. Then the Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association took action by fining those who had signed and expelling several of the ringleaders. The latter thereupon announced the formation of a dual union, one that will probably be acceptable to the trust. The Lake Seamen's Union has also announced that the open shop schemes of the masters will not be ac. ceptable, and it is likely that the guer rilla warfare practiced last season will be abandoned and an open fight made

The longshoremen and affiliated branches have not yet announced their policy, but it is pretty certain that they will make common cause with

is rea

this year.

the engineers and seamen, so that for perhaps the first time in the history of marine organizations there is likely to be combined action in resisting the encroachments of organized capitalism.

cans

The American seamen are moving in the matter of securing a world's conference and united and harmonious action in approaching the various governments to secure beneficial legislation. The seamen of Europe are federated and during the past year the North Ameri

were represented at their annual congress. The plan is now to spread out and bring in the Australians, South Americans and probably the orientals. It is not generally known by the public, but it is nevertheless a fact, that the seamen are no better than chattel slaves in many respects, involuntary servitude being rigidly adhered to and supported by many governments.

carded like a squeezed lemon by those whose dirty work he had performed so faithfully, that he was reported to be financially bankrupt, and that he could not even obtain a poor political job paying a hundred dollars a month. One more chapter should be added to the biography of this repudiated prostitute of plutocracy. In a suit brought by the Portland Mining Company in Colorado, to recover $336,000 for ore alleged to have been stolen by twenty-four distinguished gents operating companies adjoining the Portland mine, the Hon. Mr. Peabody is named as one of the alleged thieves. The Portland Company charges that the ore was extracted from its premises by means of underground drifts, cross cuts, levels and workings extended from the defendants' mines, into the property of plaintiff. Since Peabody has been dumped by the mine operators and is unable to obtain a political job he might engage in the profession of burglary with more

It is by no means certain that Mr. Peabody will not spend his declining years in jail, where he should have been long ago.

success.

The attempt to form a federation of clothing workers is meeting with success. During the past month representatives of the United Garment Workers, International Ladies' Garment Workers and International Association of Fur Workers conferred and outlined plans to bring about the proposed merger. If the membership approve of the action taken, then it is probable that the Journeymen Tailors' Union will join the federation and later on the hatters, shirt waist and laundry workers, boot and shoe workers, suspender and tie makers, cloth hat and capmakers and other crafts. Thus organized labor is moving steadily and naturally into the broad field of industrialism and gradually the jurisdictional controversies will become a thing of the past.

During the past month the United Typothetæ of America, the open shop employers' association in the printing trade, introduced the eight-hour day generally. Thus, after a three years' struggle, the employers have bowed to the inevitable. They might have saved a lot of money and prevented many of their number from going bankrupt if they had taken a reasonable view of the matter in 1905. But they wanted fight and got it. It is only fair to say that the United Typothetæ is almost a total wreck, its activities being confined to a few establishments in the larger cities.

It was mentioned in last month's Review that ex-Gov. Peabody, the notorious tool of the Mine Operators' Association of the West, had been dis

As predicted in the Review, the annual session of the United Mine Workers just closed at Indianapolis, was one of the most exciting in the history of the trade.

LITERATURE

ART

BY

JOHN

SPARGO

men,

Readers of the International Socialist book which deserves to be widely read, Review who have read Mary E. Marcy's and should prove to be a popular gift interesting story of proletarian life, book. A peculiar feature of the illusOut of the Dump, which was published trations by R. H. Chaplin is that his serially in these pages, will be glad to women are much better done than his get it in the attractive little volume in which it has been issued by Charles H. Kerr & Company. In the convenient Alfred Noyes, the well known English size of the popular and useful "Standard

poet, has written for "The English Men Socialist Series," the volume is, by all of Letters Series," published by the odds, the most attractive which Kerr

Macmillan Company, an admirable lit& Company have yet issued. The volume

tle biographical study of William Morshows so many improvements, in binding, ris, the Socialist artist, craftsman and quality of paper used, and presswork, poet. Morris's genius was as gorgeous that one hopes it may be taken as an

and complete as one of his magnificent encouraging New Year promise of a like

tapestries, and through it all he eximprovement in the general publications

pressed his Socialist convictions and of the firm.

hopes. Mr. Noyes adds very little to the Mrs. Marcy, who is one of the clearest known facts of Morris's life; that was thinking Socialists in the American scarcely to be expected. But he has movement (which I can say the more added to our knowledge of the mai readily since I do not always agree with through a careful and sympathetic inter. her!), unites to an agreeable literary pretation of his thought and work. He style, a thorough knowledge of the pro- is much more sympathetic with the Soletarian life which she depicts. Possess- cialism of Morris than the "official” bi. ing a saving sense of humor, she takes ographer, Mr. Mackall, and takes occa. herself seriously, but not too much so, sion to express his scorn for some of and the good-natured satire which per- that gentleman's cold scholasticism. Those vades the story adds greatly to its who desire a small, compact account of charm. The story professes to be the the life and work of Morris and someautobiography of a poor girl, the daugh- thing like a critical estimate of the place ter of a laborer in a packing establish- he holds in the history of English literament, who becomes an investigator for ture, will welcome this very satisfying a Charity Organization Society, and its

little study. special purpose is to satirize professional philanthropy. The little book shows Speaking of Morris reminds me of that Mrs. Marcy knows Charity Organi. Henry James's essay upon the same subzation work from the inside.

It is a ject, which is included in his Views and

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