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21. " And also, that, at all times, as you shall think necessary, you do cause search to be made within your said ward for all vagrant beggars, suspicious and idle people, and such as cannot shew how to live; and such as shall be found within your said ward, that you cause to be punished, and dealt with according to the laws and statutes in such cases ordained and provided.

22." And also, we will and charge you, the said alderman, that yourself certify, and present before us, at the said general court, to be holden the aforesaid Monday next after the feast of the Epiphany, all the names and surnames, truly written, of such persons being and dwelling within your said ward, as to be able to pass in any petty jury by themselves; that is to say, every grand-juryman to be worth in goods an hundred marks, and every petty-juryman forty marks, according to an act in that case ordained and provided ; and the same you shall indorse on the back-side of your indenture.

23. “ Item, for divers reasonable and urgent considerations us especially moving, we straightly charge and com. mand you, on the king our sovereign lord's behalf, that ye diligently provide and foresee, that no manner of person or persons, within your said ward, what condition or degree soever he or they be of, keeping tavern, or ale-house, ale. eellar, or any other victualling house, or place of common resort to eat or drink in, within the same ward, permit of suffer, at any time hereafter, any common women of their bodies, or harlots, to resort and come into their said house, or other the places aforesaid, to eat or drink, or otherwise to be conversant, or abide, or thither to haunt, or frequent, upon pain of imprisonment, as well of the tenant and keeper of every such house or houses, and all other the places afore remembered, as of the common women and harlots.

21. “ Also, that you do give in charge to the wardmote inquest of your ward, all the articles delivered to you here- . with; and that you may have a special care of keeping the peace and good order during your wardmote; and if any offend herein, you may fine or punish them according to law.

25. “6 And

25. " And whereas the monies received for the fines of persons refusing to hold ward offices within your ward, ought to be employed in the service and for the public benefit of the whole ward, and not of any particular precinct or parish within the ward; these are therefore to require you to take care, that all such fines be, from time to time, disposed of accordingly, for the benefit of the whole ward, as you, with the deputy and common council-men of your ward shall think most fitting and convenient; and that no such fines be received or employed in any particular precinct or parish.

“ Not failing hereof, as you tender the common-weal of this city, and advancement of good justice, and as ye will answer for the contrary at your utmost peril. " Dated at

under the seal of office of mayoralty of the said city, in the

year of the reign of our sovereign lord George

&c." By this precept it appears, that the court of wardmote consists of the alderman and the respective householders of his ward, by whom are annually elected the several officers; among these the inquest receive the aforesaid instructions for their better regulation.

THE CHAMBERLAIN'S court is held in Guildhall, every morning, for inrolling and turning over apprentices, ad. mitting persons duly qualified to the freedom of the city, and deciding all differences arising between masters and their apprentices, of whom about two thousand are annually admitted into the freedom.

The coURT OF HALL-MOTE belongs to the several companies of citizens, by whom it is occasionally held in their respective halls, wherein the separate affairs of the company are transacted.

THE PIE-POWDER Court is held in Cloth Fair (during the time of Bartholomew fair) by the city of London, and Mr.

-, steward for the possessors of the dissolved priory of St. Bartholomew, for hearing and deciding all differences committed against the tenor of the proclamation, which is annually made before the lord mayor, on the eve of St. Bar. tholomew, for the better regulation of the said fair. VOL. II. No. 30,



ST. MARTIN'S-LE-GRAND COURT. This court belongs to the liberty of that name, and is subject to the dean and chapter of Westminster. It is a court of record, held weekly for the trial of all personal actions whatever : the leading process is a capias against the body, or an attachment against the goods ; so that a man's goods may be seized in his own house, if his person is not seized before: which is according to the practice of all antient liberties or franchises.

THE COURT OF THE TOWER OF LONDON. This is a court of record held by prescription within the verge of the city, on Great Tower Hill, by a steward appointed by the constable of the Tower of London ; by whom are tried actions of debt for any sum, damage, and trespass.

THE COURT OF GENERAL SESSIONS is held at Guildhall, eight times in the year.

PETTY SESSIONS held every day at the Mansion House before the lord mayor, or before an alderman at Guildhall.

The police of London has no troops, nor any sort of regular military watch: it is guarded by armed patroles and old men, who are only furnished with a lanthern, a pole,

, and an alarm rattle; these persons patrole the streets, cry the hour, and proclaim the weather; and are denominated the nightly watch.

Yet, though the city is so slenderly guarded, “it is," as M. Grosley, liberally observes, “ the only great city in Europe, where neither murders nor assassinations happen." -“Even in the most violent disturbances," continues this writer, “ when I was in the midst of the mob, I have seen them threaten weakly, plunder some houses obnoxious to them, throw a few stones; and though surrounded by troops, remain in a kind of awe, as well as the soldiers, through mutual fear of the shedding of blood."

“ In a word, the people of London, though haughty and ungovernable, are in themselves good-natured and humane : this holds even among those of the lowest rank *.”

We are thus naturally brought to describe the various classes of inhabitants of the metropolis. These may be di



• Remarks on England.


vided into four classes; the nobility and gentry; the merchants and principal tradesmen; the clergy, physicians, lawyers, and military; inferior tradesmen, &c. &c. &c. The first class usually residing six or eight months at what is called “ the west end of the town,” consists of such as have dependence on the court, or those who live independently on their fortunes; these personages are as much distinguished by their high rank as by their amiable qualities. Their be haviour in general is urbane, unaccompanied by tiresome external marks of civility. The luxuries in which they live, certainly create indulgences and extravagances; but among this class, characters abound, as remarkable for their philanthropy, as for their exalted birth. There is scarcely a charitable, a benevolent, or an useful institution, but has monarchy and nobility for its patron ; besides a long list of noble subscribers to promote its welfare.

The merchants and tradesmen form a class of beings ornamental to human nature. They equal the nobility in magnificence; their houses are palaces, richly and beautifully furnished, exhibiting the realities, unaccompanied by the ostentatious display, of plenty. Their estates are either the well-earned profits produced by the labour and ingenuity of ancestors; or an accumulation of property their personal acquisition ; thus they are generally masters of larger sums of money than they have occasion for in trade, and are consequently provided against accidents, as well as to make advantageous purchases. They differ, however, from the merchants of all other nations; for, when they have made competent fortunes, they retire to their estates, and enjoy the fruit of their industry, reserving only business sufficient to divert their leisure hours. Thus they become magistrates and gentlemen of independence in the counties where their possessions are situated; and, frequently being younger brothers of titled families, it is not uncommon to see them re-purchase the paternal domains which the elder branches have been compelled to dispose of as supplies for their recessities.

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Their punctuality is proverbial : they are at the same time generous and charitable, and obliging without being ceremonious; they are also easy of access, and communicative.

Let us follow them into their households. They rise early, survey the condition of their accounts, give their orders without severity; and having appareled themselves in a plain respectable garb, without footmen or attendants, pursue their concerns at the Exchange or the Custom House.

When we view the Royal Exchange, the New River, the Marine Society, Magdalen Hospital, &c.: with proud exultation we may exclaim, that they are the disinterested works of a Gresham, a Middleton, a Hanway!—all private merchants !—These are, however, but a part of the public spirited efforts of the London merchants. In the year 1784, six millions of money were raised for the vse of government; of which 1,200,0001. was raised by the Bank of England, the rest by twenty-two private London bankers.

The clergy, legal characters, and the military, being the same in all circles of society, we proceed to notice the leading features, by which the lesser tradesmen and the community of London are distinguished. No rank or dignity was formerly secure from the insults of the lower ranks, and the indiscriminate abus offered by them, were constant objects of regret * ; the many regulations, however, which have been made to curb their insolence, sufficiently secure the passage of the streets, and both natives and foreigners may pass without molestation.

But, as often is experienced, the civility of the shop. keepers compensates for the insolence of the rabble. They will be at pains to direct the right road to strangers; and

• M. Grosley mentions an entertaining anecdote to this purpose. « The late Marshal Saxe, walking through London streets, happened to have a dispute with a scavenger, which ended in a boxing bout, wherein the marshal's dexterity received the general applause of the spectators: he suffered the scavenger to make an attack, when seizing him whilst off his guard, the marshal whirled him into the air with such velocity, and hon such a direction, that he was immersed in the mud of his own cart.

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