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to the public welfure; that it is attended by a regular committee : that not a penny of the subscriptions is diverted from the object of them ; that no single person has any direction independent of the committee; and that it is of more universal utility, with regard to the present occasion of war, than all the other noble private charities with which this nation abounds. If all this were known, and we may pronounce it to be absolutely true, I think we should be higher in cash: not that we have checked our operations in any instance: we consider ourselves as the children of Providence, and have received many providential supplies. Necessity is the mother of invention; and we must hope that the rich will give us help to carry it through with spirit till the end of the war.

'I have not time at present to inform you of all that we are about; but I am in hopes we shall hit upon the means of providing for our boys when the war is ended, of which the Society, I make no doubt, will be very glad, but they must be properly assisted. As to the great national object, in respect to our Seamen in general, to which you pay so much attention, I will let you know my thoughts in good time. Farewell. *

Such were the beneficial effects of the institution, that the society had received from the year 1756 to the year 1762, 22,5531. 11s. 2d.

During the war which then subsisted, the society had clothed and equipped for the navy five thousand four hundred and fifty-two persons, chiefly landsmen, and four thousand seven hundred and forty-five boys, of whom the majority were in abject poverty, and unhappy candidates for perdition; while others suffering under the additional calamity of disease, were humanely relieved out of the funds of this most excellent society. The legacy above mentioned of 20,0001. and eventually of 20001. additional, was to be placed at interest; the amount of which is applied, during war, to the equipment of boys for the navy ; and, in peace, for apprenticing boys and girls; the society pre. ferring orphans of seamen and soldiers.

Thus have a body of philanthropists raised and substantiated a fabric dedicated to Humanity, to Patriotism, and

Reasons for an augmentation of at least twelve thousand mari. pers, &c. 1759,


to Virtue ; and formed an essential link to that vast chain of benevolence which is the honour of our country, and the admiration of surrounding nations! It justifies in every respect the compliment which Charles II. on a similar occasion, paid to the city of Amsterdam*.

It remains only to notice some of the leading features of the regulations by which the society is governed; this is obtained by the following short Prospectus of the necessities to be relieved, and the means of accomplishing a system by which the plan of this noble institution is rendered useful to the nation, and to its various objects of charity :

" It must be observed, that every man of war, privateer, and merchant ship, is obliged to take a certain number of boys, which are considered both as necessary to the ship, and a nursery for seamen; thus in every sixty gun ship of four hundred men, the captain and officers require thirty servants.

“ These it was impossible to obtain at the breaking out of the war in 1756 ; the society therefore sought for them among the vagrants, the pilferers, and those whose extreme poverty and ignorance rendered them pernicious to the community.

Of these boys they took some of thirteen years of age; but chiefly invited stout lads of sixteen and upwards, because they would soon become aole scamen; and now they take none who are less than four feet four inches in height.

As to the landsmen, they are required to be hardy, active, and robust; these, to prevent their being despised by the sailors, are immediately cloathed as seamen, and so divided among the messes of the mariners, as will soonest enable them to learn their language and duty, and they are

When Charles, by means of the influence of Lewis XIV. had been induced to make war with the Dutch, the United States were reduced to the utmost extremity; and their capital city was said, in the language of Charles's profligate courtiers, “ to be forsaken by Heaven.” “ No,” says the good-natured monarch,“ God Almighty will never forsake Amsterdam, whilst it exhibits such extensive charities !" What. might not Charles have said of his own metropolis had he now lived !


completely filted out without being obliged to expend any part of the bounty granted by his majesty to all the landsmen who enter into the service.

“ The cloathing and bedding given each of the boys are a felt hat, a worsted cap, a kersey pea jacket, a kersey pair of breeches, a striped flannel or kersey waistcoat, a pair of trowsers, two pair of hose, two pair of shoes, two handkerchiefs, three shirts; a bed, pillow, blanket, and coverlet; a pair of buckles and buttons; thread, worsted, and needles; a knife, a Prayer Book and Testament to those whose captains desire them, and a bag to put their cloaths in.

“ The cloathing given each of the men is, a felt seaman's hat, a kersey pea jacket, a waistcoat and drawers of the same, a pair of drab breeches, a pair of thin trowsers, a pair of worsted hose, a pair of yarn hose, two shirts, two worsted caps, one pair of shoes, one pair of buckles, one pair of buttons, a knife, thread, worsted, and needles, with a bag for their cloaths.

" A note of these cloaths is given to every man and boy, by which he may see what he has, but nothing is delivered till they are actually on board the tender in the river Thames, or in their respective ships at the ports; except to the boys, who are attended to the ships.”

In addition to all this, the society have been enabled to build a small vessel, which is usually moored off Greenwich, in this ship are schoolmasters and assistants, for the instruction and diet of the boys, destined probably, at some future period, to be great assistants in the protection of their country.

Passing CAMOMILE STREET, where is an elegant meeting house for Independent Protestant Dissenters, we come to a house, on the front of which is a mitre carved in stone. Here stood

BISHOPS-GATE. Though this entrance into the City has been demolished upwards of forty years, there are some anecdotes attached to its remembrance, that ought not to be passed over.


Mr. Strype imagined that this gate was erected by Erkenwald, bishop of London in the year 675; it was also said to be repaired in the time of William I. by William the Norman, bishop of London, and the great patron of the city: these circumstances might account for the effigies of the two bishops with which this gate was ornamented. Stow, however, makes no mention of it anterior to the year 1210, when William Blund, one of the sheriffs of London, sold to Serle Mercer, and William Almaine, procurators, or wardens of London Bridge, his land and gardens without Bishopsgate.

In the reign of king Henry III. the Hanseatic company of merchants residing in this city, in consideration of several privileges granted to them, obliged themselves and their successors not only to keep this gate in repair, but to defend it whenever it should be attacked by an enemy.

But the said company not fulfilling their contract, they were presented to the judges itinerant, sitting at the Tower of London, for their neglect in not keeping the said gate in repair, although they were made free of the city on that consideration.

Upon this presentment, Gerard Marbod, alderman of the Haunse, and the director of the said company, agreed to pay to the mayor and citizens the sum of two hundred and ten marks, for the immediate reparation of the gate, and entered into a new covenant, by which they bound themselves and their successors to keep it in repair and defend it for the future ; and by this company it was rebuilt in a beautiful manner in the year 1479.

In the year 1551, the abovementioned company of merchants prepared stone for rebuilding Bishopsgate ; but the company being dissolved about this period, a stop was put to the work, and the old gate remained till the year 1731, when it was quite taken down, and rebuilt, at the expence of the City, but not completed till 1735.

It is remarkable that when almost finished, the arch of the gate fell down; but though it was a great thoroughfare, and this accident bappened in the middle of the day, no person was hurt.


On the top over the gateway, was a carving of the city arms and supporters, and on each side of the gate was a postern for the convenience of foot passengers.

Crossing Bishopsgate Street, and proceeding down WormWOOD STREET, the first place of: consideration, on the left hand is

، ، OL. BROAD Street. A very handsome avenue, graced with public structures and good houses. The first object of attention is a building, formerly the Navy Pay Office; but more anciently denominated

WINCHESTER PLACE. This was part of the gardens of the Augustine monasters, and converted into a large mansion by Sir William Powlet, lord treasurer, afterwards riarquis of Winchester. The rest of the gardens were laid into houses and a street, called Winchester STREET, from its owner. Here was a large house, formerly inhabited by a Spanish ambassador, and by Sir James Houblon, alderman, of whom we have already taken notice*; and the houses of Sir Thomas Buckworth, and other eminent mer. chants.

“ This great house," says Stow, “ adjoining to the gardens, was built by the lord treasurer in place of Augustine Friars house, cloyster, and garden, &c." i Eurther up, on the same side of the way, is Pinners' HALL COURT, in which is the hall belonging to the Pinners' Compauy, but occupied by a congregation of Protestant Dissenters: this was also a part of the Augustine monastery, and was converted to a glass house, where Venice glasses were manufactured, under the management of Mr Jaines Howell, who was appointed; steward of the establishment, and afterwards clerk of the council to king Charles I.t

PINMAKERS' COMPANY. This fraternity was incorporated by letters patent, granted by Charles I. in the year 1636, and consists of a master, two wardens, and eighteen assistants; but there are no livery. * Vol. I. page 308.

Vol. I.


Page 173.


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