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riffs, bailiffs, &c. to use such persuasions to the Jews as the spirit of truth might inspire them with, to come to the temples of Christian worship; this, in process of time, was the cause of the foundation of a house of converts in Chan. cery Lane, called The Rolls.
The great body of the Jews however continuing in their obstinacy, or rather being so impoverished, that they could not supply the extravagancies of their superiors, were, for their crucifixions, emasculations, breaking of crosses, blaspheming, false coining, forgeries, and a vast catalogue of imputed crimes, in 1290, for ever banished the kingdom, and all their estates seized for the king's use.
When we revise this last transaction, though it teeme with injustice and robbery, we cannot but consider it as merciful when compared with the persecution these miserable objects of hatred, suffered in the present and preceding reigns.
John Speed, on this occasion, in his History of Great Britain, observes, “ King Edward banished the Jews out of his realm, on account of their having eaten his people to the bones; not neglecting therein his particular gains.”
After this banishment, we hear very little of these people till the time of Oliver Cromwell, when an attempt was made to re-introduce them into England. The necessities of Charles II. however, completed the business, and the Jews, with very little interruption, have formed a great part of British subjects to the present day.
The times of prejudice, of persecution, and of suspicion, have vanished; and been replaced by confidence, toleration, and loyalty. None have more amply ex
perienced their effects than the Jews, and none have repaid : better. They enjoy immense riches by lawful merchandize,
which they liberally dispense towards the exigences of government; they extend their charities alike to their own persuasion, and to Christian establishments; and, except with respect to religious persuasion, they are useful members of a generous empire, which they willingly help to support, and by which they are equally protected.
In London they have several synagogues and burial places, the principal of which are those belonging to the Portuguese in Bevis Marks, and to the Germans in Duke's Place. The first is a neat structure, eighty feet long, and fifty broad, handsomely wainscoted, and standing due east and west. In the centre of the building is placed the desk, ascended by several steps, where the appointed priests read the service, and pronounce the law. The east wall is railed, and contains the Sanctum Sanctorum, or sacred volumes, which are taken out and replaced with great ceremony and devotion. Over this, on the wall, are painted in Hebrew characters, without points, the law of the Ten Commandments. From the cieling are suspended seven large branches, besides other lights within the building. The seats for the men are benches with backs, under which are lockers with keys, containing their several articles of devotion ; and above are latticed galleries for the women. The whole structure is contrived in a plain inoffensive manner.
In both synagogues the following prayer for the king, in Hebrew and English, is worthy of notice :
" May God, who gives Victory unto Kings, and Dominion unto Princes, whose Kingdom is an everlasting Kingdom, may He who delivereth his Servant David from the hurtful Sword, who maketh a Way in the Sea, and a Path in mighty Water, bless, preserve, protect, assist, magnify, and advance on high, our Sovereign Lord King George III. Her Majesty, &c.
May He, who is the King of Kings, mercifully guard them and protect their invaluable lives, delivering them out of all straits and dangers.
“ May Almighty God, the King of Kings, in His mercy exal and render him glorious, and eminent, and prolong his days in his kingdom.
“ May the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, in His great Mercy, put into the Heart of the King, and into the Hearts of his Lords and Counsellors, tender Compassion towards us, that they may deal kindly with us, and with all Israel, our brethren. Amen."
The synagogue belonging to the German Jews, was a substantial building; but having been taken down and rebuilt, in consequence of a handsome legacy left for that purpose by a lady of immense property, it was finished about the year 1790, in a very superb and expensive manner.
The building is of brick, with a roof supported by massy stone pillars; and is furnished similarly to the former, except that here the utmost magnificence is exhibited. From the cieling are suspended seven modern highly finished brass branches, of peculiarly excellent workmanship, and must have cost considerable sums. Indeed the whole building is well worthy inspection ; and the beholder is always treated by the congregation with civility and respect. So that on a Friday evening, at the commencement of the Sabbath, it is a treat of vast gratification to hear the solemn chants and service; which, added to the tout ensemble, renders a visit to this temple of worship very interesting, more especially as the whole religious economy of the Jews, is so eminently conducted by the superintendence of the reverend doctor SOLOMON HIRCHEL, the high priest, and his very respected patrons, BENJAMIN and ABRAHAM GOLDSMID, Esquires; whose names are prominent in every benevolent, , every charitable, and every loyal undertaking.
In the front of this building, over the porch, is a large hall, purposely appointed for the celebration of the wed, dings of poor Jews. This contract is held of such high importance among these people, that its celebration is accompanied by the most extravagant feastings; and that, in such a solemnity, the poor classes may not appear uncomfortable, the whole society, by subscription, ordain the festival in this hall.
Returning up Shoeinaker Row to Aldgate, on the opposite side of the way, is Poor Jewry Street; probably so called from the resort of the necessitous sons and daughters of Israel, who remained in the outskirts of the City, after the banishment of their brethren. Here is a CHAPEL, for the use of persons of the Methodist persuasion. VOL. II. No. 43.
At the corner of Houndsditch is Sir John Cass's schools. This gentleman was alderman of this ward, sheriff, and twice representative for the city in parliament. In the year 1709 he built, at his own expence, in his life time, two schools for the use of the charity children belonging to Portsoken ward. These schools were opened in 1710, and a sermon preached in the church of St. Botolph, on the occasion, by Sir William Dawes, archbishop of York, in the presence of sixteen noblemen, and forty members of parliament, who had assembled to do honour to the founder of such a noble institution.
From the unfortunate circumstance of Sir John Cass dying with the pen in his hand, before he had completed his good intention by will; and the intricacies occasioned by accomptants and attornies employed, this excellent charity bad nearly been annihilated, had not Sir Crispe Gascoyne, developed the seeming obscurities, and ultimately caused the charity to be reconfirmed by a decree in chancery; he might, therefore, be properly deemed a second founder.
On the 12th of July 1748, the trustees, under this confirmation, held their first general meeting ; and thus was a foundation, the largest and best of the kind, the royal foundation of Christ's Hospital excepted, rescued from ruin : it has for its support a real estate, between 400 and 500l. per annum; and the interest of a personal estate, of 5000l.
Another school belonging to this parish is situated near Tower Hill, and is called Starling's schoul, from its founder, Sir Samuel Starling, formerly alderman of Portsoken ward,
THIS saint, according to the Britannia Sancta, was of noble English-Saxon extraction, whilst Christianity was in its infancy in these realms. Having travelled for improvement, he returned to his native country, where he led a monastic life, and died highly respected. Few British saints seem to have been more revered by the antient inhabitants of this island. Botolph's Town (now Boston) in Lincolnshire; and Botolph's Bridge (now Bottle Bridge) in Huntingdonshire, took their names from him; and besides the famous priory at Colchester, no less than four churches, in London are dedicated to his honour.
The first church' is supposed to have been built about the time of William I.; and in 1418, Mr. Robert Bereford, an eminent bell-founder in the parish, caused an aisle, dedi. cated to St. Catharine, a chapel to the Virgin Mary, and a new steeple to be made, agreeably to his will; though Stow says, that the principal part of the church was rebuilt by the prior and convent of the Holy Trinity. It, however,
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