« НазадПродовжити »
Several lanes and streets in Fenchurch Street, deserve notice from particular circumstances, besides those already mentioned. Cullum Street, was so called from a knight of that name, who was owner of the premises. Philpot Lane, was formerly the house and garden of the great Sir John Philpot, the patriotic citizen, in the reign of Richard II. Ingram Court now covers the residence of Sir Thomas Ingram, whose monument is in the church. Rood Lane, was pecu* liarly the residence of eminent citizens, and so at present are many of the streets and lanes in this neighbourhood. SAINT BENEDICT, OR SAINT BENNET,
THIS saint was born in the province of Umbria, one of the Italian States, in 480, and was patriarch of an order of monks called from him Benedictines, or Black-friars, from the colour of their habit; of which order were all the English cathedrals, except Carlisle. From the Benedictines have sprung many lesser orders, who took the rules of the first founder. Saint Benedict lived in retirement at this monastery of Cassino, which he had founded, till A. D. 543, when he died at the age of sixty-two.
It is uncertain when this church was first built; but Stow says, “ It was repaired and beautified in the year 1630, and Z z 2
had a new clock dyal and chymes added, Anno 1633.” In the year 1666 it was consumed by the fire of London, and again re-edifyed in the year 1685.
The roof is arched and adorned with fret-work.
It is very well wainscotted round, and handsomely pewed; and at the west end of the church is a neat little gallery.
The altar piece is spacious, consisting of four fine columns with the entablement of the Corinthian order. Between the columns are the effigies of Moses and Aaron; and the whole of the altar is enriched with fruit, leaves, festoons, &c. al} richly carved.
Over this carved work, is a large piece of architecture, painted in perspective, representing the arched roof and pilasters of a building, which appear from under a purple velvet festoon curtain, elevated by two cherubims; the altar is inclosed with rail and banister, and the floor is paved with black and white marble.
Here is also a curious font adorned with cherubims, &c. and the cover is fine carved work, round which are these words:--- Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of God.”
The length of the church within is about sixty feet, breadth thirty, and height about thirty-two. It is built mostly of stone, as is also the tower or steeple, whose altitude is about one hundred and forty-nine feet. In the west gallery is a small organ.
It is a rectory in the gift of the dean and chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral. The vestries are select.
To this parish is united that of St. Leonard Eastcheap.
The street in which this church is situated, was formerly, according to Stow, a grass market; from what follows, howcver, it appears to have been a market for other commodities.
The customs of Gracechurch Street market, in the reign of Edward III, were, that: “ Every foreign cart laden with corn or malt to Gersecherche, to be sold, was to pay one halfpenny. Every foreign cart of corn and cheese together, if the cheese be more worth than the corn, two-pence; then if the corn be more worth than the cheese, it was to pay a halfpenny. Of two horses laden with corn or malt, the bailiff had one farthing. The cart of the franchise of the Temple, and of St. Martin's le Grand, paid one farthing ; the cart of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem paid nothing for their proper goods : and if the corn were brought by merchants to sell again, the load paid one halfpenny.”
In Gracechurch Street, towards Cornbill, are the Cross Keys and Spread Eagle Inns. The first is probably derived from the cross and keys, which were usually carved in the fronts of churches, of which there are specimens in Ciampini De Sacris Ædificiis.
The residences of the nobility and other principal persons were formerly distinguished by the names of hotel or inn. The magnificent house of Sir John Poultney was called Poultney's Inn : It was also the inn of John Holland, duke of Exeter. The great Earl of Warwick had also his inn, by Newgate Street. The antient monasteries had their hostilarius, whose business it was to entertain guests, and to provide them with firing, napkins, and other necessaries during
Proceeding to the cross streets, where was formerly the antient standard, we remark that, upon digging the foundations, after the fire in Bishopsgate Street, in 1765, the arches of a sacred fabric of remote date were discovered. Hence to the Royal Exchange, concludes the First Rout.
Dukes Place, Houndsditch, Bishopsgate Street, to Norton
Bishopsgate, and Broad Street Wards.
notice through Cornhill to the end of Leadenhall Street; the first object, therefore, which claims our primary atten. tion, is the entry froin Aldgate to Duke's PLACE.
Here, as we have before stated,* was the Priory of the Holy Trinity, or Christ Church; founded in 1108, by Maud, queen to Henry I. the prior of which, in consequence of the donation of Knightenguild or Portsoken, was always an alderman, and appointed his deputy to transact temporal concerns. Having already said much upon its history, we have only to add, that it was esteemed the richest priory in England, and probably, for that reason, was the first to be dissolved. Henry VIII. granted it to Sir Thomas Audley, afterwards lord chancellor, who made it his residence, and died here in 1554.
Sir Thomas offered the great church of the priory, with a ring of nine bells to the parishioners of St. Catherine Cree, in exchange for their parish church of lesser dimensions, as he wished to have pulled it down and built towards the street. They, however, fearing the uncertainty of the tenure, declined the proposal. The priory church and steeple were then offered to whoever would take it down and clear away the materials; but no one was induced to accept the offer. Upon which Sir Thomas was obliged to be at more expence in taking down the fabric, than could be made of the stones, timber, lead, iron, &c. for the workmen, having commenced their delapidation at the top, without any method, loosed the stones and burled them down, so that they were broken, and of course sold under their value; any one might have a cart-load of hard stone brought to his own door for 6d. or 7d. with the carriage. The bells were disposed of to the parishes of Stepney, and St. Stephen, Coleman Street; the first purchased four of the largest, which form part of the present peal; the latter purchased the remainder.
After Sir Thomas's decease, the duke of Norfolk, came into possession, by marrying his daughter.
Upon this nobleman's attainder and execution, in consequence of his interference in the business of the queen of Scots, his possessions having been forfeited to the crown, this precinct, from the last possessor denominated Duke's Place, continued in that tenure till the reign of James I. when a misunderstanding having arisen with the parishioners of St. * Vol. I. page 60.
Catherine Cree and the inhabitants of Duke's Place, the latter solicited the archbishop of Canterbury to obtain the king's licence for building a church of their own. To this the king assented, and under his broad seal warranted them in proceeding with the structure, which was consecrated in 1622, during the mayoralty of Sir Edward Barkham; the manor of Duke's Place having been previously vested in the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of London.
THIS fabric is plain and unadorned, being constructed with brick. The tower is of the same materials, and embattled, on which is built a turret. The body is enlightened by four arched windows, and the pillars which support the roof'are Tuscan. On the north window is painted the arms of the city, and of Sir Edward Barkham: An inscription was affixed on the north side of the chancel in honour of the above magistrate :
VERSES consecraled to the eternizing the memory of the right honourable Sir Edward Barkham, Lord Mayor of London; the religious Mr. George Whitmore and Mr. Nicholas Raynton, Sheriffs and Alder. men of the honourable Senate and City, for their pious re-edifying the long decayed ruins of Trinity Christ Church in Duke's Place.