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Adjoining to the priory, Sir John Milborne founded alms houses, of which mention has already been made, Over the gate, towards the street, the old inscription, on a square stone, is still remaining : Ad laudem Dei & gloriose Virginis Marie, hos opus erexit Dominus Johannes Mil. borne, Miles of Alderman, hujus civitatis, A. D. 1535. Here is also a carving of the assumption of the Virgin, supported by six angels, in a cloud of glory.
ST. OLAVE, HART STREET.
THERE are three churches dedicated to this saint, in London, though no account of him is to be found in the Legends; we are however supplied with a few anecdotes of him from more authentic history. He was king of Norway, and having driven out the Swedes from his country, he restored it to liberty and prosperity, and afterwards recovered Gothland. He afterwards assisted Ethelred, king of England, and was a potent ally against the Danes. When Canutę ascended the English throne, Olave having made a peace with his namesake Olave, king of the Swedes, and
in the intrigues of Queen Katharine Howard. He was also brother-inlaw to Thomas, third Duke of Norfolk, condemned in the latter end of the reign of Henry VIII. and (matrimonial) uncle to the accomplished Earl of Surrey. The real crime of Sir Rhys seems to have been his alliance with the unfortunate Howards. The ostensible cause, the same as that of his amiable nephew. The earl was charged with quartering the arms of England; Sir Rhys, with using those of the princes of South Wales : for which both of them suffered death. From Sir Rhys is descended Lord Dinever; so titled from one of the family castles.Pennani.
married his daughter; his dominions were preserved during his father's life: but, after his death, this Olave, king of Norway, and his dominions, were constantly molested by Danish, incursions; the cause assigned was, his taking upon him to defend the truths of the Christian religion ; and because he had declared, “ that he would rather lose his life and king. dom, than his faith in Christ.”
The Norwegians also complained to Canute, and desired his assistance against their lawful sovereign; and as an inducement, elected Canute their king. But Olave, being assisted by Amandus, king of Sweden, his brother-in-law, overthrew Canute in a naval fight. Canute, on this defeat, procured, by bribery, three hundred of Olave's ships crews to revolt; the attack was then renewed, Olave was defeated, and obliged to flee his country, and was entertained by Jerislaus, sovereign of Russia, who had married his sister. Discord having arisen in Norway, a part of his subjects sent for him to resume his former government; which, having complied with, the opposite faction, under the influence of Canute, attacked, and, in a rebellious battle, overcame and murdered this innocent advocate for Christianity, in the year 1028.
The esteem in which this monarch was held by the English nation, as well for his friendship in assisting them against their inveterate enemies the Danes, as for his holy life, induced them to erect several of their churches to his memory. Certainly a more justifiable reason than many others; the motives being urged by gratitude.
This church does not seem to be of remote date; for the first account of it occurs in 1319. Having escaped the flames of 1666, it is described as being built of square stone, and of brick; and the windows, &c. are Gothic; the door is paved with stone.
It has galleries on the west, and part of the north and south sides; the first adorned with a handsome almonery for the poor's bread, the others with painted niches, and the figure of Justice carved; also with pilasters, festoons, and the arms of England painted and carved in relievo, U u 2
The roof is divided into quadrangles, interspersed with several armorial bearings. The pews are fronted with oak, and the walls wainscotted about six feet high. The altar, piece is adorned with two futed pilasters, their entablature and compass pediment, a vase, &c. Here is also a good organ.
The length of the church is fifty-four feet, breadth fiftyfour, altitude thirty, and that of the steeple about sixty feet, wherein are six bells.
The following persons of eminence were buried here:
Robert and Richard Cely, principal builders and benea factors of the church.
Sir Richard Haddon, mercer, mayor, anno 1512, the lat, ter part of the year.
Sir John Radcliffe, knight, and dame Ann his wife, anno 1568, and 1585.
Sir Hammond Vaughan.
His son, Dr. Peter Turner, an eminent physician, and a member of the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Heidelburg.
A very spacious marble monument, in memory of Sir James Dean, knight batchelour; dated 1608 ætat. sixtythree. It is adorned with four columns and entablature, of the Corinthian order, and the figures of a man and three women, in a kneeling posture; the inscription is in gold letters, and sets forth his piety and charity.
Two marble monuments on the north side of the altar, inscribed :
Paul Bayning, Esq. sometimes sheriff and alderman of London, lived to the age of seventy-seven years, and died the 30th of Sept. 1616.
Consecrated to the memory of Paul and Andrew Bayning. Esquires.
If all great Cities prosperously confess,
And Office, prove that they have thankful bin
Provided well both for their Souls and Heirs, Andrew Bayning, sometimes alderman of London, lived to the age of sixty-seven years, and died the 21st of Dec. 1610.
On the south side of the altar-piece, is a handsome black and white marble monument, of the Corinthian order, to to the memory of Sir John Mennes, an eminent physician, who died in 1670.
On the south side of the church, by the gallery, is a spacious white marble monument, with the figure of the de ceased carved at full length, erected in a nich, adorned with urns, cartouches, palm branches, cherubims, and a skeleton's head: to the memory of Sir Andrew Riccard, an eminent Turkey merchant, and chairman of that company ; with a mallet, as chairman, in his hand.
A small white marble monument, with a bust, and other ornaments, dedicated to ELIZABETH, wife of the learned SAMUEL PEPys, founder of the Pepysian library, Oxford.
A plated stone in the middle aisle, in memory of Philip Vanwilder, of the Privy Chamber to Henry the VIlIth, and Edward the VIth. Ob. an. 1553.
Another grave stone in memory of Dr. Milles, who had been rector of this church thirty-two years. Obiit Octob.. 16, 1689, aged sixty-three years.
The living is a rectory.
Nearly adjoining to this church is a curious relict of the architecture of our forefathers, up a gateway, lately occupied by a carpenter and basket maker. It is said that in old leases it was called WHITTINGTON'S PALACE* ; it might, have been the city residence of some eminent person ; but to prove that it could not be any dwelling of that great be. nefactor to the metropolis, a few remarks are necessary.
* Gentleman's Magazine, July 1796.
The mode of building is of the date of Queen Elizabeth's reign; and it was during her government that the grotesque mode of ornament mostly prevailed.
What has been called, in other descriptions of this build. ing, the Saxon arch, is no more than the Grecian, which Holbein introduced in the reign of Henry VIII. and of which the old gateway of Somerset House exhibited a striking proof, as do many others in the vicinity of London at the present day.
To illustrate this part of our subject, as much as possible, and to afford amusing information to our readers, whilst we endeavour precisely to fix the residence of Sir Richard Whittington, we present the following account of domestic architecture in England,
From the little information that has been transmitted to us on the subject of Domestic Architecture, we can only decide that the habitations of our forefathers at the commencement of the fifteenth century, were extremely rude and inconvenient : even towards the close of that century chimnies in the walls, or against the sides of the houses, appear to have been a novelty; the houses of almost all the common people were probably on one floor only; the idea of boarding them, either at the sides or bottom, had not then been conceived: the ground within them was covered with a few rushes, and among these were thrown all the bones, dirt, and filth occasioned by the consumption in the family, which was seldom or ever removed, but covered occasionally by fresh supplies of green rushes*, and nothing more filthy can be conceived. The first improvement which took place was probably derived from our intercourse with the Low Countries, and thence proceeded that mode of building which consisted of timber and plaster united; the latter was an improved substitute for the clay or marle, formerly
Lady Compton, in her letter to her husband, mentions the servan going before with the greens, when they were removing from one house 10 another. She brought her husband an immense fortune, and may be supposed to have liyed in as much splendour as any person in her time, See Nichols's Canonbury House,