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1741{ Humphry Parsons, esq. *

1742{ George Heathcote, esq.

1750 { John Blachford, esq.

1752{Robert Alsop, esq.

1735 Sir Edward Bellamy, knt. 1768 Hon Thomas Harley 1736 Sir John Williams, knt. 1769 Samuel Turner, esq. 1737 Sir John Thomson, knt.

17703 William Beckford, esą

.

esq. 1738 Sir John Barnard, knt. 1739 Micajah Perry, esq.

1771 Brass Crosby, esq. 1740 Sir John Salter, knt.

1772 William Nash, esq.

1773 James Townsend, esq. Daniel Lambert, esq.

1774 Frederick Bull, esq. Sir Robert Godschall, knt. 1775 John Wilkes, esq.

1776 John Sawbridge, esq. 1743 Robert Wilimot, esq. 1777 Sir Thomas Hallifax, knt, 1744 Sir Robert Westley, knt. 1778 Sir James Esdaile, knt. 1745 Sir Henry Marshall, knt. 1779 Samuel Plumbe, esq. 1746 Sir Richard Hoare, knt. 1780 Brackley Kennett, esq. 1747 William Benn, esq.

1781 Sir Watkin Lewes, knt. 1748 Sir Robert Ladbroke, knt. 1782 Sir William Plomer, knt. 1749 Sir William Calvert, knt. 1783 Nathaniel Newnham, esq. Sir Samuel Pennant, knt. 1784 Robert Peckham, esq.

1785 Richard Clark, esq. 1751 Francis Cokayne, esq.

1786 Thomas Wright, esq. Thomas Winterbottom, esq.

1787 Thomas Sainsbury, esq.

1788 John Burnell, esq. 1753 Sir Crisp Gascoyne, knt. 1789 William Gill, esq.' Edward

1790 William Pickett, esq.

1791 John Boydell, esq. 1755 Stephen Theodore. Janssen, 1792 Sir John Hopkins, knt. esq.

1793 Sir James Sanderson, knt. 1756 Slingsby Bethell, esq.

1794 Paul Le Mesurier, esq. 1757 Marshe Dickinson, esq.

1795 Thomas Skinner, esq. 1758 Sir Charles Asgill, knt. 1796 William Curtis, esq. 1753 Sir Richard Glyn, knt. and 1797 Brook Watson, esq. bart.

1798 John William Anderson, esq. 1760 Sir Thomas Chitty, knt. 1799 Sir Richard Car Glyn, knt. 1761 Sir Matthew Blackiston, knt. 1800 Harvey Christian Combe, esq. 1762 Sir Samuel Fludyer, knt, and 1801 Sir William Staines, knt. bart,

1802 Sir John Eamer, knt. 1763 William Beckford, esq.

1803 Charles Price, esq. 1764 William Bridgen, esq.

1804 John Perring, esq. 1765 Sir William Stephenson, knt. 1805 Peter Perchard, esq. 1766 George Nelson, esq.

1806 James Shaw, esq. 1767 Sir Robert Kite, knt.

The sheriffs having mostly arrived at the dignity of alder. derman or mayor, a list of them here is unnecessary. * Those in Italic, died in their mayoralty.

1754{Shomas Rawlinson, esą.

ALDERMEN.

This office is of very remote date. The Saxon appellation of ealderman, alderman, or oldman, is of the same signification as the Latin appellative sener, whence is de, rived senators. The epithet of ealderman, among the antient Saxons, appears to have been a title of the greatest honour, and the title of alderman was the same as that of earl; the city of London, therefore, must have been in very great repute, when the noble appellation of aldermen was conferred upon her magistrates, which probably gave rise to the honourable distinction of barons, whereby the aldermen and commonalty of London were long after denominated.

Whether the city of London at first, was divided into wards by king Alfred, (after his re-building the same, as already mentioned) or by arbitrary lords, whose demesns in the city were held in vassalage by the citizens, or by others, is unknown. However, the second seems the more pro. bable, seeing that, during the Saxon government, most of the cities and towns in this kingdom were held in demesne or vassalage; which is strongly corroborated by the wards of this city being antiently hereditary, and alienable at the will of the aldermen.

And it is observable, that the wards of aldermanries of this city were denominated from the aldermen, and antiently changed their names as often as their masters ; and that the division of the city into wards or aldermandries, appears to be of great antiquity; for it is manifest that London had both wards and aldermen in the reign of king Richard I. which is aboye five hundred and fifty years ago.

The first number of wards in this city was twenty-four ; but in the year 1394, Farringdon ward being divided by act of parliament, the outward division was erected into a separate ward, which made up the present number of twenty-five, for that called Bridge Ward Without, being only nominal, it is well adapted to the senior alderman, who by his great age is rendered incapable of undergoing

much

much fatigue; but in case of non-acceptance, the court of aldermen choose another of their brethren to supply the vacancy.

In Strype's edition of Stow's Survey, vol. ii. p. 238. is inserted the following antient customs, rules, and passages, concerning the aldermen of London, extracted from the re. cords of the city chamber.

“ Neither mayor nor aldermen, nor their servants, to hold a brewhouse, tavern, or bakehouse.

" An alderman or common council man removed from their dignities, not to be re-elected.

6 An alderman lost his liberty because he was absent from the city for the greater part of the year.

" An alderman Jined not his cloak, which he ought to use in procession, therefore it was adjudged by the court, that the mayor and aldermen should all breakfast with him.', This was probably a suitable punishment for his covetous

ness.

“ One was judged and imprisoned for false words spoken of an alderman.

One Gydney was imprisoned, because he refused the office.

" An alderman was rejected for incapacity.
6. One was imprisoned at the command of an alderman.

“ Heretofore the mayor and alderen came to Guildhall but once a week.

“ The custoses of the city had one roll of pleas in the mayor's court, and the alderman another.

66 An alderman was once elected and sworn recorder.

" One was imprisoned, and his right hand cut off, because he made an assault upon an alderman ; another imprisoned for rebellion made to an alderman; and another for opprobrious words spoken to an alderman. Rebellion to an alderman was made imprisonment for a year and a day, besides loss of freedom to the offender.

Formerly four persons were presented and one of them chosen ; this was confirmed by common council; and the nomination of aldermen elected by the wards was rejected; 2

though

though the wards had been bound to answer for the conduct of the person elected.

“ None to be aldermen, unless born within the kingdom of England, and his father an Englishman.

“ The aldermen were formerly required to gather the debts due to the king in their respective wards.”

In the 17th of Richard II. anno 1394, it was by parliament enacted, that the aldermen of the city of London should not from thenceforth be elected annually, but continue in their several offices during life, or good behaviour.

The aldermen of London having antiently become so by purchase, occasioned great jealousies among the commonalty ; for the allaying of which, and preventing the like for the future, it was, in the year 1402, by the common council enacted, that they should be elective; the manner of which election has several times varied: but in the year 1714, by the common council of the city, it was enacted, that from thenceforth, in all elections of aldermen, there shall be chosen only one citizen by the inhabitants of every ward destitute of an alderman, and the person so elected to be returned by the lord mayor (or other returning officer, duly qualified to hold a court of wardmote) to the court of lord mayor and aldermen, by whom the person so returned is to be admitted, and sworn into the office of an alderman.

The different factions in the city continuing vigorously to oppose each other in the choice of their representatives to serve in parliament, lord mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, common councilmen, chamberlain, town clerks, &c, application was made to parliament to prevent such disputes for the future, by reducing the number of electors, which was thought would in a great measure prevent violent contests on all such occasions.

The aldermen are the second constituent part of the city legislature, and all of them, who have passed the chair, and three under it, are by charter perpetual justices of the peace within the city, and by the same power, they are by virtue of their office exempt from serving on inquests, juries, &c.

SHERIFFS.

SHERIFFS.

These magistrates were antiently chosen from the com monalty, commoners, and oftentimes never came to be aldermen; many aldermen also were never sheriffs, and yet were advanced to the mayoralty ; a greater regularity, however, has since taken place; for at present, by the constitution of the city though any citizen is eligible to be sheriff, except he swear himself not worth 15,0001. yet such sheriff cannot be lord mayor till he be elected an alderman,

The elder sheriff was formerly nominated by the lord mayor, who drank to him by name, as the sheriff for the ensuing year; and this nomination was, by custom, confirmed by the commonalty. The commons, however, contended against the custom, and so far succeeded, that both sheriffs were elected for some time by the whole body of the livery. In the year 1704, however, Sir John Parsons, lord mayor, agreeably to a late act of common council, revived the antient custom of nomination. The method is now that the lord mayor drinks to fourteen respectable citizens, two of whom on Midsummer Day, are elected by the livery, and being so elected, are compelled to serve on pain of a fine of 4001. The lord mayor cannot properly elect a com. moner sheriff, if there is an alderman who has not served the office, though this is often done; but the refusal of an alderman to serve, subjects bim to a penalty of six hundred marks, and to be again eligible, one hundred pounds of which is to be given to the person who first takes upon himself the office, and should there be a second forfeiture, one hundred pounds to him who fills up the vacancy; the rest to be deposited in the city chamber. The court of aldermen have no power, without the consent of the common council, to dispense with fine above one year. If, however, the 400l. is paid by the citizen drank to, he is exempted from serving for three years, nor can he be again drank to by any future lord mayor. The bond given to serve is 1000l.

The sheriffs were originally called bailiffs; they were judges of themselves only in their courts of personal pleas,

and

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