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Wakefield Tower, so called on account of its being the place of confinement for the prisoners taken at the battle of Wakefield, in the civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster:

Beauchamp Tower, noted for the iniprisonment of illustrious personages; hence it was that Queen Anne Boleyn wrote her celebrated letter to a pitiless tyrant. To her apartments succeeded the innocent Lady Jane Gray, who was commiserated even by the relentless, bigotted, Mary I. and probably might not have suffered; but the rebellion of the Duke of Suffolk hastened her death at seventeen years of age. John Fox, lamenting her catastrophe, has these quaint, though significant lines:

" What eyes thou read'st with, reader, know I not;

Mine were not dry when I her story wrote.” We might be profuse in recounting the many noble personages, to whom this fortress was either a palace or a prison ; we only subjoin a few of the latter: the innocent victim of royal jealousy, Lady Arabella Stuart, whose affinity to Queen Elizabeth and James I. made her an object of suspicion to both those potentates. Her misfortunes and sufferings deprived her of her senses, in which distressing state she ended her life September 27, 1615, and was pompously buried in Henry VII.'s chapel, near her ill-fated sister-in-law, Mary, Queen of Scots. Henry, Earl of Northumberland, contined for the concern he had in the Gunpowder Plot, used to amuse himself with philosophical subjects; his acquaintance with astronomy, and, probably, with judicial astrology, induced the vulgar to assert that he consulted wizards, and dealt with the devil. Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, the friend and companion of the unfortunate Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, was a prisoner here during Elizabeth's reign.' A circumstance is related of his favourite cat, which, if true, excels the romantic story of Whittington's cat. This favourite animal surprized its master by a visit, after having



travelled from his lordship's house in Holborn, near Southampton Buildings, to the Tower; and, as tradition asserts, found its way intu his lordship’s apartment by means of the chimney. Mr. Pennant saw at Bulstrode, the Duke of Portland's seat in Buckinghamshire, an original picture of this nobleman, in his place of confinement, in a black dress and cloak, with the faithful animal sitting by him. It is probable, that this picture may have given rise to the tradition.

Bishop Wren, uncle of Sir Christopher, was committed prisoner to the Tower, by the parliament, for his loyalty, which was then termed high treason, in company with nine other prelates, on the 31st of December 1641. This bishop continued a prisoner eighteen years, till released and restored to his see, at the Restoration.

Sir Richard Gurney, lord mayor, was committed here July 11, 1642. It would be a principal subject of our work were we to recount the many acts of flagrant injustice and tyranny exhibited here during these melancholy times, the present list closes therefore with a culprit of different complexion : Lord Chancellor Jeffries, the cruel instrument of despotism under James II. expired here a prisoner. Devoid of humanity when in his prosperous days, his spirits failed him in his adversity; he died of a broken heart, aided by in, temperance. Pennant mentions a bard-hearted insult of fered to this fallen peer, during his confinement. Having received, as he thought, a present of Colchester oysters, he expressed great satisfaction at the thought of having some friend left; but, on taking off the top of the barrel, he was surprized by the appearance of man halter !—The insult was equally vulgar and barbarous.

Warders. Henry VIII. on the death of his father, immediately retired to the Tower for some time for the sake of privacy, and to have leisure to form an administration, here he continued several months, and was attended by his yeomen of the guard. Fifteen of these were left in the Tower, and their name changed to that of Warders. They seem not to have been allowed the same distinctions


of dress as those who attend the royal person, till the following reign. When the protector, Duke of Somerset, was confined here for the first time, he observed the diligent attendance of the warders; and promised them, that, when set at liberty, he would procure them the favour “ to weare the king's clothe as the yeomen of the guarde did.” Somerset obtained his release, and caused the warders of the Tower to be sworn extraordinary of the guarde, and to weare the same livery they do; which had the beginning by this means *.

The government of this fortress is by a constable, who is usually a nobleman; and under him by a lieutenant, and subordinate officers. Strype concludes the account of the Tower, with the following summary:

" This Tower, says he, is a citadel to defend or com. mand the city: a royal palace for assemblies and treaties ; a prison of estate for the most dangerous offenders; and the only place of coinage for all England + at this time; the armoury for warlike provision; the treasury of the ornaments and jewels of the crown; and the general conserver of the most (antient) records of the king's courts of justice at Westminster. ." As a fabric of antiquity, it is impossible to pass by the Tower without taking some notice of it; being visited so much by the good people of England, as a place made venerable by the frequent mention of it in history; and famous for having been the scene of many tragical adventures : but I must caution those of my readers, who are un.. skilled in architecture, not to believe it a place of strength, beauty, or magnificence; it is large and old indeed, and has a formidable row of cannon before it to fire on rejoicing days.”

Having rested a long while in our perambulation, in describing the Tower, the route is pursued to the commence

* Pennant.

+ The copper coinage has however been lately transferred to the manufactory of Messrs. Boulton and Co. in Birmingham, by order of government.


ment of a long and narrow street, denominated for its approximity THAMES STREET.

Here was antiently a large stone building, which was appointed for the residence of the sovereign princes of Wales, when they came to the metropolis, and to the court in the Tower, to do homage.

GALLEY Key is so called, because the gallies from Italy, and other mercantile states, discharged there the wines, &c. which had been imported; and it is stated in Stow, that they had halls, storehouses, and other accommodations, equally with the Hanseatic merchants at the Steel Yard; or the merchants of Bourdeaux, at the Vintry. But the first object of peculiar attention is

THE CUSTOM HOUSE, The busy concourse of all nations who import their commercial tribute to the support of the British realms.

It appears that as early as 1385, in the reign of Richard II. John Churchman, one of the sheriffs, considering the many inconveniencies attendant upon the want of a proper place to collect the customs, erected a house in this place for that .purpose. But at this period, and for many succeeding -years, the irregularity of these collections was a cause of much complaint; therefore, in the year 1559, in consequence of the increase of commercial intercourse, and the frauds detected by government, an act was passed “To compel people to land their goods in such places as were appointed by the commissioners of the revenue." A Custom House was fixed here as a very eligible situation; but being destroyed by the great fire, another fabric was constructed in the reign of Charles II. at the expence of 10,0001. This structure having been also burnt down, with one hundred and twenty other houses in Thames Street, on the 13th of January 1714-15, besides fifty persons who perished in the flames; it was again rebuilt, at the expence of government, in the form in which it at present appears.

The whole building is one hundred and eighty-nine feet long, constructed in a substantial manner of brick and VOL, II. No. 38.



stone; with large warehouses underneath, and on each side, for the reception of goods and merchandize; and the wharf next the river is spacious, though, considering the vast increase of commerce, inconvenient for all the purposes of landing. The centre standing back from the river, is twenty-seven feet in depth, terminated by deep wings.

Taken in the aggregate, the Custom House is judiciously and elegantly decorated with the various orders of archi. tecture. Under the wings is a colonade of the Tuscan or. der, and the upper story is ornamented with Ionic columns and pediments. It consists of two floors; the uppermost of which is a magnificent room, fifteen feet high, running almost the full length of the building, and is distinguished by the name of the Long Room; it is equally appropriated for the use of the commissioners, and the various officers of the establishment; and is also the usual place of sale for contraband and other goods by auction *.

The lesser parts of this building are disposed into offices, &c. and are well contrived to answer the various purposes of merchandize.

* The sales at the Custom House, when compared with former years, demonstrated that the quantity of sugar, coffee, and other West India commodities, seized from plunderers of every description, from being extensive in former years, was greatly reduced during the period of the operation of the preventive system, recommended by Mr. Cole quhoun.

Coffee. Custom House sales for the year, previous Ib.


Ib. to the establishment of the marine police 28,446 13,577 Sales for the year after the establishment of the marine police

9,370 3,716

Reduction of seizures 10,076 9,861 It is believed, that upon minute enquiry, it will turn out in point of fact, that little or no sugar or coffee was seized, in the posession of thieves, during the year ending in March 1799, and that the sales were chiefly composed of private adventures seized in the ships, and not of plunder, as on former occasions. Treatise on River Police.

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