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lands, in the county of Devon. Gent, by whom he had 5 sons and 5 daughters; his eldest son Giles dyed in the East-Indies, in the Streights of Molucca, going to China, in the year 1688. His second son dyed in the West-Indies, commander of his Majesties ship the Pembrook, 10 months after his father, and aged 27 years. He had served his Majesty king William in all the war with France, and was in all engagements by sea during the war, but dyed in the squadron under the command of Admiral Nevil, in the fatal sick. ness, wherein so many brave men lost their lives."
Near this is another, to the memory of Dr. Baldwin Hamey, a respectable physician to the grand duke of Muscovy, and practised for forty-two years with great credit. He died in 1640, at the age of seventy-two.
The exterior of this church has nothing extraordinary, except being kept clean. The tower of brick contains six bells, and is encumbered on each side by dwelling houses, which in case of any accident by fire, might be of great consequence to the destruction of the whole fabric.
Captain John Hotham, who was beheaded on Towerliill, January 1st, 1644, lies in the church. Granger informs us that, “ Sir John Hotham, a man of a timid and irresolute nature, and without any firm principles of attachment to king Charles I. or the parliament, was by the latter appointed governor of the town of Hull, the most considerable magazine of arms and ammunition in the kingdom. Charles, perceiving to what lengths the commous were proceeding, was determined to seize this fortress; but was peremptorily refused admittance, when he appeared before it in person, by the governor, who was instantly proclaimed a traitor. Though Hotham was employed, he was not trusted ; his son, Captain Hotham, who was much more devoted to the parliament, was a constant check and spy upon him. At length, both father and son were prevailed upon to listen to the overtures of some of the royalists, and to enter into a correspondence with them. This quickly brought them to the block. They died unlamented by either party; and were, by many, regarded as victims to the just vengeance of heaven, rather than martyrs to the royal cause.”
Humphrey Humphrey Monmouth, draper and sheriff, in 1535, was buried in the church-yard. Strype informs us, that he was a great ornament as well as alderman of the city; being a person of good wealth and great charity, in promoting the true knowledge of the Gospel. He harboured the martyr Tyndall, and encouraged his English translation of the New Testament, to the printing of which he largely contributed. This brought down the vengeance of Sir Thomas More, the lord chancellor, by whose means he was committed to the Tower; the power of Cromwell, earl of Essex, and Sir Thomas Audley, however, reserved him from the persecution which awaited him. By his will, dated 1537, he appointed bishop Latimer, Dr. Barnes, Dr. Crome, and Mr. Taylor, all gospellers and famed preachers, to expound the scriptures in this church, at two sermons each week, till thirty sermons had been preached; which he conceived would be of more utility than saying masses for his soul; and for this purpose he left those divines a legacy; he explicitly forbad the ordinary superstition of candles, singing Dirige, and ringing bells at his funeral; and to evince his gratitude for his protectors, he bequeathed legacies to lord Cromwell and lord chancellor Audley.
“ In this church, says Pennant, were also deposited, for a time, the bodies of the accomplished Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, and two eminent prelates, who ended their sufferings by the axe, on Tower Hill. The remains of the earl were removed, in 1614, to Framlingham in Suffolk; those of the pious Fisher, bishop of Rochester, whose head had been exposed on a pole at London Bridge, were removed to the chapel in the Tower, to rest by the side of his equally unfortunate friend Sir Thomas More; those of the venerable, the indiscreet archbishop Laud rested here from 1644 till 1663, when they were finally deposited in St. John's College, Oxford, over which he had presided."
An hospital for poor priests and for lunatics was intended in this parish as early as the reign of Edward III. but the design not being completed, the revenue was granted to the VOL. II. No. 37.
hospital hospital of St. Catharine, the custos and chapter of which were to find a chaplain to pray for the soul of Robert Denton, the original founder.
Returning to Tower Hill, previously to visiting the Tower, we cannot dismiss the subject, without offering an opinion concerning the following passage in Shakspere's Henry VIII. act v. scene uit. :-" These are the youths that thunder at a play-house, and fight for bitter apples; that no audience, but the Tribulation of Tower Hill, or the limbs of Limehouse, their dear brothers, are able to endure. I have some of 'em in Limbo Patrum, and there they are like to dance these three days:''
Dr. JOHNSON supposes the Tribulation of Tower Hill, to have been a puritanical meeting house; and of the same opinion is WARTON. STEEVENS seems to confirm these opinions by extracts from “ Every Man in his Humour,” &c. and adds that Limehouse before the time of Shakspere, was a resort for foreigners of every persuasion; the clashing of opi. nions occasioned quarrels, and this might occasion the denomination “ Limbs, or rather lambs of Limehouse." MALONE thinks the expression “to point at some apprentices and inferior citizens, who used occasionally to appear on the stage for amusement." This he endeavours also to strengthen by noticing plays “ acted by London 'prentices.” HENLEY, with much asperity attacks Johnson and Warton for their 70tions concerning the Tribulation, as a puritanical conventicle; and adds, “ It is evident the Tribulation, from its si. tuation, must have been a place of entertainment for the rabble of its precincts, and the Limbs of Limehouse such persons as furnished out the shew." . With due deference to the opinions of the above learned critics, we presume to differ from them in every point, for the following cogent reasons: The epithet Tribulation, was not the name given to the seceders in the reign of queen Elizabeth; nor did any title except that of puritans, attach to that body till the Civil Wars furnished the nonsensical titles which the Presbyterian party made use of, and which Butler
and the other wits of those times justly satyrized; nor had they any places of worship to give a sanction to Johnson, Warton, or Steevens's interpretation of Shakspere. Malone is nearer to the mark; though far from the exact meaning of the text; and Henley with all his attempt at shrewdness, has evidently mistaken the whole.
If we take the text with the context, we shall find that the porter, when in a passion on account of the rabble who had forced into the palace at t'ie christening of princess Elizabeth, asks “ Do you take the court for Paris garden? ye rude slaves, leave your gaping.” Now Paris garden was a place of resort for the lowest rabble, to see bear-baitings; and is denominated by Ben Jonson " that accursed ground the Paris garden!” This the porter confirms, by saying to one of them, “ Belong to the gallows, and be hang'd, you rogue. Is this a place to roar in ?" To which the porter's man adds, “ 'Tis as much impossible to scatter them, as'tis to keep them asleep on May-day morning ;” May-day in these times was esteemed the great holiday of vulgarity; as has been noticed in the account of Evil May-day. The porter goes on “ Is this Moorfields to muster in ?” This might allude to a riot which had taken place in Moorfields some time before. He then proceeds to the above allusion to The Tribulation; and here we submit that it related neither to religious or theatrical conventicles; but to the gallows which had been erected on Tower Hill from the reign of Edward IV. and which is represented in all the maps of Loudon to Shakspere's time. It is well known that the melancholy scenes of execution, are too often subjects of sport and derision among the lower classes, who usually form the audience at such lamentable representations; and here we have no doubt but that this was the poet's meaning. The court at the christening of Elizabeth was at Greenwich, and as Limehouse was opposite, and at that tiine an obscure habitation of noisy mariners, it is not improbable that the Limbs of Limehouse applied to such a noisy, ungovernable set of beings. This conjecture is strengthened by the observation of the lord chamberlain:
Ye have made a fine hand, fellows.
Your faithful friends o' the suburbs?” It is well known that the suburbs in this and the preceding reigns were places of irregular, and too often, of dishonest resort.
We have only to add that Tower Hill for many years was the scene of an annual exhibition of fireworks, on account of the king's birth day, which was discontinued in the present reign.
THE TOWER. This fortress is in a well chosen situation, and lies to the castward of London, and near enough to cover all the city from invasion by water, being only eight hundred yards from the bridge; and to the north of the river Thames, from which it is parted by a narrow ditch and convenient wharf: it has a communication, by a drawbridge, for the readier issuing and receiving ammunition, and naval or mi. litary stores. The wharf is mounted with upwards of 60 pieces of cannon, nine pounders, chiefly used to fire upon days of state. Parallel to the wharf, within the walls, is a platform, seventy yards in length, called the Ladies Line, shaded within by a lofty row of trees, and also a delightful prospect of the shipping, with boats passing and repassing on the river Thames. The ascent to this line is by stone steps, whence there is an uninterrupted walk almost round the walls of the Tower, passing three batteries; the first called the Devil's Battery, which has a platform, mounted with seven pieces of cannon, though on the battery itself are only five; the next, called the Stone Battery, defended by eight pieces of cannon; and the third, called the Wooden Battery, mounted with six pieces of cannon ; all nine pounders.
The principal entrance into the Tower is by the west gate, which is large enough to admit coaches and heavy carriages ; after having been first admitted through an outer gate, and passed a stout stone bridge, built over the ditch, to the main entrance. There is besides, an entrance for