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the countries of Europe, hoping to reach the spot where kirk and Barcelona, both on the sea level; the neceshis bells might be. Years after they had been manu sary operations were commenced in 1792, but with factured, it happened that, towards the close of spring, great impediments in the turbulence of the Revolution. on a lovely evening, a vessel had anchored at some dis- Mechain, to whom the southern end of the line had tance from Limerick, and a boat was seen to glide from been assigned, was arrested while making his observaits side along the Shannon. It had been hired by one tions at the base of the Pyrenees, as a traitor conveying of the passengers -- the Italian artist-now grown old signals to the enemy; and was afterwards in prisoned and gray. He was impatient to reach the city, to which for nearly a year in Spain, as it was feared that the he had traced his much-loved bells. As they rowed local knowledge he had obtained might be employed in along the smooth waters, the steeple of the cathedral | favour of the French arms. Delambert, his coadjutor, appeared in the distance above the surrounding build- who surveyed in the interior of France, was exposed to ings; the boatmen pointed it out to the stranger, as he still greater risks; he was beset by mobs, his observasat in the stern; he fixed his eyes earnestly and fondly tories and signal-posts were thrown down and destroyed, upon it. The boat glided on; but all at once, through and, together with his assistants, he was frequently the stillness of the hour, the peal from the sweet cathe- imprisoned. On one occasion, at St Denis, they were dral bells burst upon the air; the stranger crossed his only saved from the popular fury by the presence of arms upon his breast and leant back. The shore was mind of the mayor. Sometimes passports were refused reached; the face of the Italian was still turned to them, and at others they were compelled to leave their wards the cathedral, but the spirit had fled, and the observations, and give an account of themselves at one bells had tolled his requiem !
of the numerous clubs which then existed in every part of France. The depreciation in value of the assignats
with which they had been supplied to pay for what MEASURING AN ARC.
they wanted, was also a cause of great inconvenience. The accurate measurement of a portion of the earth’s Besides these, there were natural obstacles to be ensurface involves so many points of high scientific and countered and overcome: in placing the signals, it was commercial interest, that the labours undertaken to often necessary to climb to the top of precipitous and effect the object may be regarded as among the greatest almost inaccessible heights, and to sleep there without triumphs of philosophy. Such measurements were any protection from the weather. Such, however, is made at an early period by the Greeks, and have been the energy inspired by a genuine love of science, that repeated subsequently, as the necessity for greater ac- the work was at last successfully completed by the emicuracy became apparent. An almost incredible amount nent individuals engaged. of labour and difficulty has been encountered in per Some time afterwards, on extending this line from forming the operations, arising from various causes. Spain to the Balearic Islands, the persons employed unFrom the confines of the polar circle to the equator, derwent severer privations. Biot and a brother philosonearly every nation has contributed its share to this pher were shut up for two or three months in a tempoimportant work, of which the ordnance survey now rary cabin on the top of a rock in the little island of carried on in England may be looked upon as a neces- Formentera, while waiting for an opportunity to observe sary consequence; there are few governments which the signals on the heights of Ivica. Arago, who watched have not had a desire to know the precise position and during a similar period from a dreary spot called the configuration of the country over which they ruled. desert of Las Palmas, was afterwards taken for a spy at
It will be seen that the ignorance and jealousies of Majorca, and on attempting to escape disguised as a mankind often cause as much annoyance to peaceful peasant, was captured, and imprisoned several months philosophers as to real enemies. On the cessation of in the citadel. On regaining his liberty, the ship in hostilities between France and England, in 1783, a which he embarked was wrecked on the coast of Africa; proposition was made, through the French ambassador, he then sailed for Marseilles in an Algerine vessel, to the government of the latter country, for a joint which was made prize of by a Spanish corsair at the survey to determine the exact distance between the entrance of the port. The Algerine was, however, reobservatories of Greenwich and Paris; the proposition claimed; and sailing a second time for France, narrowly was favourably received, and the measurement of the escaped destruction on the shores of Sardinia, and was portion of the line between Greenwich and Dover ultimately driven back, with several feet of water in intrusted to General Roy, who had already been em- her hold, to Algiers. In this city M. Arago lived for ployed in similar labours. In a survey of this nature, six months, in the garb of a Mussulman, until an opthe distance is measured by a continuous series of tri-portunity offered of sailing once more for France. The angles, commencing from one base line, which must be convoy was met and captured by an English squadron ; determined with the greatest possible precision. Ge- but in this instance fortune favoured the astronomer; neral Roy's base line, more than 27,000 feet in length, the vessel in which he had embarked was the only one was measured on Hounslow Heath, near London; its that escaped and arrived safely at Marseilles. When correctness was insured by the employment of three to this account we add the labours of the Swedish phiseveral kinds of measures--a steel chain, and wooden losophers while measuring an arc in the dreary and and glass rods, all constructed by the celebrated Rams-frozen regions of the north, we have striking examples den: this preliminary operation occupied from April to of what may be accomplished by perseverance; to this August of the year 1784; and from the line thus laid apparently humble virtue the greatest philosopher, as down, the measurement was carried on to Dover, when well as the humblest artisan, is indebted for success. three members of the French Academy were sent over The history of one of the most recent surveys has to confer with the English savants, and to decide on the just been published by the direction of the East India points of land on which the signal-lights should be fixed, Company,* over whose territories arcs have been meaby which the measurement was continued across the sured extending from Cape Comorin to the Himaleh Channel. The large folio in which all these proceedings Mountains. The directors have had in view the publiare detailed, attests the diligence and zeal with which cation of an atlas of that important country; and to they were conducted.
insure correctness, by actual observation, the labours In 1790, the French Academy, in consequence of a recorded in the volume now under notice, extending request from the National Assembly, appointed a com over a period of fifteen years, were undertaken. On mission to report on a new standard of weights and measuring a base line near Calcutta, so many obstructions measures. On referring to the standards already in to the view were opposed by trees, that two towers, each existence, they were found to be so imperfect, that it was recommended to measure anew an arc of the meri
* An Account of the Measurement of Two Sections of the Meridian, as the only means of obtaining a true standard. dional Arc of India. By Lieutenant-Colonel Everest. London: The extreme points chosen on this occasion were Dun
Allen and Co. 1847.
seventy-five feet high, were built at the extremities. sons of the year that travelling through them can be From this the line was extended northwards to the attempted with any reasonable prospect of impunity.' district known as the Doab, where the impediments to Notwithstanding all precautions, the party suffered seobservation seem to have been increased. «The inhabi- verely from sickness while traversing the region of the tants,' according to Lieutenant-Colonel Everest, 'in com. Mahadeo mountains. mon with those of other parts of India, are congregated Recent improvements have tended greatly to dimiin villages and towns which vary in extent and character nish the chances of sickness in out-of-door operations according to the wealth and traffic of the owners, from in tropical countries. The atmosphere being best for the veriest hovel composed of straw, to the costly four- the perception of distant objects when it is charged with storeyed edifice of masonry; but instances of isolated humidity, there was a standing order for the surveying dwellings are rare, and hardly ever met with, except in party to wait till the first heavy fall of rain, and then the case of indigo planters, or now and then a temple take the field. “It is easy to conceive,' writes Colonel or mosque, the bare walls of which offer no temptation Everest, what a reckless waste of life and health to the plunderer. The villages, however, lie so thickly was caused by this exposure to the pitiless pelting of scattered over the surface, that it is difficult to trace a the tropical rains, in forest tracts teeming with miasma: line in any direction so as to pass free of all habita no constitution, European or Asiatic, could bear up for tions, and quite impossible to calculate on seeing be- any length of time against such a complication of hardtween the breaks which occasionally appear in the ships as thence arose—eternal watchings by day, to the dense belt of foliage ; for, in the very few instances prevention of all regular exercise ; tents decomposing where such do exist, they stand altogether at random. into their original elements ; servants, cattle, baggage,
fact, generally speaking, the trees form to all ap- clothes, bedding, la cuisine, all daily dripping with rain; pearance a continuous dense belt of foliage, at the every comfort which the indwellers of cities and leaders distance of four or five miles from the eye of the of regular lives deem essential to happiness, and even observer ; and if an interstitial space is anywhere found, to existence, remorselessly sacrificed; and yet, strange it as often as not leads to low marshy or other land to say, except when under the actual influence of a totally ineligible as a principal station.
jungle fever, which sometimes swept like a destroying • The smoke from the daily and nightly fires which, angel over us, and prostrated the whole camp in one particularly in the cold season, envelopes the villages, night, we hardly ever knew what it was to have a and clings to the groves surrounding them; that arising sorry hour. Surely the great trigonometrical survey from brick and lime-kilns, and conflagration of weeds; of India in those days was the proper school to teach the clouds of dust raised by herdsmen and their cattle men how to laugh at the calamities and nothingness in going out to graze in the morning, and returning in of life. The introduction of lamps and heliotropes has the evening; by travellers and processions of men, totally changed the face of things ; and by rendering carriages, and cattle, proceeding along the divers roads the rainy season the least fitting period for observing for business or pleasure ; and by the force of the wind, luminous objects, especially those dependent on cloudthe slightest action of which suffices in this arid, less skies, has afforded an opportunity, of which I parched-up soil to obscure the view-form an assemblage eagerly availed myself, to spare the health of my valu. of obstacles which it is only possible in very favourable able subordinates, by ordering them to desist from field contingencies to surmount.
operations at the very period which, in the early part ! Northwards from the Doab lie the Sewalik Hills, and of my career, and my four years' heavy apprenticeship, the beautiful valley of the Dehra Dun; in the hilly used to be chosen par excellence for their commence country higher observing stations became necessary, ment.' and as these were to be permanent structures of solid Lieutenant-Colonel Everest looks forward to the masonry, the determination of the best locality for period when the meridian arc, commencing at Cape them was of much importance. This was accomplished | Comorin, will be extended northwards to the extremity by means of tall bamboo masts, sufficiently strong to of the Russian dominions, near Nova Zembla - The bear a scaffolding, with a tent, signal-lights, and ob- trace contemplated,' he observes, 'would extend our servers; at the top of this a smaller bamboo was at- geographical knowledge over a part of the globe highly tached, which afforded the means of exhibiting a blue interesting and but little known; and though, in truth, light at a height of ninety feet above the surface of there is a belt to be passed through of several hundred the ground. Thirteen such stations were required; miles in extent, over which the Chinese government and as large bamboos are not to be found in Upper have a control nominal or real, yet as that belt is India, orders were sent to all the commissariat officers bounded by the territory of Russia on the north, and in the neighbourhood to procure supplies from the the British possessions on the south, the jealousy to be country boats on the rivers, and forward them to Agra apprehended from that source would no doubt be mainly as a temporary depôt; at the same time the other counteracted by the influence of two such potent neighimaterials required were accumulated. The blue lights bours, could they be persuaded to act combinedly.' were burned at intervals of ten minutes; and as they were seldom visible to the naked eye, an observer was
THE LATE PROPRIETOR OF THE TIMES.' constantly on the watch with the telescope to mark the first moment of ignition—a work of no small labour, A REMARKABLY interesting memoir of Mr Walter apwhen it is considered that from each station six others peared in the Times' of September 16th, from which it were observed. The towers which replaced the tem- appears that he was the son of a bookseller and pubporary erections are massive structures of solid ma- lisher of London, was taught printing as a trade in early sonry, fifty feet high, with a railed platform at the top, life, afterwards spent some time in study at Oxfordfrom which observations are taken. Of Betal, a civil and military station in the Mahadeo devoted himself, in the year 1803, to the management
being then designed for the church—but ultimately mountain range, we read that, in 1824, it was so noto of the Times,' then a languishing paper in the hands of riously unhealthy, as to have appropriated to itself excellence the appalling title of the Valley of Death. his father. Iis career during the forty-four subsequent That valley has since become highly cultivated and years appears to have been a remarkable example of flourishing, and is considered one of the healthiest places unobtrusive diligence and skill directed to a specific in the tropical parts of India. This is not, however, end. It also forms a valuable illustration of the rise the case with the mountain range in general, which and progress of the newspaper power in England-to continues to be about as deadly a tract in 1840 as it was which no man contributed more than he. in 1824. It is a long and weary journey through this unhealthy range; the inhabitants are scanty, the water he instantly remodelled its establishment, and worked
On obtaining the sole charge and property of the Times, and provisions are scarce, and it is only at certain sea- | the scanty supplies of capital at his command with what
other nations call the felicitous temerity of English enter with the noble ambition of being its first and greatest prise. His genius was essentially creative; and while his purveyor. Those very difficulties which inferior spirits extraordinary foresight enabled him to anticipate the de- viewed with dismay, protected him from rivalry, and so mands of the public, his untiring energy pointed out to became ancillary to conquest. Wherever important events him the way to execute them. Like some great military were in progress--no matter on what part of the continent commanders, Mr Walter seems to have been gifted with some emissary of his was in the midst; not perhaps such an intuitive perception of character, and he soon organised a complete and varied agency as is now established, but a corps of agents whose zeal and intelligence were almost one sutticient for the exigency; and before the close of the equal to his own. The difficulties which he encountered war, Mr Walter's broad-sheet had become to the British at the very outset of his career, would have daunted any merchant a necessity of his existence. Under various disordinary mind; to say nothing of the opposition he met guises, and by means of sundry pretexts, his employés on with out of doors, the paternal auspices were anything but the continent ascertained facts, and conveyed them to encouraging. His persevering, and, for a long time, fruit- London - often at imminent risk, always at prodigious less efforts to introduce greater expedition in printing, expense. But he was amply rewarded; for he outstripped were treated as a piece of juvenile folly and extravagance, the government couriers, and half the trade of London and excited his father's serious displeasure. Indeed it is proceeded on the faith of the intelligence that he pubnot a little remarkable that the two earliest acts of Mr lished.' Walter's life which bespoke the enterprise and high Allusion is next made to the intensely English character mindedness of his character---namely, his efforts just re of Mr Walter, and his remarkable Napoleonic power of. ferred to, and his abolition of the system of theatrical puffs, surrounding himself with energetic coadjutors. His which, up to his time, were a source of considerable re- great discrimination and munificence collected around venue to the daily press-became the subjects of painful him the ablest writers of the age, and that formed the comment in his father's will.
second source of early success. A third was that exThe attributes of a newspaper forty years ago bore that treme self-reliance which unfitted him for party purgeneral resemblance to those of the present day that the poses, and protected him from the necessity of labourchild does to the man. There were leading articles, criti- ing for party interests. A fourth was his extraordinary cisms, foreign intelligence, reporting, and miscellaneous boldness and resolution. That spirit, though it often news. The first difficulties of reporting had been sur brought him into difficulties, operated most favourably in mounted ; its second epoch had not yet arrived. When its ultimate results. Of this truth a striking exemplificaMr Walter entered the world of journalism, he found a tion occurred in 1810. Towards the latter end of May in very small but well-organised corps of reporters connected that year, the pressmennot those who arrange the types, with each of the morning papers; in that department, but those who impress their forms on the paper-insisted therefore, he had too much prudence to attempt originality upon increased wages. The nien then employed in workof design, but he wisely aimed at its extension and prac- ing the day newspaper came to the “Times ottice in tical improvement. In criticism he pursued a course Printing-House Square, and called upon their brethren to somewhat similar, but differing in this respect—that he join them in a combination which was illegal under the sought to elevate its moral character, and to render it circumstances, and must at any time have been regarded dignified by insisting that it should be impartial. His as unjustifiable. They insisted upon uniform rates of honourable labours for the purification of diurnal criticism wages throughout all the printing-offices, overlooking the were commenced early, and continued late. With un- fact, that the men of the “Times” enjoyed indulgences, as ceasing vigilance he endeavoured to protect the drama, well as opportunities of extra labour and reward, which in the fine arts, and the literature of the age from the evil other quarters were denied. At first Mr Walter was disinfluence of venal panegyric on the one hand, or unscru- posed to make concessions ; but a boy employed at the pulous malignity on the other. Few amongst the labours * Times” office informed him that a conspiracy had been of his long life have been crowned with more real and less organised not only amongst the pressmen, but amongst apparent success; for not many undertakings are more the compositors also, to abandon his employment under difficult than any attempt to disabuse the public mind of circumstances that would stop the publication of the paper, a persuasion that a friendly or a hostile bias must neces and therefore destroy the most valuable property that he sarily govern the tone of every critical lucubration; but then possessed. The complaints of the compositors not as Mr Walter despised temporary advantages, and con- only had reference to wages, but to a particular descripsidered not the probable condition of affairs to-morrow or tion of type then getting into use—the effect of which next day, but how they would work in “the long-run," type, it was alleged, would materially diminish the reso he relied upon ultimately securing the grand desidera- muneration for piece-work. These unfortunate men bound tum of impartial and independent criticism, by following themselves by a solemn oath, that unless the proprietors of out in that department pretty nearly the same rules that the “Times” acceded to the previously unheard-of terms he applied to all other concerns. He began by setting an which the general body of the London compositors and example of independence in the more important affair of pressmen then thought proper to dictate, the combination the political department of his journal. He was too proud | into which they had entered should be carried out into its for a partisan, and the force of sympathy attracted to his fullest effect. side men of his own stamp in moral feeling, though with * The “strike” took place on a Saturday morning. Mr mental accomplishments of a character wholly dissimilar. Walter had only a few hours' notice of this formidable From amongst these his profound knowledge of human design, and, beset as he was, most men would have subnature enabled him to select a succession of writers as mitted to any conditions ; but as he despised mediocrity, incapable of yielding to personal pique or private favour so he hated compromise. Having collected a few apprenas any class of men that have ever yet contributed to a tices from half-a-dozen different quarters, and a few inferior public journal; but in this important branch of journalism workmen anxious to obtain employment on any terms, he the reputation of Mr Walter was of slow growth, and some determined to set a memorable example of what one twelve or fifteen years elapsed before the world fully man's energy can accomplish. For six-and-thirty hours he acknowledged his inaccessible independence.
himself worked incessantly at case and at press; and on * The progress that he made in the department of foreign Monday morning, the conspirators, who had assembled to intelligence was, however, more rapid. Forty years ago, triumph over his defeat, saw, to their inexpressible astoall Europe was one vast theatre of war; and it was no light nishment and dismay, the “Times” issue from the hands achievement for the voice of the press to make itself heard of the publisher with the same regularity as ever. A few amidst the roar of Napoleon's artillery. But in mercantile months passed on, and Mr Walter brought out his journal affairs apparent difficulties become instruments of victory every day without the aid of his quondam workmen ; but when courage and conduct happen to be united with wis- the printers whom he did employ lived in a state of the dom and capital. All Mr Walter's rivals supported or op- utmost peril. Two of them were accused by the conspiraposed the ministers of that day. In supporting a vigorous tors of being deserters from the royal navy, and this charge prosecution of the war, without supporting either the party was supported by the testimony of perjured witnesses, but of the minister or that of the opposition, he lost the poli- eventually fell to the ground. Those, however, who thus tical assistance of the one, and the foreign information of conspired against his men, were not permitted to go unthe other; but he won the hearts of the people of England. scathed. He had been for some time cautiously but unceasThe monied and the commercial class supplied the sinews ingly engaged in the discovery of evidence sufficient in a of war. Early intelligence has long been the vital principle court of law to bring home the charge not only of illegal of British commerce. Mr Walter's mind became fired | combination, but of the still higher offence that had been
committed—the crime of conspiracy. His legal adviserstion was given to a new engine of power tenfold greater at length informed him that he might prefer a bill of in than that which Köenig originally suggested. To describe dictment against twenty-one of the men who attacked the machinery now in work at Printing House Sanare workmen whom he had recently employed. On the 8th of would require a goodly volume, and no small amount of November 1810, the persons thus accused were placed at complex diagrams and elaborate drawings; but the matethe bar of the Old Bailey. The trial lasted eight hours. rial fact in Mr Walter's biography is this, that whereas Mr Walter, with several other witnesses, underwent long before his time 5000 copies of important intelligence could examinations, and the offence charged in the indictment be circulated in the course of a day, ten times that nomwas brought home to nineteen of the prisoners. The chiefs ber can now be issued without any duplicate composition of the conspiracy, two in number, were sentenced to two of the types. As many as 54,000 copies of one number of years' imprisonment; three others to imprisonment for the “Times” have been worked off by the present maeighteen months; three for twelve months; and eleven for chinery fully in time for the despatch of the mails.' nine months. Thenceforward everything like combination Some personal traits of the 'potentate of Printing-Home ceased in Printing-House Square. It is believed that by Square, as he has often been called, are curious. It is that operation Mr Walter never expected to effect any asserted that he combined, what are so rarely seen todiminution of wages; on the contrary, the incomes of the gether, “the wisdom and circumspection which acconimen were gradually improved; they were relieved from the panies age, with the strong passions, vivacity, and cheeriexpenses of combination societies, and the intemperance ness of early youth. No one moved about more than he which their meetings—always held in public-houses--fre- did, but he was not impelled to the indulgence of locoquently occasioned; a fund was created to provide for motive habits by any childish impatience of restraint. His sickness as well as old age; and from the year 1810 to the intense activity did not result from any series of temporary present hour, the “Times” office has been by far the most impulses, but from a sense of duty which his position and advantageous place in which a competent printer can ob
his previous life had imposed. Within certain limitations, tain employment. It is a fact worthy of being recorded, it might be said that he preferred an interview to a letter. that a very considerable number of the younger composi- In his intercourse with total, or even comparative strangers, tors of the “Times” are men whose fathers have been in he-being a cautious man of the world-liked to commuMr Walter's employment. Although the conviction of the nicate through third parties-through the agency of the conspirators had led to no direct pecuniary saving, nor had half-dozen professional gentlemen who were respectively at ever been intended to produce that effect, yet Mr Walter the heads of the several departments which he biuself had secured future protection for his men, protection for governed in chief. But with those whom he admitted to his property, peace in his office, and the full command of his acquaintance, he generally conversed rather than corhis establishment; he could now do as he pleased with his responded; he therefore largely patronised every mode of own, and an admirable use he made in after years of the conveyance that served to bring him into contact with resources which his perseverance, talent, and courage had those whom he desired to see, or to escape from the bores enabled him to command.
who desired to see him. Men incapable of understanding • We cannot quit this part of our history without record his character would exclaim, “Strange man that he is! ing another highly characteristic anecdote which a friend no sooner settled steadily at his business in the City, than and eye-witness has kindly communicated to us. We give he is off to the West End, no one knows about what; then it in the words of our informant:
back in the middle of the night for an hour or two, and " In the spring of the year 1833, an express arrived from the next morning at sunrise away to Bearwood!” At one Paris, bringing the speech of the king of the French on moment tempted from home by the stirring calls of busiopening the French chambers. The express reached the ness, the next invited to return by the recollection of past “Times' office at ten A. M. There was no editor on the spot happiness, and the hope of future enjoyment. An almost -no printers; but Mr Walter was in Printing-House Square. consuming zeal for the improvement of the “ Times" per He sent for ****
Not one of them was
paper alternated with his passion for planting and pruning, to be found. I, too, was sent for, but was out. It was a creating artificial lakes and undulating lawns. At night, * Mail’day. I came to the office about twelve o'clock, and seated in the editorial chair, directing the pens that made found Mr Walter, then M. P. for Berks, working in his shirt the popular voice of England heard in every court of the i slecves at case. He had himself translated the principal parts continent, spending his strength in the foul atmosphere of of the speech, and was setting up his own translation with the City, and the exhausting labours of a newspaper his own hand, assisted, I think, by one compositor. He office ; in a few hours afterwards, however, the carol of the gave me a proof of what he had set up, and desired me to lark and “incense-breathing morn” restored his jaded read over the speech, and see whether he had omitted any- faculties, and the same hand now wielded a woodman's thing material. I found only two very short sentences of axe which, a short time previously, had been guiding the any importance omitted. I translated them, and Mr Wal- greatest political engine in Europe.' ter set them up. The second edition, with the speech, was The memoir makes strong claims for Mr Walter, on the in the city by one o'clock. “ Had not Mr Walter turned to in the way he did, the vast power which he exercised in public affairs. We dis
score of his political sagacity and liberality, and for the whole expense of the express must have been lost ; for I pute not the power, but we fear that the whole political am sure that there was not one man in the whole estab
life will not bear strict scrutiny with advantage. The lishment who could have performed the double part which changes of tone and sentiment in the “Times' throughout he executed that day with his own hands.”'
the last fourteen years alone have been so marked, as to It is not surprising of one so self-devoted as Mr Walter, impress indelibly on the general mind its want of any fixed to learn that he took little ease, and scarcely ever entered principle. This cannot be altogether a popular delusion. society. One of his greatest feats was his introduction of We were once much struck by hearing a remark on that steam printing --for he it practically was who gave the journal from one of the most philosophical writers of our world this invention. The first printing machine employed age-one unconnected with journals--So great and powerin England was erected in his office in 1814. It was an ful, without a high and unimpeachable morality, wat invention absolutely essential to a large newspaper circula would this paper be if it were otherwise!' We are re tion, seeing that, by common presses, only a comparatively luctant, however, to do more than indicate the one subsmall number of copies can be thrown off within that space traction which most persons will make when they read the of time which makes all news lose its savour. By and by history of this extraordinary, and in many respects admirthe circulation of his journal became so extensive, that able man. Let the unequivocal good that was in hinn hare even at the rate of 1100 per hour, it took six or seven the last word. It was,' says the memoir, ‘by a rare con hours each day, with the machinery and the steam-engine bination of qualities that Mr Walter was enabled to achieve at full speed, to satisfy the public demand. Once more he the great work which has immortalised his name. From exercised his own ingenuity, while summoning to its aid the first dawn of life, he had set his mind on purifying and the ablest men of the period, and by means of further im- strengthening public opinion, by the creation of an organ provements, increased speed was attained; but the addi- which, as a necessary means to its end, should beat in pertional supply seemed to inflame instead of satiating the fect unison with the heart of his country. No one can public appetite, and 5000 copies per hour do not now suppose for a moment that this was an easy task, yet none suflice to meet the still growing and apparently indefinite but Mr Walter's most intimate friends can hare any condemand. From Mr Walter's mind the improvement of ception of the difficulties and trials he encountered in the printing machinery seemed scarcely ever to have been ab
progress of his work. The mere physical labour which it sent; and in the latest year of his invaluable life, his atten. | imposed upon him required a constitution of uncommon
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vigour and buoyancy. For many years, he never enjoyed a exclaimed the wagoner, throwing a contemptuous look at single unbroken night's rest, while his days were consumed the well-worn brown surtout of his companion. “You will with restless anxiety, either in counteracting the increasing give them to me--you will steal them then, I suppose? attempts that were made to thwart his undertaking, or Come, say no more about it, but lend a hand at unharnessin devising new means to promote it. The success that ing the poor beast. Marianne, poor Marianne! what will crowned his exertions brought perils in its turn of a still she say!! more subtle and deadly character. The opposition of ene The count readily did as he was desired, and gave all mies might be overcome by energy and perseverance: the the assistance in his power ; but this accident having treacherous favours of the great might insinuate themselves caused considerable delay, they did not arrive until late at when open hostility had failed. Against both, however, the Red Cross Inn. Mr Walter was proof. No dangers or difficulties could
* Can you give me a room and a bed?' said the count to daunt him ; no proffered advantages conciliate him. So the landlord. careful was he to avoid even the very appearance of evil, where his honour and independence were concerned, that and without either a cloak or an umbrella, haughtily re
The latter seeing a foot traveller, covered with snow, he shrank from accepting the slightest compliment
that plied, "There is no room for you here ; you must go 'elsecould be construed by the bitterest enemy into an attempt where." to bias his judgment or flatter his self-esteem. Bearing always in mind the saying of the wise man, that a gift not be very pleasant in frost and snow: let me have any
But I should have to go a league further, which would perverteth the understanding of the wise," he steadily refused even those apparently harmless acknowledgments place; I am not particular.' which undoubtedly sprang from the purest gratitude, and
'I should think not, indeed,' replied the hostess; but which were offered to him in common with some of the
our inn is not for every one that comes the way. I admit most illustrious men of his day. Among other instances, none but respectable people--all wagoners; I will admit it may not be generally known that at the close of the war your companion, but not you.' he received through the Spanish ambassador a splendid ' Allow me at least, madame, to share the supper and tea-service of gold plate, as a memorial of the vigour and room of my companion.' constancy with which he had kept up the spirit of this "As to that, it is no concern of mine ; you must settle country during the manifold vicissitudes of the Peninsular it with him.' war. Mr Walter instinctively shrank from a supposed in The count then turning to the wagoner, repeated his terchange of personal favours with a Ferdinand, or any set request. of advisers who might happen to be ascendant in Spain. • Well, be it so. Come then, good woman, supper for No sooner had the glittering bauble tantalised the eyes of two, and a comfortable room.' the feminine spectators, than it was returned to its case, and sent back as it came.' This noble self-denial--a proof retired to their apartment'; the count then made some in
When supper was over, they paid their reckoning, and of watchful integrity-alone covers the name of Mr Walter quiries respecting the people of the house. with undying honours.
I know,' replied Penot,' that they have well feathered their nest; this is the only inn in the district, and during
the nine years they have kept it, they must have laid by THE COUNT DE DIJON.
a pretty good sum. Oh if my poor Marianne and I had Of this eccentric but benevolent French nobleman the such an inn, I should not grieve so much for the loss of my following anecdote is related :
horse!' One morning during the last winter, being at his country
"Well, if this house suits you, you shall have it.' residence, he recollected that the lease of an inn called the Why, how bravely you talk! First you say you will Red Cross, about three leagues distant, had expired. The give me twenty-five louis, and then you say you will give landlord was soliciting a renewal; but wishing to judge of me an inn. I cannot help laughing at the idea. However, the state of the premises, he set out on foot, although the
take care; I tell you I wont be played upon.' weather was intensely cold, and the snow falling.
“No play in the case. I tell you that if you like this At some distance from his château ho overtook a
house, I will give it to you,' replied his companion. wagoner walking along by the side of his cart. Between
* And I tell you again, that if you say another word, I pedestrians acquaintance is soon made ; and it was not
will turn you out of the room,' said the wagoner. long before the count discovered that the man's name was He seemed a likely person to do so, therefore the count Penot, his wife's name Marianne ; that he had five chil-said no more. dren, and as many horses; and that all he had to depend The next morning the count rose early, and repaired to on for the support of his family and cattle was his errand his solicitor in the next town. After some conversation cart.
between him and the solicitor, the latter set off for the But all at once, while they were walking on in earnest Red Cross. conversation, the leading horse made a false step, fell On reaching the inn, he told the landlord that the count down, and broke his leg. At this sight the wagoner cried had arrived. out in despair, and began to use epithets which are not to • Mercy on us!' exclaimed the landlady,' where is he? be found in any vocabulary of polite conversation.
Why would he not honour us by putting up here?' You do wrong to utter such language, my friend,' said "He came here, but you refused to admit him,' replied his companion ; 'your conduct in this small misfortune is the attorney. really sinful. How can you tell what may be the inten 'That is not true; he never came here.' tions of Providence towards you?'
“Yes,' said the attorney, he came here last night in Will you hold your peace ? ' replied the wagoner. 'I company with a wagoner. Where is this wagoner?' wish you were in my place, and that you were losing that * There he is,' replied the landlady, pointing to a stoutfine horse instead of me. Do you know that he cost me looking man, who was eating his breakfast near the fire. twenty-five louis? Do you know how much twenty-five • My friend,' said the attorney, addressing himself to the louis are? I am afraid not. What will my poor Marianne wagoner, the person with whom you shared your room say? No, if God were just, He would never have permitted | last night is the Count de Dijon. In the first place, here the horse of a poor man like me, with a large family, to are the twenty-five louis he promised to give you for the have broken his leg.'
loss of your horse that broke his leg; and in the next, And I tell you again, my friend, that it is wrong to here is a lease, which puts you in possession of this inn doubt the goodness of God, and for twenty-five miserable for nine years, on the same terms as your predecessor: but louis.'
in order to repay you for your hospitality last night to a You talk very much at your ease about twenty-five poor pedestrian, the count gives it to you rent free for the louis, as if you knew anything at all about them. Did first three years. Will that suit you?' such a sum ever find its way into your pocket, I wonder? "Oh my poor Marianne — my five children! Oh my Oh my poor horse ! Twenty-five louis are not to be found good sir!' exclaimed the wagoner, letting the knife drop upon the highways.'
froin his hands; and I who said such rude things to that "Well, I will give you the twenty-five louis ; so compose kind gentleman ! Where is he, that I may go and throw yourself,' said the count.
myself at his feet?' Oh, you are making game of me into the bargain!' * He has returned to his château,' replied the attorney.