« НазадПродовжити »
by employment in the state system, now of some stand- pose that wholly elementary teaching included in the ing in both France and Prussia. Hence it is that M. programme of the primary schools ; and they are after. Willm, who holds the situation of an inspector of schools wards completed by that other special instruction rein the department of the Rhine, produced in 1842 a quired for each individual in consideration of his special treatise at once philosophical and practical, presenting, vocation or destiny. Thus education and instruction in wonderful condensation, such a view of the whole ought at first to be purely human, then national, then matter, as may be a guide to the most ignorant. Here is special and professional.' everything educational—from great principles deduced This will show the wide principles on which M. from the constitution of our being, down to the hum-Willm proceeds. The second part contains ample deblest details of the organization of a school. It is—we tails of means and modes; the third is devoted to the say emphatically and advisedly — the book for all who means of training teachers. We cannot say we assent would wish to know what education ought to be, and to every arrangement dictated by our author ; but they may be in these better days. Every legislator, every bear, generally, the stamp of experience and sagacity, journalist, every teacher, every enlightened person and, in a country unprovided with a national system, taking an interest in the subject, should possess this must be of vast utility. It would be tiresome to enter very comprehensive treatise.
into the minor details of school-forming and teaching ; The work is systematically arranged, without becom- but as a specimen of this part of the work, we may preing thereby in the least formal. The first part states sent M. Willm's section on social and national educathe Principle and Object of Education in General, coming tion. Let Britain be substituted for France, and it finally, after the discussion of every dogma on the sub- entirely answers our own case. ject, to this—to develope the germs of mental power . The design,' he says, 'of this branch of education is and disposition planted in us by the Creator, fitting to prepare children one day to become useful members men at once for their places in society, and their parts of society, citizens, friendly to order, obedient to the in the divine city which extends its shelter over all laws, and devoted to their country. Inasmuch as these people, which embraces all time, and even reaches be- duties are imposed upon us by conscience, and conseyond it.' 'It should summon to light,' says our author, crated by religion itself, social is included in moral * every germ of reason, of virtue, of greatness, which con- education ; but something more remains to be done cur in constituting our true humanity, and sufficiently than is accomplished by this. There is particular develope them to secure their victory over all opposing knowledge to be imparted on this subject, habits to be dispositions ; so that, the thorns and necessities of life formed, and sentiments to be awakened, developed, and being inadequate to extinguish them, or give them a directed. false direction, they may, on the contrary, be augmented • There is something too confined in the idea usually and fortified by an unintermitting progress.
attached to the word patriotism. He alone is not the * Man thirsts naturally after the good, the true, the true patriot who, passionately loving his country, is beautiful, and the infinite; whence arise the moral sen- ready to make any sacrifice for it, to shed his blood for timents, the love of truth and knowledge, the feeling its prosperity, its glory, and its liberty; but he also is of the beautiful, and the sentiment of religion ; which, a patriot who, knowing that order is the first condition as they are developed, become the moral conscience, of public liberty and happiness, and that order supposes knowledge of the system of the universe, taste or sus- obedience to the laws, religiously observes them, even ceptibility in regarding beauty, and religion. In these, although they may clash with his private interests or by man's rational nature—that nature which is espe- personal opinions. Socrates, refusing to save himself by cially human, which distinguishes its possessor from the flight from an unjust sentence, and carrying his respect animals, and raises him above them, and by suitably for the laws of his country so far as to die for them, nourishing these high dispositions, and inspiring man proved himself to be a greater patriot even than when with the consciousness of what he may and ought to be he merited the reward of valour in the field of battle. --education places him in a condition to govern his The just and wise man, according to him, is he who animal nature, and make it subserve the grand ends of faithfully observes the laws of man and of God. his existence. To be complete, then, education ought * This patriotism for law is the more meritorious that to be at once moral, intellectual, asthetic, and religious; it is unostentatious; it is also on that account more and since man is nothing without society, but, on the difficult. To incline children to it, by making them contrary, social by his nature, his education ought, at understand its necessity, is the first duty of social eduthe same time, to be social and national. . . . Moral cation. There are many persons who, through ignoeducation, having for its object to inspire the sense and rance, look upon taxes, especially on indirect ones, as a habit of charity, love of the good, the just, and the heavy, unjust burden, imposed by power rather than honourable; intellectual education, unfolding the uni- by necessity, and endeavour to evade them as much as versal order, nourishing the love of the true, and raising possible. The people must be enlightened on this subour mind by the spectacle of the wonders of external ject in the schools, and must be made to understand that existence; æsthetic education, nourishing and guiding tribute, including that of blood, is required for the life our sentiments of propriety, of the beautiful and the of the state. sublime ; religious education, unfolding the idea of the *Civil and political probity is much more rare than Infinite, nourishing our fear of God, and faith in His private probity, even in the middling and higher providence; and lastly, social and national education, classes of society. Historians relate that formerly, in endeavouring to form the future citizen, to develope some free towns of Germany, each man was left to sociality, and our national sentiments. Each of these tax himself according to his means, and to deposit, divisions demands a special kind of instruction and with no other witness than his own conscience, his analogous exercises ; there must be a moral instruction, voluntary gifts in the public chest; and they add, an instruction wholly intellectual, an æsthetic instruc- that the state in general profited by this method of coltion, a religious instruction, and a social and national lecting the taxes. We are very far removed from these instruction. These diverse kinds of instruction sup- simple and primitive manners. To deceive the public
treasury, by eluding as much as possible indirect taxes, marks his compositions. The striking part relates to the is not only considered pardonable, but even as justifi- aspect of our religious systems towards education, and able; some even go so far as to applaud themselves for the late unhappy movement of the government towards it. The people scarcely look upon smuggling, poaching, the confirmation of every existing sectarian division. or forest robbery as crimes. It is known, likewise, how. The uprooting of a social evil,” says Mr Nichol, ‘may the electoral privileges of all kinds are exercised. Popu- often be a task so serious, that no practical statesman lar education has a serious mission to fulfil in all these will consider it prudent to undertake it; but the cases respects. It has to teach the future citizens that the are exceedingly rare in which a just and enlarged view performance of the duties imposed on them by this title, of expediency can authorise the establishment, with a can alone render them worthy to enjoy the invaluable view to good ends, of exceptionable means :'-words the privileges which our institutions and laws secure to more needful to be applied, considering with what an every Frenchman.
air of self-complacency the expositor of the government *A thorough knowledge of these privileges, and in- views took it upon him to ridicule every one who so stitutions on which they are founded, might be given in much as hoped to see a national system of education all well-conducted elementary schools for boys, at the free from such divisions. Some of the learned proend of an abstract of the history of France. It is chiefly fessor's remarks on this subject appear to us animated by this means that public education can become truly by such purpose, and expressed in such terms, as at national. This branch of education doubtless presents least must save them from offending those who, starting great difficulties, and less evil would arise from neglect- perhaps from a different point, have come to believe ing it entirely, than from intrusting it to unskilful that they think differently. How far,' he says, 'ought hands. But these difficulties cannot exempt popular edu- our religious variations to interfere with the common or cation from an important duty; and we will see, when united education of the young, even in matters expressly treating of instruction and normal schools, how it might religious ? It is of essential importance that we discuss be possible to provide for it without danger. The in- this subject not as sectarians, but as Christian men. stances of devotion, and the noble deeds in which the Can it be possible, then-surrounded as we are by the history of France abounds, would also be an excellent noblest examples of worth and piety, limited to no means of instilling into the hearts of youth that sacred church, confined within no special creed-can it be poslove of country to which all men are naturally inclined. sible to evade the conclusion, that perhaps the most imTo such accounts might be added an animated descrip- portant elements of the Christian life are, after all, those tion of our beautiful country, to which nature has denied grand sanctions which, for the most part, lie below our nothing that constitutes the true wealth of nations, sectarian differences? How far, let me be permitted to and to which nothing is wanting to perfect happiness ask, would these specialties of our separate churches but the knowledge how to be happy, and an acknow- interfere with our efforts to bring the young mind into ledgment of the happiness it enjoys.
submission to the wholly unmetaphysical teaching of • To dispose our youth towards patriotism, to make Christ? Nay, to look deeper into the subject: what is them love France, and be ready to devote themselves the ultimate aim of all sects ?—what the object of their for her in the hour of danger, it is not necessary to in- apparatus of creeds and worships? Is it not, in so far spire them with hatred towards foreigners : education as teaching is concerned, to reconcile the mercy of the can be quite national, and quite French, without ceasing Almighty with our ideas of His holiness? Is it not to to be human. France is powerful enough to have no present Him as infinitely pure, hateful of sin, and yet need of fortifying herself by hatred for other nations; the merciful Father of the repentant wanderer? If any and she may allow ancient prejudices to fall without sectarian scheme whatsoever has reached, as its final being thereby weakened. In the books we place in the result, conclusions—I don't say at variance with, but hands of our children, I would not imitate the example loftier in any sense than the lesson in our Lord's tale of set in some parts of Germany, where patriotism seems the Prodigal, I confess they are unknown to me: and I to be made to consist principally in horror of the French earnestly appeal to those to whom the young generation name. Let a just war arise, and our soldiers will fight is the dearest—to those conscientious parents who are the enemy, inspired solely by a love of their country thinking solely of their children's welfare-why these and by duty. To such declamations of hatred against children might not be taught in common that exquisite foreigners, I am happy and proud to be able to oppose representation of our relations with a holy and merciful the noble words recently uttered by one of our most God? It is true this is not the whole of the scheme of illustrious writers (De Lamartine]. “ Patriotism is the Christianity. It is, besides, a most profound philosofirst sentiment, the first duty of man, whom nature phical or metaphysical system, and as such it is reprebinds to his country before all things by the ties of sented in our articles; but assuredly, our distinct duty family, and of nature, which is only the family en- to the child is, in the first place, to draw out his religious larged. Why is it sweet to die for one's country? sentiments-to familiarise him with those grand intuiBecause it is to die for more than ourself, for some- tions on which that system rests—and certainly by no thing divine, for the continuance, for the perpetuity means to substitute å purely dogmatic teaching. We of that immortal family which has brought us forth, are verging, perhaps, on too logical an age. The unand from which we have received our all. But there resting energies around us—that excessive bustle of are two kinds of patriotism : there is one composed of modern life-conduce to intellectual activity, but they the hatreds, prejudices, and gross antipathies, which are adverse to the sustenance of contemplation; and I nations, rendered brutal by governments interested in should say, therefore, that it is a formal duty with the disuniting them, cherish against each other. This churches, acting for the highest interests of culture in patriotism is cheap; all it requires is to be ignorant, our times, to address themselves powerfully to the deto hate, and revile. There is another, which, whilst velopment of the intuitions; in other words, to the init loves its own country above everything, allows its culcation of religion on the young mind, by that best sympathies to flow beyond the barriers of race, of lan- method of the Gospels. It is right, indeed, that teachguage, or of territories, and regards the various na ing should proceed further than this. Just as in the tionalities as part of that great whole, of which the case of morals, when the scholar's intellect is ripe various nations are so many rays, but of which civili- enough, he should be led into contact with those diffisation is the centre; it is the patriotism of religion, it culties and contests whose record occupies the pages of is that of philosophers, it is that of the greatest men of ecclesiastical histories; and probably one good manner the state, and it was that of the men of 1789."'
of presenting a view of these is by the form of cateProfessor Nichol's preliminary dissertation may be chisms. But the teaching of catechisms, in this view described as an application of M. Willm's views to our of the subject, must clearly belong to the category of own country--a brave and eloquent piece of writing, special instruction, and therefore may be studied apart. characterised by more closeness of texture than usually I would fain appeal, on this question, to the powerful
THE WASP FAMILY.
and enlightened Church of England. The greatest of delicate hair-like fibres, about an inch in length, from the reformed churches, it ought to be the most gene- | it, bruising the woody fibre with her mandibles until it rous; and it requires only a few amendments in its became like a fine lint. This is the material froin which practice to place it in the loftiest position yet ever held the papyraceous plaster is to be prepared. Flying away by any church-apart, namely, from all sectarianism, with it to her abode, it is there made into a proper conand as the acknowledged head of every great movement sistence by the addition of her tenacious saliva; and of civilisation.'
when this part of the process is complete, it forms a fine, smooth, adhesive paste, precisely analogous to the pro
duct of our cumbrous and costly mechanism papier maché. EVERY DAY ENTOMOLOGY. Rolling it into a sort of pellet, she conveys it to the sum
mit of the dome, plasters on the wall, and spreads it
out, by means of her legs and jaws, into a very thin Poets and essayists are in the habit of likening the lamina, which is veritable paper. Leaf after leaf must be wasp to fops of another genus, and vice versâ. This added, until the whole cavity is thus papered or plastered questionable sort of reputation these insects must as over, and not with one coat alone; generally the insect cribe to their splendid caparison, and to their appa- lays down fifteen or sixteen, leaving spaces between each rently useless position in the world. The simile is more layer for the advantages of inward lightness and strength true in a more curious respect; for there are annual re- to her ceiling. Her labours do not end here. She has unions of these glittering creatures, just as in the fashion- built the walls of the city, it remains for her to comable world—a fashionable season of a few months, and mence the edifices, and supply the population. She ! then all disperse again. The economy of the wasp family builds a terrace of hexagonal cells, of marvellous exactpossesses considerable interest, and deserves far more ness, and suspends it by paper pillars from the roof of her attention than in our hostile state of feelings towards texture. These terraces emulate in elegance and artistic the race we are readily disposed to believe. It is only skill, and far surpass in utility, the famous hanging garnecessary that the real character of the tribe should be dens and terraces of the renowned city of old. A few known, to remove at least the blot of laziness from it. hundred cells are thus constructed, and at length an That they are a set of bold, insolent, daring robbers, no interval of comparative repose awaits the labourer, one can deny ; yet give them their due, and we shall while she proceeds to fulfil her more proper duties as a admit that there is much in their habits deserving our parent. Single-handed, she has laid the foundation of admiration, and that even their audacious thefts have the vesp-polis, and has marked out the general design their redeeming points.
of its future buildings; but she must have further assist. The general aspect of the Vespide, or wasps, is suffi- ance before the city will be complete. · The walls, at ciently familiar to obviate the necessity of description. present bare and desolate, the palace empty and still, Their black and gold-painted bodies, their powerful are soon to resound with the hum of life, and with the mandibles, formidable stings, and their surface destitute busy labours of a new generation. In the cells the inof hairs, are present to the eye at the very mention of sect deposits her ova, gluing them to the walls by an adthe word. The society consists of males, females, and hesive substance. These are soon hatched, they become neuters, each having their appropriate functions; but larvæ, and are for some time entirely dependent upon the males, on the whole, leading the quietest and least their parent's exertions for their supply of food. She arduous lives. The females are the hardworking foun- has to forage for this numerous and voracious progeny, dresses of the colony, and the neuters are wasps of all- and runs about from cell to cell with the utmost soliciwork-robbing, fighting, defending, nursing, and build- tude, while the grubs put forth their mouths, and are ing indifferently, and by turns. Their history com- fed by her just as the callow brood' of a bird is fed. mences most conveniently for our purposes in the spring. Most pleasing is it to observe the anxious mother keepAt the conclusion of the preceding summer, the males, ing watch over her offspring, and apparently many a after pairing, all died, and there remained but a few needless time popping her head into their snug cots, as females behind of all the busy ranks which crowded the if to see how they do, and to give a mouthful of food vespiary. These are awakened by the return of spring, now and then to some tender young larva not yet The solitary wasp finds herself immediately summoned big enough to put its head out to be fed! A few to active duties. She has to construct the carcase, and weeks slip by-a great change has come over the ves. to excavate the earthwork, for her future people and piary; it is replete with life; hundreds of workers have city. Serious as is the task, she has to effect it all been born in the interim, and are now labouring might alone; not a single companion to cheer her hours of in- and main, with the empress at their head, to extend the cessant toil, or to lighten her labour by a single load! buildings, and enlarge the city. When complete, a Her energies are equal to the undertaking : she is to be vespiary has been calculated to contain about fifteen or seen buzzing about in the sunny mornings, looking out sixteen thousand cells, each of which is thrice a cradle; for a site. It is soon found: it is some dry, warm bank; and therefore, in a single season, each nest will probably and here she sets to her work. She perforates it, and be the birthplace of full thirty thousand wasps. forms a long circuitous tunnel, at the extremity of Such is the birth and development of this insect which she digs out a vault of considerable dimensions. colony-a lesson to states, and nations, and individuals, This task is performed in no careless or slovenly manner; of the certain results of indomitable perseverance. although every particle of rubbish which the little exca- Let us trace out its government and destinies. The vator tears from the walls of her cavern must be carried empress—the protoplast of this interesting microcosm, in her jaws, she does not leave it at the entrance, but the foundress of this bustling republic—is an exaggevoluntarily entails upon herself the vast additional la- rated type of the duties of its female members. These bour of casting it away to some distance. Her design in are produced in comparatively small numbers; they so doing appears to be principally to avoid the risk of her perform the proper duties of wives and mothers; they cell being discovered by a heap of rubbish at the foot of stay at home, feed the children, and attend to the nurthe bank. After the labour of excavation is ended, the series; they mostly perish before winter ; but a few, walls are to be plastered, and to this fresh duty she at more hardy than their fellows, endure its cold, and beonce addresses herself. Surely every person has seen come the perpetuators of the race in the ensuing spring. the nest of the wasp, and wondered at its exquisite | The males, according to the younger Huber, are far and delicate architecture of celled paper? Behold the more industrious than the male bees, or drones, but architect! The nest is really made of paper : it was for are less active by far than the neuters, or workingsome time a puzzle to our philosophers. Reaumur ap- wasps. They have the peaceful occupation of scavenpears first to have detected the wasp in the very act gering the streets : they sweep the floors of the terraces of this manufacture. He beheld her alight on a deal and avenues, and diligently carry off every particle of window-frame; and watching, saw her tear a bundle of rubbish. They also undertake the funerals of any
deceased companions, and speedily cast the dead bodies winter would rapidly destroy, by a far more miserable out of the vespiary. On the whole, they are useful death, all that are killed on this occasion; and it is a members of the community; and they probably owe stroke of mercy to terminate their sufferings by a blow. their permission to live to their diligence. The workers' | The early frosts destroy the murderers themselves. The are the most interesting class : they are smaller in size scene is now, in truth, altered; the populous city has than either male or female wasps, but are wonderfully become waste, and without inhabitant, saving some one energetic, and indefatigably laborious. Some are builders or two females, which spend the winter in the depths and repairers of the breach; they receive a commission of the vespiary. The complicated galleries, cells, and to make excursions for building materials; and return- hanging terraces, and the entire framework of the nest, ing home with their bundles of lint, set themselves to are for ever vacated when the female leaves them in the the repairs and extension of the city. Others are the spring; and this exquisite specimen of insect architeccommissariats: the issues of life at home are intimately ture is abandoned to the destroying influences of time connected with their expeditions. They roam over and accident. These interesting features of the history fields and meadows, frequently catching flies and weaker of the Vespidæ are full of subject matter for our meditainsects, and carrying the game home often with no in- tion and admiration, indicating, so clearly as they do, considerable difficulty. Dr Darwin says he once beheld that the ‘Hand that made them is divine;' yet all these a curious act of a wasp: it had caught a large fly, and marvellous sagacities, contrivances, governing prinin rising with it into the air, the breeze caught its wings, ciples, present us with but dim and broken reflections and nearly wrenched it from the wasp's clutches. The of the far-seeing Wisdom that created all things, 'and insect immediately alighted, and deliberately sawed off for whose pleasure they are and were created.'
wings of its victim, when it was able to carry it in A few more particulars will make the history of this safety away. There was a something nobler than in- family a little more complete. The preceding sketch stinct in this action; nor is it by any means an isolated has dealt only with the common wasp, Vespa vulguris. example of insect sagacity. Others seek our orchards, The mason-wasp is a solitary insect, and builds its nest select the ripest, sweetest fruits, suck their juices, and in sand and brick, being able, by means of its strong convey home the luscious treasure, of which but a small mandibles, to break off pieces of brick with ease, and portion is for themselves. These foragers will even to burrow to a considerable depth in its substance. It enter and rob beehives. Those that tarry at home, has the peculiarity of storing up ten or twelve green in every instance share the spoil. Our grocery stores, larvæ, as food for its own, and resorts to a curious pastrycooks, and butchers' stalls, are equally attractive contrivance to prevent them from moving out of its to the forager-wasps. Surely it is some palliation of reach. The hornet, Vespa crabo, selects for its habitathe robbery to remember the claims of hungry kins- tion commonly some decayed, hollow trunk, where, folk, friends, and acquaintance, and little ones at home? building its nest, it forms a tortuous gallery of entrance. There is no squabbling at their orderly meal-times; no The American farmers are said to make use of these fighting for the lion's share;' each expectant insect nests to destroy domestic flies, hanging them up in receives its due portion, and is content therewith. 'I their rooms, where they do not molest the family, but have seen,' writes the fascinating observer Reaumur, fall entirely upon the flies. Another species, thc Vespa "a worker, after returning home with spoil, on entering Britannica, forms a curious oval nest, sometimes to be the nest, quietly perch at the top and protrude a clear seen hanging from the branches of trees. Others form drop of fluid from its mouth. Several wasps drank to- elegant nests, like half-open flowers, with a platform of gether from this crystal drop until it was all swal- cells at the bottom. A foreign species constructs a lowed; then the worker would cause a second, and beautiful nest, of a substance identical with the very sometimes a third drop to exude, the contents of which finest card-board, suspending it, like a watch from a were distributed in peace to other wasps.' If we have guard-chain, by a ring at the extremity of the bough, any young readers of these entomological sketches, here out of the reach of monkeys. Sometimes these nests is a lesson for them!
grow to an enormous size. Mr Westwood states that The mode of government is republican : there is no re the Zoological Society has one six feet long. A South cognised head, as with the bees; yet an amount of even American species of wasp imitates the bee, and is a colmilitary discipline, and the utmost order, are to be found lector of honey. among the subjects. The good of the commonwealth Bold as are the Vespidæ, great as is their fecundity, seems to be the prevailing object of each insect. If the they are mercifully kept in check. The ichneumon is workers are building, each has its own spot, about an their ferocious foe; in the West Indian islands they inch square, assigned to it, as the amount of work it is are the victims of a parasitic plant, which vegetates in expected to execute. It was an interesting discovery their interior ; man leagues his forces against them ; of Mr Knight, that wasps also have sentinels. These and nature itself, in a deluging season or severe winter, are placed at the entrance of the vespiary; they run destroys thousands, and prevents the plague becoming gently in and out of it, and give immediate notice of greater than we are able to bear, the approach of danger. To their communications alone does the community give heed ; and on their giving the alarm, will issue in angry hosts to avenge the injury,
PAPA'S TRIAL. and defend their home to the death. Sometimes, how. The Boys put up a prayer to Jupiter, representing that ever, but rarely, intestine combats take place; and they had long been subjected to a grievous rule on the there are terrific duels between the workers, or between part of their papas, who treated them rigorously at a worker and a male. This is a bad affair for the latter, all times, and often punished them severely for light as he has no sting: his fate is generally to die.
offences, while there was much reason to believe that One of the most striking facts in the natural history papas in general were themselves no better than they of the Vespidæ is the occurrence of an annual massacre in should be. They therefore demanded permission to try October. Then the vespiary is indeed a scene of horrible a Papa before a court of Boys, as a step towards formatrocities and profuse carnage. The wasps, whose affec- ing some sort of judgment as to the justice of this rule. tion for their young is generally remarkably strong, seem Jupiter was pleased, in consequence, to issue a commisthen to be possessed with frenzied rage against them. sion for that purpose. They cease to feed their larvæ : they do worse,' angrily A Papa being accordingly caught, a court was formed, writes Reaumur ; 'the mothers become implacable mur over which George Plumb, a noted booby, presided as deresses; they drag the helpless larvæ out of their cells, judge; while Tom Foxey, a youth notorious for never slay them, and scatter then outside the nest, strewing having whole clothes, or being out of a scrape, acted as the very earth with their dead carcasses. There is no prosecutor. That there might be at the same time percompunction: the massacre is universal.' A wise pur- fect fairness, the prisoner was allowed to have for his pose is fulfilled by this apparent cruelty. The coming counsel the most distinguished dux of the time and
place, Jack Smart by name. A jury, composed of a his own way at home; would take all fair advantages top class from an infant school, was duly impannelled. in business — that is, advantages not forbidden by the
Tom Foxey, in opening the proceedings, observed law or the code of honour; paid his debts when he that the gentleman brought before them that day was could; was anxious to take all the pleasure out of life not accused of any specific crime, unless the fact of his that was to be had, and thought the opera the finest belonging to the tyrant class of papas might be so con- thing in the world. Had once heard him speak of the sidered; in which case his guilt must be great indeed, duties of life, referring particularly to the propriety of seeing that he was an unusually extensive papa, in as his children never doing anything contrary to his will. far as he had ten children-six boys, and four girls. Here the case was closed for the prosecution. The object was to subject him to a trial of qualifica Evidence on the defensive was then brought forward tions or pretensions, to ascertain if he were, from his by the prisoner's counsel. And first his wife was called; own conduct and character, worthy to hold that abso- whereupon Mr Foxey objected for the prosecution, that lute rule over certain of his fellow-creatures, usually so near a connexion might not be adduced on that side, called his family, which he claimed to do on the grounds seeing that there was such a natural prepossession in of old use and wont. The time had been when an in- such relations in behalf of any party under accusation. quiry of this kind would have been held as an unnatural Mr Smart agreed to refer the point to the learned judge, rebellion; but such times were now passed away. Every- who instantly decided that the lady might be heard, thing was now questioned, everything had to stand and remarking, that the objection was founded entirely on a give an account of itself, and why should not the des- mistake; in fact, common observation showed that no potism of the paternal rule do the same? He did not one was ever found so extremely candid about one's believe there was any partiality shown in the selection faults as one's nearest relations. of a subject for trial. The gentleman in the dock was The lady had been married twenty years—had some a passable enough man in the world-a very fair speci- idea that her marriage had been a happy one, but could men, he would say, of his class. He would now pro- not be sure, in as far as she did not know what consticeed, however, to bring forward evidence to display the tuted a happy marriage. Her husband pursued his own actual lineaments of his character; after which it would course, and was much from home with his friends, while be for the jury to say whether he was entitled to hold she attended to domestic matters. He seldom was in any kind of rule over his children or not.
bad humour oftener than thrice a-week; in this state, Jack, the prisoner's eldest son, being sworn, deponed sometimes scolded, sometimes sulked, oftenest the latter. that his Papa was an exceedingly ignorant man, having He never interfered about the children, except to thrash entirely neglected his own learning in youth; yet he them when they did anything displeasing to him. Did had all his children at study for twelve hours a-day, not think him a bad father, because their neighbour and punished them for failure in their lessons with even Damson had once broken his boy's arm in a passion, more severity than their masters. He scarcely ever which her husband had never done. Believed that his went to church; but he caused all the young people to grand motive for being severe with the boys, was his go with their mamma twice every Sunday, and rigo- having been an exceedingly wild boy himself-he felt, rously enjoined the parson to keep them well up in the from his own case, that one never could be too strict catechism; though he scarcely knew one question from with young people. Did not know how it was, but the another himself. He generally thrashed at the rate of boys did not become any better under their father's distwo children a-day on an average, the offences being cipline. He was aware they did not like him, but always usually of the slightest kind—such as laughing at the thought it was because he did not chastise them enough. governess's painted eyebrows, or wheedling something Things, therefore, always seemed to be getting worse. nice from the cook, to make up for the ultra plain fare Was often sorry for the boys, but believed it to be all which was assigned to them. Had heard it said that for their good, having been assured by her husband that Papa once sold a horse as sound, which turned out to be there was something of the devil at the bottom of all broken in wind; the fact being the more deeply im- boys' characters, and which required to be thrashed out pressed on his memory, as that day Papa had whipped of them. Bill within an inch of his life for denying that he had The mother of the prisoner was also examined on this picked up a fallen apple in the garden. Papa was side. She knew that her son had been wild in youth, observed to be always most cross when he had been and was anxious that his boys should be better than making most merry. For example, if he had been himself. Thought, as their mother was chiefly conat an unusually boisterous party, where a vast quantity cerned in their upbringing, there might be other causes of wine was drunk, he was sure to come home with a than her son's conduct for their not giving satisfaction. very stern and defying countenance, and almost for Feared they were screened too much when they did certain would fall a-scolding both mamma and the chil- wrong. It was impossible for any father, who only saw dren.
his children two or three times a-week, to be responDick, another son of the prisoner, confirmed all that sible for them, beyond punishing what he found posiJack had said, with the addition, that Papa always beat tively wrong. them for rough words spoken among themselves, and The evidence for the prisoner being now closed, Mr yet would both swear and throw buttered toast at Foxey said it was unnecessary for him to occupy the the servants, when the said toast was not done to his court with long speeches. They had heard how the mind.
accused conducted himself in general. Constantly occuTag, a tyger, lately in the employment of the pri- pied with the pursuit of wealth or his own selfish pleasoner, stated that master was liablé to be irritated by sures, he had no time, as it did not appear he had any trifles; such as a spot of dirt left on the outside of the wish, to train his children aright. For all their consecarriage, or the emptiness of cruets at table. On these quent shortcomings, real or supposed, he could only lay occasions he never failed to blow up missus, and then on the lash. Was this justice to Young Ireland, or was sulky for all the rest of the evening. Master had Young England or Scotland either ? At the same time, been engaged in two duels, and was never out of law- every offence for which he punished his children, he was suits, notwithstanding which, he beat his sons if they in the habit of continually committing in an aggravated ever fought with each other. (Sensation in the court.) form himself, thus adding hypocrisy to his other guilt. Had been obliged to leave the place, in consequence of In short, it fully appeared, even from the evidence in suffering so much from master's temper.
his own defence, that he was a very bad person, who Henry Baddely, Esq. knew the prisoner ; had been only could be called a Papa by courtesy. Mr Foxey his club acquaintance for many years; sometimes had was therefore fully of opinion that he had no true title transactions in business with him. Thought him much to a sovereign rule over the young and rising members like other men—that is, he liked a good dinner, and of society who happened to have been born in his plenty of wine after it; could not do without having | household; and he craved judgment accordingly.