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Murito, serving in the ranks of his own battalion-who of several fathoms below the surface of the earth, the had deserted from the Christino garrison at the com sides of the pit were straight and smooth as a wall; but mencement of the siege, and who might be supposed to it had been ascertained that, at a considerable depth, a be tolerably well acquainted with the habits of the projecting ledge of rock, a couple of feet in breadth, ran queen’s troops in the locality-as to the danger he was round its entire circumference, which at low water was likely to incur of falling in with any of them on that left completely bare, and on which, at such times, one side of the river, which was occupied by them exclu- might sit or stand in safety for some hours—it being sively. The man assured him that, even previous to again submerged by the rising of the water to the depth the investment of the place, the troops were not allowed of three or four fathoms, according to the state of the to remain without the gates after sunset on any pre- tide, whether spring or neap. When crossing the river text; and that he might proceed after that hour to his from the Carlist side, the young man had observed that father's residence, and return in perfect safety, provided the tide was rapidly falling; and knowing, from the inhis stay was not prolonged beyond sunrise on the fol- terval that had elapsed, that it must be now about low lowing morning. Relying on this assurance, therefore, water, he prepared at once for the descent. This was Lieutenant Silva had proceeded on foot along the river an achievement which, however frightful to look upon, on that side occupied by the Carlists, until he had was in reality not attended with any excessive danger arrived opposite his father's mansion, when, bailing a to one of steady nerves, when properly assisted from fisherman, he was ferried across, and in a few minutes above; his ultimate safety, of course, depending on his more was sheltered beneath the parental roof.

being withdrawn before the rising of the tide. In fact, On the warmth of the greeting which welcomed him, young Silva had more than once performed the feat in after an absence of years, during which he had been his boyish days, and now felt no hesitation in resorting exposed to all the vicissitudes of a cruel and extermi- to it again as the only means of escape from a remorsenating warfare, we need not dwell. Under such cir- less and unsparing enemy. In a much shorter time, cumstances, it will be readily conceived that by the therefore, from the first alarm, than we have taken to little party, composed of the young man and his pa- describe the spot, he stood with his agitated father at rents, the lapse of time was unheeded; minutes and the mouth of the black and gaping chasm, from which hours flew swiftly by. Midnight had long been past; distinctly ascended the hoarse bellowing of the vexed but as the lieutenant proposed starting on his return torrent far below, as it rushed through the concealed by day break, beyond which time it would be imprudent outlet to the sea. A stout rope secured round his for him to remain on the Christino side of the river, middle, the young man let himself cautiously over the none thought of retiring to rest. It wanted still some edge; the remainder of the cord being wound round hours of dawn, when, during a momentary pause in the the trunk of a fruit tree, whilst Don Ricardo firmly conversation, a distant tinkling sound, borne on the grasped the extremity, ‘paying it out' by degrees. night wind, caused the youth to start from his seat and After the lapse of a few anxious minutes, the Don felt throw open the casement, which looked upon the lawn the strain relax, a proof that the young man had in front of the mansion. A moment of breathless sus- reached his resting-place; then the vibration of the pense followed, then a freshening of the breeze, and cord announced that he had cast it off'; and then a with it a renewal of the sound, which his practised ear shout from below conveyed the signal to withdraw it. now readily distinguished as the ringing of hoofs and The only approach for horsemen through the grounds the clank of cavalry equipments. Such sounds heard being very circuitous, Don Ricardo was enabled to on this side of the river plainly told him that the enemy reach the house and take his seat in the drawing-room was at hand, and needed not the additional evidence to before the dragoons pulled up at the door. that effect which was furnished in another minute by A dozen of their number instantly dismounted, and the sight of the lance-flags and shakos, the shape of surrounded the house, whilst their officer knocked loudly which, sharply defined and relieved against the bright for admittance. The door having been opened by Don moonlit sky, bespoke the appearance of a Christino Ricardo in person—the domestics having long before squadron. At the same time they left the high road, retired to rest, as it was not deemed prudent to inform and entering the grounds of Don Ricardo, advanced at them of the presence of the young man--the Christino a rapid pace towards the house; thus rendering their leader recognised him at once as evidently the proprietor intention, however mysterious the source of their in- of the mansion. formation, but too obvious—the arrest of the Carlist You keep late hours, Don Ricardo Silva,' he comofficer.

menced. “May I take the liberty of inquiring whether Lieutenant Silva and his parents were too well ac- you have had any visitors this evening?' quainted with the atrocious and unrelenting system My family is a small one, captain,' replied Don Riof extermination which characterised the proceedings cardo, endeavouring to disguise his anxiety under a feint of the belligerent parties in the Carlist war, not to smile; and in the present disturbed state of affairs, we know that arrest under such circumstances was synony- never have any visitors beyond our own circle.' mous with death; that should a Christino prison once If I mistake not,' said the other, 'you have a son close upon him, it would open only to conduct him to a among the rebels in the pay of Don Carlos. May bloody grave. Paralysed by the unexpected appearance I ask, without giving offence, when you heard from of the foe, the alarmed group stood for a few seconds in him last?' a state of indecision. The young soldier was the first • The last letter I received from him,' replied the to recover presence of mind. Extinguishing the lights father, “is dated several months back.' which stood on the table, he announced his intention of • Strange,' observed the Christino, 'that I should descending into the Fiend's Fishpond, whence, after the happen to be so much better informed about him than withdrawal of the Christinos, he could be easily extri- yourself! Now, were I to venture a guess as to his cated, and ferried across the river. The Fiend's Fish- whereabouts, I should say he was at this moment bepond was a frightful pit in the garden immediately neath this very roof.' behind the mansion, similar in form to a draw-well, and Don Ricardo vehemently, and indeed truly, denied the about twenty feet in diameter, produced apparently by fact of his presence beneath the roof; but, as may be supsome convulsion of nature, and deriving its singular posed, his protestations met with little credit. A guard appellation from some wild legend having its origin in was placed over him and his lady in the apartment in the superstition of the neighbouring peasantry. Being which they had been sitting ; the domestics were sumsituated within a few yards of the shore, a subterraneous moned, and put under similar restraint in another; communication existed between it and the sea, which and the remainder of the dragoons were ordered to dishad never indeed been explored, but the existence of mount and search the house. which was evident from the fact, that the water in the An hour subsequently, when every nook and cranny Fisbpond rose and fell with the tide. To a distance of the building, with the out-offices and garden, had

been ransacked—of course fruitlessly—the commander against them: and was actually employed in filing a of the Christino party again entered the apartment in bag with his spoils, when he was alarmed by the enwhich the Don and his lady were detained, and in- trance of the young man and his father, as related, on formed them, that as it was evident the young man had the appearance of the Christino cavalry. Taking remade his escape before the queen’s troops had reached fuge in a clump of flowering shrubs, he had been an unthe house, it became his duty to convey them both to seen observer of the young man's descent into the FishBilboa, to render an account for having harboured and pond, and of all the subsequent occurrences. Readily connived at the escape of a rebel. This was a blow comprehending the entire affair, the honest fellow which they had never anticipated, and for which they watched the dragoons clear of the grounds, and know. were wholly unprepared. None but themselves being ing that not a moment more was to be lost, procured privy to the fact of the young man's concealment in a rope, and hastened again to the spot, when the result the Fiend's Fishpond, to convey them to Bilboa, and was as we have already described. He now related to leave him to await the rising of the tide, would be to young Silva the substance of a singular conversation doom him to certain death. Even as it was, the latest which, as he lay concealed, he had overheard between period at which he could be withdrawn with life was the Christino commander and his subordinate officer. approaching with fearful rapidity. Horrified at the In reply to some inquiry of the latter concerning the prospect, the anguished mother shrieked and fainted ; authority of his information with reference to the visit whilst the stout-hearted Don himself could not so con of the Carlist officer, “Oh,' said the superior in a trol his emotions as to prevent the officer from discover- significant tone, ‘my intelligence must be authentic, ing that some deeper influence was at work than the since I have had it from on high.' mere dread of the inconvenience to which they would •What!' exclaimed the subaltern laughingly; “have themselves be exposed, trifling as it must prove in the you got a correspondent in heaven ?? absence of all positive evidence that young Silva had Why, not exactly,' was the reply; ‘my corresponreally been there at all. This of course but confirmed dent is yet a resident on earth, and yet I receive his him in his previous intention of taking them to Bilboa ; communications literally from the clouds. At another for which place, accordingly, the entire party, including time, however, I may give you further information con. the almost broken-hearted parents, started in a short cerning my celestial informant. At present, I am not at time afterwards.

liberty.' As our object is not to describe feelings, but to re The peasant who related this strange conversation cord facts, we shall not dwell upon the sufferings of Don discovered nothing in it beyond an unmeaning jocuRicardo and his lady throughout that dreadful night. larity bordering on profanity ; but Silva, who, during The reader can readily imagine how at one moment his seclusion, had naturally been speculating on the they would almost resolve to risk all, and reveal the fact, probable channel through which the Christinos had and, rescuing their child from the horrors of the frighto obtained information of his presence, conceived it to ful grave into which he had been lowered by his father's convey much more than met the ear, and to want but hand, procure for him, at all events, the respite of an certain key to explain the import of its mysterious allahour, and the privilege to look once more, before he sions. A few minutes afterwards, he found lying on the died, on the light of the sun ; and how, at the next, floor of the hall what a little reflection led him to regard they would determine to confide him to the bounty as furnishing the key which he required. This was of that Providence who holds the waters in the hollow nothing more than a scrap of paper, less than the palm of His hand, and bow in submission to His will, rather of a man's hand, greatly crumpled, as if it had been than become themselves the instruments in revealing rolled up and thrust into a small space, much soiled, the place of his concealment, and betraying him into the and slightly burned, on which was written, in charachands of men whose tender mercies were cruel. Let ters almost illegible, from the treatment it had underit suffice to say, that when, towards the close of the fol- gone—Silva, lieutenant, battalion Carlist infantry, lowing day, they were led forth from the prison in will spend to-night at his father's house on the river side, Bilboa, in which they had been immured, and informed close to the shore. Sergeant knows the spot, and they were at liberty to return to their mansion, the can guide a party thither.' Having read this important locks of the gentleman, which, though he had passed document, which had been accidentally dropped by the the middle age, on the previous evening had been black Christino officer, and examined its appearance attenand glossy as the raven's wing, were white as if the tively, noting the burn, he raised it to his nose, when snows of seventy years had descended on his head-the it decidedly smelled of gunpowder. He immediately lady was an idiot.

crossed the river, and in another hour was safe within Neither need we expatiate on the feelings of young the Carlist lines, when his first act was to wait on the Silva, as he beheld—if indeed such an expression be colonel of his battalion, recount the events of the night, correct as applied to his sensations amid the thick and acquaint him with the suspicions he had formed. darkness which reigned eternally within the frightful It is necessary to state here that Silva's battalion recesses of that horrid cavern—the gradual approaches was posted on a steep height immediately overlooking, of apparently inevitable death; the rising waters gra- indeed overhanging, Bilboa, and that so closely, that it dually ascending to the level of the ledge on which he terminated on the side next the city in a perpendicular stood—to his knees; his hips; his middle; his arm- cliff, which actually formed part of the wall bounding pits. Conscious by this time that something extraor- the military ground appropriated to the use of the dinary had occurred to prevent his parents from effect- queen’s garrison in the city; so that any object thrown ing his release, all hope of life had faded, and what from the top would necessarily, after a descent of he deemed a last prayer to Heaven was quivering on between three and four hundred feet, fall within the his lips, when a loud shout from the mouth of the pit limits of the beleaguered town. On the table-land at drove the blood, which had begun to stagnate round his the top of this dizzy height a Carlist sentry was reguheart, again like lightning through his veins. Prompt larly stationed, whose chief business was to observe the as the echo was his reply; and the next moment the movements of the Christino troops below, and report cord from above struck the water within reach of his accordingly to his superiors. It had been remarked,

With all the despatch which his numbed fingers that so inveterate was the hostility of the man Murito would permit, he fastened it around bim, and announc- -of whom mention has been already made as having, ing his readiness by another shrill cry, was drawn in at an early period of the siege, deserted from the garsafety to the top.

rison-towards his former comrades, that invariably, on He learned, on inquiry, that a neighbouring peasant, being relieved from his guard, he proceeded to the edge tempted by the luscious fruits with which the trees in of the cliff and discharged his musket at the Christinos Don Ricardo's garden were loaded, had, on the very beneath, the great height of the precipice precluding all night in question, ventured on a predatory excursion | danger from a return of the fire. Lieutenant Silva

arm.

remembered having made inquiry of this man concern attendant at length raised her head. She has fainted,' ing the safety of the road adjoining his father's resi- whispered her son. “She is dead !' solemnly replied her dence, and felt convinced that no other individual in husband. And so it was. The struggle had been too the Carlist camp was acquainted with his intention of great; and her gentle spirit had passed away to the proceeding thither at all.

place where the wicked cease from troubling, and the Nothing further of importance transpired that day. weary are at rest.' Towards the close of the next, it happened to be Murito's turn again to mount guard at the top of the cliff. As the hour which would terminate his guard

FLOWER-WORSHIP. approached, Lieutenant Silva and his colonel appeared A SUPERSTITIOUS veneration for particular flowers, sauntering along the platform, and shortly after the in other words, flower-worship—is an ancient, and, relief arrived. The customary form having been gone in some respects, a poetical variety of the depraved through, the fresh sentry took his post, and Murito was systems of religious homage into which certain of the about to advance, as usual, to have a shot at his friends human family have fallen. It is to be traced ages back below. To his surprise the non-commissioned officer in the religious observances of the Hindoos, and among of the guard seized his musket, and at the same mo- the more enlightened Chinese: it formed an important ment he found himself in the iron grasp of the men. part of the mysteries of Egyptian idolatry; and it is The charge of his musket was drawn upon the spot, remarkable that the past and present monuments of when it was discovered that, instead of the blank end the Mexicans exhibit, and with great prominence, the of the cartridge, the ball had been bitten off in loading; same feature; while at an earlier period than the prewhilst, rammed down over the wadding, was found a sent, certain flowers were regarded even by some Euroslip of paper, containing the words, in the handwriting peans with a degree of veneration only too closely of Murito— Zumalacarregui is dead: the siege must approximating the more declared feeling of flower-worsoon be raised if the garrison hold out.' This discovery ship. There is a love for these beautiful creations infully vindicated the justice of the suspicions which nate in the constitution of the human being, and parSilva had formed concerning the mysterious allusions ticipated in equally by civilised and savage men. Their of the Christino officer to his intelligence received exquisite attributes of painting and perfume address ‘from on high,' and the information communicated to themselves directly to our more refined feelings, while him from the clouds.' Silva inquired whether he should they have a tendency to direct upwards to the God order the man to the guardhouse to undergo his trial that made them: the grievous error lay in not stopby court-martial; but the sergeant bluntly suggested to ping short before these feelings became idolatry. It his commander the propriety of ordering out a firing will be easily conjectured that no temperate region was party on the spot, and bringing the matter to a sum- the parent of the perstition It arose in those warmer mary conclusion.

latitudes where the vegetable world has been endowed *Your suggestion is the better of the two, sergeant,' with a vigour of growth, and gorgeousness of apparel, replied the colonel, smiling grimly. I shall adopt of which austerer climates are ignorant. Its aspect inneither, however, but make the fellow the bearer of his deed is most imposing, and, to be fully realised, must be own correspondence. Death by the bullet is the fate beheld. In the few exiles which pass an artificial existof brave men and true soldiers, and ammunition is not ence in our stoves, we are supplied with some faint and 80 plenty that I can afford to waste a cartridge on a feeble types of the vegetable glories of the tropics; and traitor. Pin the paper to the scoundrel's breast,' he even these will produce an impression not soon effaced shouted, and pitch him over to convey it to his friends from any cultivated mind. But there, where the Indian, below.'

penetrating the hot, damp jungles of his forests, sudThe blood of Silva ran cold at this terrible doom, and denly comes upon a great, glowing, wonderfully-formed he attempted a remonstrance on behalf of the miserable and tinged orchid, squatting like some animated being culprit; but the colonel was inflexible. Ti

upon a shaggy trunk, or where the Hindoo paddles across whom the order was given were seldom troubled with a blue lake, literally paved with lotus-flowers, it is not scruples ; and if they had been, the treachery of a com a violent supposition that the spectacle will impress rade would have effectually silenced them. The paper him with feelings akin to awe. The next step is not was actually pinned to the breast of the terror-palsied difficult to be foreseen. As flower-worship took its wretch; he was lifted from the ground, and carried to origin, so, alas! it retains its existence, only among the the edge of the cliff by half-a-dozen pairs of sinewy most ignorant of the human family. Perhaps the sin

The Christino sentry at the foot of the pre- gularity of the subject, coupled with the brevity of our cipice was startled by a piercing shriek, as of one in notice of it, may be an apology, if one is requisite, for mortal agony, in the upper air—then followed a swift its introduction in these pages. rushing sound, and then a mass of lifeless humanity lay Humboldt and Bonpland, in their splendid work at his feet.

on Equinoctial Plants, give an account of a very Years elapsed ere the restoration of tranquillity per- curious tree called by the Mexicans by the dreadful mitted the young Carlist officer again to visit his title of the Macpalxochiquaukitl ! - which signifies parental home. In the interval, all that medical skill hand, flower, tree. Its botanical title is almost as could effect had been resorted to for the restoration of long, but is a trifle more euphonious—the Cheirostemon Donna Silva to her proper mind; but the occurrences platanoides. There existed only one specimen of this of one fearful night appeared to have driven reason sacred tree in all Mexico, at least to the knowledge of from its throne for ever. On the arrival of her son, the Mexicans ; and this circumstance, added to the however, it was resolved by the medical advisers, with really remarkable aspect of the flowers, appears to have Don Ricardo's consent, to try the effect of his abrupt won for it the veneration of the Indian population. appearance in her presence, all other resources having From the centre of the flower there springs a columnar failed. On his introduction to the room in which she tube, which may be supposed to represent an arm and sat, her countenance was bent towards the ground, and wrist; and this then breaks into five stamens, coloured she seemed utterly regardless of the presence of a blood-red, and disposed after a manner not very disstranger. He addressed her: she started to her feet at similar to the arrangement of the fingers and thumb of the first accents of the voice which she had deemed the human hand. The very points of these vegetable choked for ever amid the rushing waters of the Fiend's fingers are curved, and somewbat resemble the forFishpond. She gazed upon him--the pallid cheek midable ungulated talons with which painters delight glowed again the vacant, lack-lustre eye flashed with to ornament the hands of witches and demons. These the light of intellect—with a wild scream of delight she parts of the flower are of a considerable size, and probounded toward him, clasped him in her arms, and sunk ject in a menacing manner some distance above the upon his bosom. Her embrace was long. The medical | petals. It may easily, therefore, be conceived that a

men

arms.

high and noble-looking tree-for such it is--laden with Indian attendants fell on their faces and paid adoraflowers of such marvellous configuration, brandishing tion to it. aloft, in fact, a thousand gory hands, was an object The Malays have a more sordid flower-worship likely to excite in no ordinary degree the supersti- they adore an imaginary flower of gold. They believe tions, and even the terrors, of the ignorant. The tree that there grows upon their sacred fig tree a little was worshipped by thousands; it was believed to be flower of the most pure gold. It is a parasite, and the only specimen in the world of its kind ; and the opens and blossoms, they say, but once, and has the opinion was common that any attempt to propagate it property of bringing vast wealth to its possessor. Thus would prove abortive. A great number of seeds was much may at least be said of it—the flowers are golden, procured by our travellers, planted, and watched over as far as colour goes. Loureiro, a writer on the Flora of with the most sedulous care, but not one of them suc Cochin China, says, that while he was resident in that ceeded. So great, say they, was the veneration paid empire, a large bunch of these priceless flowers was to it by the Indians, and so eagerly were the pre- found by some fortunate person growing upon one of cious flowers thereof sought after, that they were fre- those sacred trees. Instantly he betook himself with quently plucked long before their expansion; and the his spoil to the emperor, at whose feet he deposited the tree was consequently never suffered to ripen its treasure; for which, from being a common soldier, he fruit. In spite, however, of the firmest convictions was at once promoted to the highest ranks, the emperor of the indivisibility of this tree—the Manitas, as it is believing himself now possessed of infallible assurance commonly called-it has been propagated by cuttings, of boundless wealth and happiness. some of which are at this moment thriving in some of Perhaps, to take a final example nearer home, the larger stores of our modern collectors. The Messrs the Passion-flower, as nearly as could be, receired Loddiges were, and for aught we know to the contrary, homage from the fervent superstitions of the early disare still possessed of a remarkably fine and healthy spe coverers of the new world. It was first found in the cimen. In Lyon's - Journal of a Residence in Mexico,' he Brazils, and very soon the marvels which its discoverers mentions having seen this famous tree, and confirms all pretended to behold in it became famous throughout that has been above written concerning it, adding, that Christendom. Its name is suggestive of the solemn as if to make the resemblance to a hand complete, the reality it was romantically supposed to typify. As it points of the fingers are terminated by processes re- became common, it lost its sacredness, and has the bare sembling claws! Whilst the resemblance to the human vestige of it now left in its name. Without multiply. hand was recognised in this instance, it would have ing examples, this may suffice to direct the reader's been most strange had the remarkable race of mimics— attention to an interesting, but to every right mind a the orchids-escaped observation or veneration. These sad and painful, subject of thought. plants, which have no parallel in nature for singularity, beauty, and fragrance, and which, in some of their

THE RIVER AMAZON. species, imitate the most wonderful diversity of objects, are held in high veneration by the Mexicans. The 'The country of the Amazon,' says Mr Edwards, 'is Queen of the Orchids especially is inestimably prized; the garden of the world, possessing every requisite for and others receive a subordinate measure of respect. a vast population and an extended commerce. It is also Those who have access to Mr Bateman's splendid work one of the healthiest of regions; and thousands who on the Orchidaceæ of Mexico and Guatemala, will find annually die of diseases incident to the climates of the there several interesting particulars relating to this subject. In other countries, orchids have been objects north, might here find health and long life.'* This of reneration.

river is the largest in the world. From a distance of The famed lotus-flower has a world-wide reputation about 200 miles from the Pacific, it continues navigable for sanctity. It is not clear whether it belonged to to its mouth in the Atlantic, 3000 miles by the course the water-lily tribe, or to the Nelumbiaceæ, or whether of the stream; and including its branches, it waters an the lotus of one nation may not have belonged to one, area of 2,100,000 square miles, comprising one-third and that of another to the other, of these tribes. part of South America. The aggregate navigable The Nelumbium is a splendid water - flower, and is found floating in the pools and ditches of Asia, and in length of this immense ramification of waters is said to the Nile: it yields a nut which is supposed to be ana

be from 40,000 to 50,000 miles. The province of Pará logous with the sacred bean of the ancients. The alone, comprehending the most important part of the flowers of both tribes are glorious objects—some are Amazon, contains an area of nearly a million square blue, white, yellow, rose-coloured ; and they appear miles, with the most productive soil in the world, and lovely in the extreme when resting on the bosom of the an agreeable temperature, though under a vertical sun.

The flower was worshipped alike in Egypt, This, Mr Edwards tells us, is owing to several causes. taking a place in the mysteries of Isis and Osiris, as in “The days are but twelve hours long, and the earth India in those of Brahma. The sculptural remains of does not become so intensely heated as where they are ancient Egypt abound with the sacred plant in every sixteen. The vast surface of water constantly cools the stage of its development, the flowers and fruit being air by its evaporation, and removes the irksome dryness represented with the utmost accuracy. Among the that in temperate regions renders a less degree of heat Hindoos it was considered an emblem of the world, insupportable. And finally, the constant winds blowand the flower was looked upon as the cradle of Brahma. ing from the sea refresh and invigorate the system.' It was used to decorate the temples of their idols, and

I know not,' says Sir William Temple, whether laid as a most acceptable votive offering upon their there may be anything in the climate of Brazil more altars. Sir George Staunton writes — The Chinese propitious to health than in other countries ; for, besides always held this plant in such high value, that at what was observed among the natives upon the first length they regarded it as sacred. That character, European discoveries, I remember Don Francisco de however, has not limited it to useless or ornamental Mello, a Portugal ambassador in England, told me it purposes. Their ponds, to the extent of many acres, was frequent in his country for men spent with age or are covered with it, and exhibit a very beautiful ap- other decays, so as they could not hope for above a year pearance when in flower.'* When Sir William Jones or two of life, to ship themselves away in a Brazil fleet, was on one occasion at dinner on the borders of the and upon their arrival there, to go on to a great length, Ganges, desiring to examine the sacred flower, he sometimes of twenty or thirty years, or more, by the despatched some of his people to procure him a speci- force of that vigour they received with that remove. men; it was brought to him, and immediately all his

* A Voyage up the River Amazon, Including a Residence at * Embassy to China.

Pará. By William H. Edwards. London:

1: Murray.

wave.

Whether such an effect might grow from the air or the noticed. 'Not long after noon, we stopped at a house fruits of that climate, or by approaching nearer the where a number of Indians were collected about a sun, which is the fountain of life and heat, when their periecu, which they had just caught. This was the fish natural heat was so far decayed, or whether the piecing whose dried slabs had been our main diet for the last out of an old man's life were worth the pains, I cannot few weeks, and we embraced the opportunity to take a sav.' This is more true, Mr Edwards says, of the cli- good look at so useful a species. He was about six feet mate of Pará than of that of any other part of Brazil. long, with a large head and wide mouth; and his thick The riches of this fine country embrace all the most scales, large as dollars, were beautifully shaded with valuable productions of the tropics; and the melancholy flesh colour. These fish often attain greater size, and prejudices which elsewhere separate so effectually the at certain seasons are very abundant, especially in the working-classes (who must in such a climate be blacks) lakes. They are taken with lances, cut into slabs of from the others, are here almost unfelt. • Brazilian half an inch thickness, and dried in the sun after being slavery, as it is, is little more than slavery in name. properly salted. It is as great a blessing to the province Prejudice against colour is scarcely known, and no of Pará as cod or herring to other countries, constituting white thinks less of his wife because her ancestors came the main diet of three-fourths of the people.' from over the water. Half the officers of the govern The living of another class of society is more varied. ment and of the army are of mingled blood; and padres, At six in the morning coffee was brought into our and lawyers, and doctors, of the intensest hue, are none room, and the day was considered as fairly commenced. the less esteemed. The educated blacks are just as We then took our guns, and found amusement in the talented and just as gentlemanly as the whites, and in woods until nearly eleven, which was the hour for repeated instances we received favours from them which breakfast. At this meal we never had coffee or tea, we were happy to acknowledge.' What, then, renders and rarely any vegetable excepting rice; but rich soups, Pará å poor and thinly-peopled territory, with land and dishes of turtle, meat, fish, and peixe boi, in several free of cost at the command of tire immigrant; ground forms of preparation, loaded the table. The Brazilian easily cleared ; a fertile soil producing in extraordinary method of cooking becomes very agreeable when one abundance sugar, rice, coffee, anatto, cotton, cocoa, has conquered his repugnance to a slight flavour of guns, and drugs; and the general price of living mar- garlic and the turtle-oil used in every dish. The desvellously low? The causes may be found in the legal sert consisted of oranges, pacovas, and preserves. Puddisabilities under which settlers labour-dishonest otti-dings, unless of tapioca, are seldom seen, and pastry cials, a debased currency, high import duties, and bur- never, out of the city. Water was brought, if we asked dens upon exports which neutralise both the benefi- for it; but the usual drink was a light Lisbon wine. cence of nature and the industry of man. There is The first movement upon taking our places at the scarcely a product raised in the two countries in which table, was for each to make a pile of salt and peppers Brazil could not undersell the United States in every upon his plate, which, mashed and liquefied by a little market of the world, were it not for this tax. Its cotton caldo or gravy, was in a condition to receive the meat. and rice, even during the past year, have been shipped A bowl of caldo in the centre, filled with farinha, whence from Pará to New York; its tobacco is preferable to every one could help himself with his own spoon, was the best Virginian, and can be raised in inexhaustible always present. The remainder of the day we spent in quantities.' In a word, Pará is a province of the vast preserving our birds, or, if convenient, in again visiting Brazilian empire, which is falling to pieces through its the forest. The dinner-hour was between six and seven, own weight.

and that meal was substantially the same as breakfast.' A visit to such à country cannot fail to be interest | The following picture of a country-house, in which ing, and the fact is proved by a readable book upon the much entertainment is to be had by all comers, is insubject, such as the one before us, having been dashed teresting. • This was the first decidedly Brazilian counoff by a sportsman author, who does not describe very try-house that we had visited, and a description of it well, who does not philosophise at all, and whose know- may not be uninteresting. It was of one storey, coverledge of science is confined to the nomenclature of orni- ing a large area, and distinguished in front by a deep thology. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, the book veranda. The frame of the house was of upright is readable, as we shall proceed to prove, by transferring beams, crossed by small poles, well fastened together by to our columns some of its morceaux of instruction or withes of sepaw. A thick coat of clay entirely covered entertainment. The author is an American, who left this both within and without, hardened by exposure New York for Pará upon an excursion of pleasure and into stone. The floors were of the same hard material; curiosity.

and in front of the hammocks were spread broad reedThe lower classes throughout the province live chiefly mats, answering well the purpose of carpets. Few and upon farinha, and a dried and salted fish called periecu. small windows were necessary, as the inmates of the The plant producing the farinha is known by us as house passed most of the day in the open air, or in the cassava. “The stalk is tall and slender, and is divided veranda, where han mocks were suspended for lounginto short joints, each one of which, when placed in the ing, or for the daily siesta. The roof was of palm thatch, ground, takes root, and becomes a separate plant. The beautifully made, like basket-work in neatness, and enleaves are palmated, with six and seven lobes. The during for years. The dining-table stood in the back tubers are shaped much like sweet potatoes, and are a veranda, and long benches were placed by its sides as foot or more in length. They are divested of their thick seats. Back of the house, and entirely distinct, was a rind, and grated upon stones, after which the mass is covered shed used for the kitchen and other purposes. placed in a slender bag of rattan six feet in length; to Any number of little negroes, of all ages and sizes, and this a large stone is appended, and the consequent ex all naked, were running about, clustering around the tension producing a contraction of the sides, the juice is table as we ate, watching every motion with eyes exexpressed. The juice is said to be poisonous, but is pressive of fun and frolic, and as comfortably at home highly volatile. The last operation is the drying, which as could well be imagined. Pigs, dogs, chickens, and is effected in large iron pans, the preparation being con ducks assumed the same privilege, notwithstanding the stantly stirred. When finished, it is called farinha, or zealous efforts of one little negro, who seemed to have flour, and is of a white or brown colour, according to them in his especial charge.' the care taken. In appearance it resembles dried Such settlements, as may be supposed, occur only here crumbs of bread. It is packed in loose baskets lined and there in the midst of a wild and partially-known with palm-leaves, and in the bulk of eighty pounds, or country. “The whole region north of the Amazon is an alquier. Farinha is the substitute for bread and for watered by numberless rivers, very many of which are vegetables. The Indians and blacks eat vast quantities still unexplored. It is a sort of bugbear country, where of it, and its swelling in the stomach produces that cannibal Indians and ferocious animals abound to the distension observable in the children.' The fish is thus | destruction of travellers. This portion of Brazil has

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