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veniences and annoyance to which thousands of poor more extensive and pretending scale than that at East people dwelling in the crowded and narrow streets Smithfield. and lanes of the eastern part of the metropolis were We shall now briefly describe the internal economy subjected, before the existence of these baths, and to of the institution. A large, lofty room, being the prinwhich many more thousands are yet exposed in other cipal one in the house, is set apart for the washing and parts of it, and in most of the large towns in the king- drying of clothes. We saw several women engaged in dom, by being obliged to wash, dry, and iron their this work, superintended by the matron, amongst whom clothes in the one sole room in which a large family are
the greatest decorum and order were observable. We 80 commonly cabined, cribbed, confined, and where took occasion to interrogate the matron on the conduct they have to cook their meals, eat and sleep, dress and that she had no trouble with them on that point, that
of the people who came to wash, and she assured us undress, and perform all the minor offices of life, we can they were uniformly civil in their behaviour towards then understand and appreciate the invaluable boon herself and to one another, and that all of them exwhich such an institution confers upon those who are pressed themselves grateful for the privileges afforded able to avail themselves of its privileges. But the them. In this room there is a large steam boiler, used institution does not stop here. The kind-hearted and for the purpose of heating the water ; not by boiling sagacious man who presides over it has sought to adapt it in the ordinary way, but by pouring steam into its advantages to every conceivable phase and form of wooden tubs filled with cold water, until it becomes filth and wretchedness in which the human form and which lay in having the tubs fixed in the masonry
heated. We saw only one objection to this method, lineaments are so often found debased.
Hundreds of surrounding and supporting the boiler, by which the persons—and many of them very young persons too-of washers were exposed to the fierce heat both of the both sexes, are so utterly destitute and unfortunate as to boiler and of the fire underneath. Washing clothes possess no single article of clothing besides those which in warm water, under ordinary circumstances, is suffithey have on their backs, and those are often scanty, ciently hot work; but the process carried on as we have and of necessity far from clean. How could the society described it, especially on a day so sultry as that on aid those persons in washing their clothes, when their which our visit was made, must have been painfully, if whole stock of habiliments was imperatively required ingeniously inventive as he is philanthropic, may be
not intolerably, oppressive. Probably Mr Bowie, as to cover their nakedness ? This obstacle has been sur
able to think of some mode of obviating this inconvemounted. To individuals of this class, who wish to wash nience: the only wonder is, that it was not foreseen in their clothes, the society furnishes a change of cloth- the first instance. ing, to be used by them whilst they are so engaged, With the view of economising fuel, this boiler is and also materials and an apartment for mending them used not only for heating the water in the wash-tubs, afterwards. Before leaving the house, they may like but also that in the baths placed in adjacent apartwise have a warm or cold bath; and all this accommo
ments; and, what is more remarkable, it is likewise dation is offered without any charge whatever. Nor is washed, through the medium of an ingenious process
made available for the drying of the clothes when this all. Limited as have been the means at the dis- which we shall describe, and which was suggested by posal of the society, it has extended its services beyond Mr Bowie. A chamber, about the size, and having the the walls of the building, and attempted even more appearance, of a large cupboard, is placed at the distance radically to promote universal cleanliness and health of a few yards from the boiler, with which it is made among the poor in the vicinity, by providing white- to communicate by a pipe of about eight inches in wash, and lending pails and brushes to persons desirous diameter, through which, by means of a revolving fan of purifying their humble dwellings; and the boon so drying chamber through the floor, which is of iron, and
turned by hand, a column of heated air is sent into the offered has been eagerly accepted by great numbers in perforated with holes. The clothes intended to be dried the neighbourhood.
are suspended from horizontal poles placed within the With respect to the baths, there were only two at drying chamber ; and by the agency of the heated air the commencement of the experiment; and, in conse- ascending through the perforated floor, they are effecquence, six persons were obliged to use the same water tually dried in the short interval of a quarter of an successively—a regulation obviously objectionable, and hour. This novel contrivance not only dries the clothes which must have been unpleasant to the bathers. By the peculiar smell that generally clings to long-worn
rapidly, but likewise ventilates and frees them from the addition of two other baths, in the course of time garments ; and thus, it is believed, all noxious, morbific, two or three persons at the utmost had to use the and contagious matters that may lurk in the habilisame water; and now, since the erection of two other ments are effectively decomposed, destroyed, or dissibaths, making six in the whole, each individual bath- pated. The ironing and mending of the clothes are ing has a fresh supply of pure warm water. The carried on in adjoining apartments. bather is also supplied with a piece of soap and a clean
The institution is open from eight in the morning till towel.
The arrangements of the baths, though they eight at night. During part of the day-namely, from are destitute of everything like ornament, and in some
eight until four o'clock women are exclusively ad
mitted to wash their clothes and bathe; and on the respects somewhat rudely constructed, are unexception
women retiring, from four until eight in the evening able as respects privacy and decorum. The writer him
men are admitted to these privileges. self took a warm bath on the premises, and had soap The reader by this time will be curious to know to and a clean towel allowed bim, for all which accommo what extent the class of people for whom those baths dation he was expected to pay only a penny. The bath and wash-houses were more especially intended have was certainly not so neatly or commodiously constructed, availed themselves of the advantages which they offer. nor contained in so comfortable an apartment, as the : On the first proposition of the institution,' we are second-class baths at the public baths and wash-houses informed in the first Report of the committee, 'many in George Street, Marylebone, near Euston Square; but the trial, thinking the very poor so sunk in wretched,
benevolent-minded individuals doubted the utility of it ought to be taken into account, in instituting the ness, that they would not consider their appearance and comparison, that the charge for a warm bath at the personal comfort worth the trouble of improvement, latter place is fourpence, and that the establishment and their filthy state more consonant with their ciris a self-supporting one, and conducted on a much cumstances. These were men, we imagine, of the • It
Can't-be-Done' school, who are ever found ready to made, and to be made, to promote sanitory improvethrow cold water upon any philanthropic or patriotic ments and regulations, so many handmaids to the project, the promoters of which seek to accomplish spread of religion, and knowledge, and happiness among their object by wandering away from the ordinary and the people. beaten tracks of benevolence. The event in this particular case, however, has falsified their prognostications.
THREE WEEKS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. * The progress of the experiment,' continues the Report,
having proved the contrary, many of those who were on Saturday, June 26, 184-, we left London for Ostend, lukewarm in their support, or declined rendering their and proceeded thence to Ratisbon, and thence down assistance, are now among the most zealous supporters the Danube to Vienna, Pesth, Drenkova, and Orsova. of the institution. Many of the poor, although unable This latter place we left on the 8th of August, and for a to procure a sufficiency of food, are found to take an time bade farewell to Christendom ; once again launched honest pride in cleanliness of person and clothes. The upon the noble Danube, called by Wordsworth institution, by encouraging this feeling, has led to more
the wandering stream, benefit in fitting them to seek for employment, and to
Who loves the cross, yet to the crescent's gleam obtain sustenance by industry, than if it had distributed
Unfolds a willing breast;' its means in mere articles of food. It is with just gratu- and thence steamed our rapid course to Nicopolis, Sislation that the result is stated of the first year's essay of tova, Rutzchuk, and Czernavoda. At this latter place the institution-namely, 27,622 bathers, 35,480 washers we bade farewell to the Danube, after a voyage down and dryers of clothes, and 4522 ironers. This is the its stream of upwards of twelve hundred miles, perbest proof of the desire of the poor to be neat, clean, and formed in twenty-six days, including seven days spent wholesome, when they can have the requisites; and as at Vienna, five at Pesth, and four at Orsova; so that to their acknowledgments, those who visit the building we were ten days and nights on board. It was early in hear the recipients express themselves to this effect the morning of the 12th of August that I took a fare“ God bless those who give us this benefit: it is the well swim in the Danube; and we left Czernavoda for best thing yet that has been done for us, for it makes Kusterjè in light carriages, each drawn by four horses, us feel stronger, and better able to go to seek for work, driven by one postilion. The luggage had been forwarded and more likely to get it, than when we were so very over night by one of the bullock-wains. Czernavoda dirty." We were told by Mr Bowie that people came is rather more than forty miles from Kusterjè, and we from Kensington and Greenwich, and indeed from went the whole distance with the same horses, stopping almost all parts within twenty miles of London, to three times—twice for a very few minutes, and once for wash their clothes or bathe on the establishment, over an hour and a-half. The journey was performed in less and above those who resided in closer proximity to it. than seven hours, including the stoppages. The horses One poor man living at Ascot, having heard of the were small and active, and were driven at a gallop all institution, on one occasion brought the whole of his the way. They did not appear to suffer in the least family from that distance to bathe. At the time of from the pace, or from the heat of the sun, and arrived our visit, the committee had made their Report for apparently quite fresh at Kusterjè. the second year; but it was not then printed. We Kusterje is finely situated on a small promontory learned, however, from Mr Bowie, that the number of overlooking the Black Sea. It was once, I believe, a poor people who came to wash and bathe on the pre- flourishing town; but it is now in a very ruined state, mises during the second year had exceeded the number having been almost totally destroyed by the Russians. in the first year by about 15,000. About 140 persons, It boasts of some antiquity.. Fragments of marble upon an average, bathe and wash in a day. Poor people columns, and rich remains of Roman structures, are who live in the neighbourhood are allowed to come met with amongst its ruins; and the sound of its antwice a-week to wash. Most of those people have cient name, Constantina, still lurks in its modern appelavailed themselves of the baths and wash-louse since lation. their commencement. After four o'clock in the after The Ferdinand steamer from Constantinople having noon, a large number of labouring men employed in the arrived in the night, we embarked early, and bade fareLondon docks, which are adjacent to the baths, go to well to Kusterjè. On the whole, we had fine weather bathe every day. Of the persons who bathed and for our voyage; but there was wind enough to make washed during the first year, upwards of 9000 came our vessel roll a great deal; and we received a most from a distance of from two to five miles; and above uncomfortable practical illustration of the force of Lord 1300 bathed and washed, who, on the preceding night, Byron's well-known couplet respecting the up-turned slept at places from five to twenty-five miles distant. billows of the Euxine.
We have seen that the promoters, in their Report, August 13.-At about ten in the morning we quitted dwell exclusively on the advantages resulting from the vast encincture of that gloomy sea,' and entered their exertions in affording facilities to the poor for the mouth of the Bosphorus, passing the classical Symcleansing their houses and their persons, and so con- plagades on our right. ducing to health, and multiplying the chances of their The charms of the scenery of the Bosphorus cannot obtaining employment. These are unquestionably easily be exaggerated. Hills, forts, towers, and villages, effects in the highest degree important; but we think appear in succession, whilst its bays and windings endow this is taking too limited a view of the services ren- it with the several beauties of river, lake, and set. The dered to the humbler classes by such institutions. We water is of the most transparent purity, and of the most feel that they have a wider and higher vocation. They beautiful azure colour that can be imagined. A large seem to us to be breaking up and preparing for moral shoal of dolphins accompanied us for several miles, gam. and intellectual culture those waste and neglected spots bolling and leaping into the air from wave to wave; and which stud the surface of our great social territory, and we could distinctly see them when darting along far which have heretofore teemed only with a rank, deadly, beneath the surface, although the water was far from and poisonous vegetation of ignorance, misery, and smooth. Nothing could be more delightful than our crime. It is the uniform experience of all men who transition from a tumbling sea to the swift current of have sought to diffuse religious light and truth, or this beautiful strait, that bore us down through scenes knowledge of a useful kind, among the great body of so novel, so interesting, and so intrinsically beautiful, the poor, that there are depths in the social scale to a city equally celebrated in ancient and in modern to which their efforts can scarcely penetrate, or on times. which they make no extensive or abiding impression. The minarets of Constantinople now appeared in * Cleanliness is near akin to godliness;' and we think sight; and, much sooner than we expeeted, we found we recognise, in the establishment of baths and wash- ourselves at anchor in the Golden Horn. Just as we houses in our large cities and towns, and the efforts | arrived, the sultan was embarking to cross the Bos
phorus, on his way to a mosque on the Asiatic side, it You undress leisurely on a sofa, in a cool, airy part being Friday, the Moslem Sabbath. The officers of of the building, and a blue cotton cloth is wrapped state accompanied the sultan in their brilliant caïques. round your middle, so as to form a sort of petticoat. It was a gorgeous and animating spectacle; and the You are next conducted into a room, the atmosphere thunder of the salutes from the ships of war, gaily of which is very hot, without being close or stifling. decked out with their ensigns and streamers, seemed to Water, hot and cold, is supplied from marble fountains, bid us welcome to the waters of the Bosphorus, and to and runs in channels along the stone floor. Here you the full enjoyment of the view of the imperial city, remain until the perspiration runs off the skin in large then before us in all its glory: or rather, I should say, drops. If you can support it, you are conducted from to a view of three cities in one-Constantinople and the hence into an apartment still hotter, and shortly an atSeraglio Point on our right; Pera on our left; with tendant arrives, who throws a bowl or two of water over Scutari on the Asiatic side ; palaces, mosques, and you from the marble fountain, and then proceeds to their minarets; cypress-trees, towers, and shipping ; lather you from head to foot with soft soap, at the same sky, water, and sunshine-all blending and harmonis- time gently rubbing and kneading the joints and ing together!
muscles. After this you are again rinsed thoroughly In due time we left our steamer, and transferring our with water, and are reconducted to your sofa, where selves and baggage to the light casques of the Turkish you are carefully wiped and dried, and kneaded as beboatmen, we landed, and walked over a pavement that fore, and are left covered up, with a cloth, turbanmust be seen and felt to be imagined, up the apparently fashion, wrapped round your head. Here you remain interminable ascent of Pera, and along its principal half an hour or more in a delicious tranquil reverie, to street, to the Hotel Belle Vue, where we established our enjoy a pipe if you choose it, and inhale the fresh air of selves, much to our satisfaction.
the apartment, and drink iced lemonade or sherbet. But some ludicrous realities are very apt to intrude This may sound as if it were a dangerous proceeding; upon the most charming illusions. As we were sitting but it is the received custom so to do, and I suppose it in all the pride and freshness of an arrival in an Orien- allays beneficially the ferment raised in the circulation tal city, enjoying the brilliancy of the evening, and the in the hot bath. The process throughout is agreeable, grandeur of the view of Constantinople and the Bos. and leaves no subsequent lassitude, but rather confers a phorus, expecting every sound, as well as every sight, sensation of power to resist the heat of the climate. to be equally new, our ears were suddenly regaled with After dinner we walked to the cemetery of Pera, and the popular air of Jenny Jones, most sonorously per- enjoyed a most lovely view of the Bosphorus. On one formed on the key-bugle, with an ad libitum accompani- side was the setting sun, and in the opposite quarter of ment of loud voices, and the national adjuration, which the sky a dark storm of rain, that cast a deep purple Lord Byron calls the English Shibboleth, so plainly pro- blush over the water, throwing a large ship of war, as nounced, as to satisfy us of what nation the musician she lay at anchor, out into bold relief. The picture was and his companions were. In strong contrast to this, completed by the fine dusky hills of the Asiatic side of very shortly afterwards we heard the new and solemn the Bosphorus, with the faint outline of Olympus in the sounds of the muezzin, calling the city to prayer. distance.
Saturday 14.-Spent the greater part of the day in August 16.-Visited Scutari, the city on the Asiatic rambling about the hot, steep, and cruelly ill-paved side of the Bosphorus. Scutari is a large and ancient streets of Pera and Galata. The whole town, now that town, though considered as a sort of suburb to Constanthe weather is dry, is very tolerably clean-thanks tinople. The principal street is wider than any we have mainly to the dogs, hawks, and vultures, who are the yet seen in Constantinople or Pera, and the mosques scavengers of the place. The heat is very great; yet and public fountains are beautiful. The cemetery is throughout the day there is an agreeable air from the held in great veneration by the Turks. It is very exBosphorus. We were rowed out in the evening in tensive, and is adorned with vast groves of large and caïques, and walked home after we were set on shore, antique cypresses. making a little round by the cemetery of Pera.
In the course of our walk we bought some excellent August 15.-In the morning we crossed over the Gol- sweetmeats at a confectioner's shop, and seeing a pretty den Horn to Constantinople, to visit the slave-market. little girl of about seven years' old standing by, I offered The slaves that are here exposed for sale are chiefly her some; but she looked at me very gravely, as if I black females, who are bought by the Turkish ladies had affronted her, and ran away more than half-frightfor household servants. They are said to be generally ened. There were also for sale in the streets quantities well treated; nor is the word slavery to be understood of the most delicious grapes, of which we bought a large here in its ordinary vulgar sense of utter degradation basketful; but it was evident that we were not looked and unmitigated suffering. We noticed a few white upon in the light of eligible customers. It is generally women and a few black boys to be disposed of. We observed that the inhabitants of Scutari do not take walked round the market under a covered way, and much pains to conceal their dislike of the Franks ; very saw, through lattices, a great many slaves in rooms set probably because it is less to their interest so to do. apart for their reception. Some were already equipped The current of the Bosphorus is always strong, and in the Turkish dress, and seemed to have the liberty when we returned, the wind had freshened considerably. allowed them of walking in and out of the apartment. This afforded us an opportunity of seeing the admirable They did not appear at all downcast, but were smiling, manner in which the Turkish boatmen manage their and seemed to have their joke amongst themselves as caïques. They make use of sculls very much overwell as others. There were, however, some wretched handed, and when there are two or more scullers, they looking, black, meagre objects, leaning against the walls, pull powerfully and well together. The caïques are half asleep in the sun, or squatting on the ground, rid- most elegantly formed, very light, and have their sides ding one another of vermin. They had nothing on but rather high out of the water. The sitters recline in the the coarsest possible drapery of sackcloth thrown over bottom, in order that the weight may be kept as low as them, and yet they contrived to wear it not ungrace possible. It is quite surprising how, in windy weather, fully. From thence we walked by the mosques of Sul- they ride over the swell of the Bosphorus; and when it tan Ahmed and of St Sophia, and visited the obelisks is calm, with what ease and rapidity they glide along. and brazen column in the Atmeidan. These are the The Golden Horn, in particular, is throughout the day remains of ornaments set up by the Romans, in what enlivened with hundreds of them, of all descriptions, in was formerly the Circus, probably in the space between motion in every direction ; from the caïque of the poor the two Mete, called the Spina. The Atmeidan is now boatman, whose fare across is half a piastre, to the used for various exercises, chiefly military. We re- private caïque of the rich Turk, decked out with goldenturned home to Pera, and I took a Turkish bath, which fringed scarlet or blue draperies, and the rowers in their I found extremely agrecable.
full-sleeved shirts and Greek caps, with the pasha himn
self, with his chibouk, majestically reclining in the verent tone. When they concluded, all that were pre
sent rose up, excepting one, a strange-looking figure, August 17.-We went shares with another party of who persisted in remaining with his book open before English in the expense of a firman, by virtue of which him, which they at length took away from him; and we gained admittance to the mosques and to the Seraglio he then got up, and stalked away with the self-importPalace—the sultan being now resident at one of his ant gestures of insanity. He was described to us as summer palaces on the shores of the Bosphorus. I can being a wandering dervish, and reputed mad, which scarcely pretend to estimate the number of square acres greatly enhanced his sanctity. Before we quitted the comprehended within the seraglio walls. I have heard mosque, we saw a Frenchman, who was admitted to its circuit estimated at three miles; but I believe this the mosques in company with us, inadvertently spit to be exceedingly vague. From without, you are agree- upon the pavement. We immediately called his attenably bewildered by the domes and minarets, and the tion to what he had done; for had the Turks observed whole style of the architecture mingling so beautifully it, we might probably all have got into trouble. I menwith the noble and ancient cypress trees; but when you tion this circumstance, because there will be occasion are within the courts, or inside the apartments, you are to allude incidentally to it again. occupied chiefly by the general idea of great spacious I then hurried back to Pera to see the mewlewli, or ness, rather than by any particular attractions offered dancing dervishes. They met in a place of worship of to your view within; and you are not sorry to seize the their own, with a kind of circus in the midst, with a first opportunity that presents itself of looking out of very smooth floor. I counted fourteen dervishes prosone of the windows upon the lovely prospects of the trate round the circle. Their chief knelt on his carpet Bosphorus, commanded in almost every direction, opposite the entrance, and was engaged audibly in
In many of the rooms there was a profusion of really prayer, to which the rest from time to time made rehandsome gilding; but the Turkish customs do not sponses. The chief had on a sky-blue robe, and a thick admit of the European style of furniture; and from the felt cap of a light-brown colour, in the shape of a trunnakedness of the apartments, I thought it very likely cated cone, bound round with a green scarf. The rest that many such articles as rich carpets and ottomans wore the high cap without any decoration, and long are removed from palace to palace with the court. In robes of dark hues. When the chief made an end of his one immense room we saw a very small table in bad prayer, a dervish in the gallery began a very loud chant, French taste, and a few of the common French artificial whilst the whole company, headed by the chief, paraded bouquets under glass shades ; but the arrangements of twice or thrice round the room, with their arms crossed the bath-rooms, with their fountains and pavements of upon their breasts, the inferior brethren making promarble, were quite delicious. The few attendants that found obeisances as they passed the carpet on which we saw about the palace were in their ugly, ill-made, their chief had been seated. Then commenced a low, European dresses-so generally adopted now by the wild, melancholy strain, without any definite melody, Turks-and looked dirty and altogether ill-conditioned. but still not unpleasing, performed on a flageolet and The pleasure-gardens are not extensive, but are beauti- flute. This continued for about ten minutes. The ful, and well-watered, and contain many plants growing dervishes then once more prostrated themselves with in the open air which in England are seen only in hot- their faces to the earth. A small drum then sounded; houses. Works of art, pictures, and statues, are not to upon which the dervishes rose up, and let fall their be met with in the Seraglio Palace; but perhaps it is a outward robes, appearing in short white jackets, and relief now and then to visit a palace that does not pos- long white coarse petticoats, that trailed on the floor. sess them. It is the witnessing the beauty of the general Their feet were bare. The music then struck up again, effect produced by the whole, aided by blue water, sky, accompanied by a loud noisy chant, and every dervish, and sunshine, that repays you for the exertions of the except the chief, and one other, who acted some interday.
mediate part, began a slow, solemn, rotatory movement We were then indulged with a sight of the interior of or dance, with their arms held out horizontally, their the great mosque of St Sophia, of that mosque also revolutions throwing out the white petticoat into a called the Little St Sophia, and of the mosques of Sul- conical shape, with its hem or border steadily floating tan Ahmed and of Sultan Solyman. On entering these a few inches above the floor. This continued without sacred edifices, we were compelled to take off our shoes, intermission for a quarter of an hour. The dervishes and put on thin slippers, or walk barefoot. We were then ceased their revolutions, and recommenced the agreeably surprised at the magnificent dimensions of obeisances, and after that once more resumed the rotathese mosques, and their fine general barbaric effect. tory dance for a quarter of an hour, accompanied by They tell you that the interior diameter of the dome of the music and the song in the gallery as before. The St Sophia is fifteen feet wider than that of the dome of ceremony closed with a dying fall in the music, pleasSt Paul's. It is one mass of gilt mosaic-work, and its ingly managed ; and before the last two or three deexterior is surmounted by an enormous gilt crescent, votees had ceased to turn round, the friction of the bare the dimensions of which I have heard very variously feet upon the floor, now that the music was low and stated; there are also some wondrous legends afloat still, was distinctly heard. There was something almost respecting the distance at which it may be seen when touching in the quiet and composed demeanour of the the sun shines on it. St Sophia is the largest of the chief and his followers. The entire absence of any apmosques we saw; but the others I have mentioned are pearance of fatigue or giddiness on the part of the perperhaps as well worth seeing, from their unmixed style formers in this extraordinary ceremony is really quite of Oriental architecture. Innumerable silver lamps and surprising. ostrichs eggs are suspended from the domes of them August 18.-Went up the Bosphorus in casques to all. No detailed description of these wonderful edifices Therapia. In the afternoon we crossed the Bosphorus could be kept within any reasonable length of descrip- at Therapia, and ascended the hill called the Giant's tion. It was just at the hour of noon when we entered Mountain, from the summit of which the view is really St Sophia ; and at that moment the voice of the superb. You look in one direction to the Black Sea, muezzin, himself unseen, rang with thrilling power and in the opposite direction, down the windings of the through the entire building, and the whole of the Bosphorus, to the Sea of Marmora, with Mount Olympus Mussulmen present prostrated themselves to the earth. in the distance. We remained that night at Thérapia. I never witnessed a more striking spectacle.
August 19.—Walked and rode about Therapia and its In the mosque of Sultan Ahmed we saw a kind of neighbourhood. The scenery is exceedingly beautiful reading school for young lads, who were being educated, at every turn. Remained another night at Therapia. as they told us, as imaums, or priests. They were August 20.-— Returned from Therapia, by water, to reading, I believe, the Koran out loud, in concert with Pera. The wind blowing rather fresh, there was more their teacher, in a noisy, chanting, and apparently irre- | sea on than was agreeable in a caique. On our way we
stopped at the Sweet Waters, a delightful place of public poon to a political libel, was given out as one of the resort on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus. Here we pasquinate, or sayings of Maestro Pasquino. saw a great many arabas, or carriages of the country, profusely gilt, filled with women and children, and drawn
At length the thread of Pasquin's life was severed by oxen or horses with richly-ornamented harness. by the shears of destiny; and then the pontifical goWe caught glimpses of some very pretty faces among vernment, rejoicing in the fall of its great enemy, cried the women, who, for the benefit, no doubt, of breathing havoc, and let slip the dogs of the police. Jibing the air more freely, had loosened the asmacks of white was no joke now. Every man was held responsible for muslin which usually envelop their necks and faces. his own jest, and made to laugh for it on the wrong side There was, however, a guard stationed about the spot, of his mouth. Humour was buried in the grave of Pasto prevent anything like intrusion. The children were quin—but not for long; for it arose again, as we shall extremely pretty, with dark eyes and hair, and were handsomely dressed in their own native costume, which presently see, with his monument. Opposite the tailor's is peculiarly picturesque, and becoming to childhood.shop-door the kennel was hardly fordable in wet The ladies had coffee and sweetmeats with them in weather, and a large irregular oblong block of stone had their arabas, with which they were served by their been laid down across it to serve as a permanent bridge. attendant black female slaves. Besides these, there This block, as happens frequently in Italy, was of were many family groups enjoying themselves under marble; and as it lay prone upon the street, half imthe trees, seated upon their bright coloured carpets, bedded in the earth, it bore a kind of uncouth resemround the borders of which their yellow slippers were blance to a human back. The analogy was first deranged in order. There were also present several Turks tected by the urchins of the neighbourhood, who took a of rank, mounted on beautifully caparisoned Arabians, with boys on ponies; asses for hire, with scarlet hous: fierce pride in trampling upon the effigy of one of the ings ; conjurers, venders of fruit, lemonade, sherbet, giants of their race; but after the death of Pasquin, a water, and sweetmeats. To complete the picture, the superstitious awe mingled with their triumph, and shore was lined with the caïques of the company, when the shades of evening had fallen, they were obassembled from various parts of the shores of the Bos- served to look upon it with suspicion, and occasionally phorus, with their gaily-dressed rowers lying on their even to cross over, and, like the Levite, pass on the
At length, in the progress of some improvements PASQUIN.
that were making in the street, this block of marble What is a pasquinade ?-A squib, a satire, a lampoon, was raised out of the kennel, and, to the surprise and a scurrility. Why is it so called ?-Because such mau- joy of the Roman antiquaries, discovered to be a splenvaises plaisanteries were affixed, by their anonymous did torso. Its place of sepulture was near the piazza authors, to the statue of Pasquin at Rome. For what Navona, the site of the ancient amphitheatre, where the reason ?-For this reason :
Emperor Alexander Severus celebrated the Agonalia ; There was once a tailor in the Eternal City, whose and the grand puzzlement was to decide whether it was heart was filled with bitterness as he reflected on the the remains of a statue of a fighting gladiator-of a unmerited jibes to which his profession was exposed as Hercules—of an Ajax-or finally, even of a Patroclus if by a general conspiracy of mankind. Maestro Pas- carrying a Menelaus, since another torso was found at quino, for so was he called, could not, for the life of him, no great distance, which might originally have been in imagine what people could find ridiculous in a calling union with it. Whatever it represented, however, it which concerned itself with the grand distinction be was esteemed a fine monument of ancient art, and its tween the human race and the inferior animals. The reputation with connoisseurs continued to increase rather world is mad,' cried he at last; stark, staring mad!' than diminish, till, in the course of another century, it and as he came to this natural conclusion, he set him was placed by a critic of some authority above the best self to trace the symptoms of folly around him with an remains of antiquity, even the Laocoon and the Belenthusiasm which soon amounted to a passion. It was videre Apollo. We are told, it is true, that a German meat and drink to him to see a fool; and soon the antiquary took this decision in such bad part, that he echoes of the jests with which he seasoned this repast was about to box the ears of the panegyrist, whom he extended beyond the shopboard, and were heard in the believed to be laughing at him; but we shall find that neighbouring piazza Navona. All Rome at last crowded it was the fate of the statue throughout to cause such to the tailor's studio, which took the place of the apo misunderstandings. thecaries' shops in the provincial towns of Italy, and
When the kennel-bridge of Maestro Pasquino was became a kind of public Exchange for those who would discovered to be an antique torso, it was placed upon hear or communicate the news of the day.
pedestal against the Pamphili palace, on the other side But this news, it will be felt, took its colouring from of the way; but no change of position could sever its the mind of Maestro Pasquino. Everything was con- connection with the defunct tailor. The discomfited verted into materials for mirth or malice. Great lords urchins, looking up in wonder and veneration, gave were no more spared than if they had been so many their great enemy his name; and while the antiquatailors; prelates and cardinals were unfrocked without ries were arguing and scolding about its origin, the ceremony; and even the pope himself set up as a target people decided that it was the statue neither of Herfor the shafts of ridicule. And what recourse could be cules, nor Ajax, nor Patroclus, but of Maestro Pashad, since all was traced to the shopboard of Pasquin? quino. Nay, when the Pamphili palace gave way in It mattered not who the speakers really were, since 1791 before the construction of that of Orsini, the latter Pasquin and his decimal fractions of humanity were the relinquished its own name, like an obsequious heir, and ostensible authors. It was a part of the jest to clothe was known thenceforward as the Pasquin palace. This, it in vulgar language, and no one, however much ag- however, is not to be wondered at, since, at the moment grieved, could think of condescending to take vengeance when the mutilated statue was exalted on its pedestal, for anything so low. The tongue, at length, was recog- it was consecrated by the genius of the tailor, that nised in Rome as at once a safer and sharper weapon before had seemed buried with him. It spoke with his than the dagger; and everything, from a personal lam- | voice-even with the Doric vulgarities of his tongue;