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covery, which of course must be frequent, by imbuing and twenty leagues in a voyage of little more than the classes capable of affording relief with suspicion and double that length. When the captain was informed of ill-will, they render the position of the really destitute his blunder, he said to me, 'Lucky 'tis no worse, or I hopeless. If our description of vagrancy is read in a should have to keep you longer ; but never mind, everyright spirit, it will induce, as well as enable, the charit- thing is included in the passage-money, and after resting able to distinguish between the fraudulent and the un. a little at Cerralbo, I will carry you back to Pichilingue.' fortunate; and it will rouse their warmest sympathies By the time we were near the islands the sun had in behalf of those classes of the poor that are pressed disappeared : we could just distinguish the huts formdown into starvation by the crimes of the poor them- ing the temporary habitations of the population, when, selves.

amid loud outcries from the shore, two canoes, with a

man in each, one of which seemed to be pursuing the JOSE JUAN, THE PEARL DIVER.

other, were seen rapidly skimming across the channel

which separates the two islands. The attention of our A Few years before the states of South America threw whole company, particularly that of the Indians, who off the Spanish yoke, I was staying one hot summer at looked on with intense delight, was at once absorbed in San Blas, situated at the entrance of the Gulf of Cali- the interest of the chase. The captain took his telefornia. It was then the entrepôt of the flourishing com- scope, and after gazing a few minutes, said, turning to merce of Spain with the islands of the Southern Ocean, me, He is lost! with China, and the East. A busy population filled the •Who?' I inquired. streets, and ships from all parts of the world crowded Who? the man yonder in the canoe trying to get the roadstead; on the border of which there now re- away.' main but the ruins of arsenals and dockyards. San What makes you think so ?' Blas retains only the remembrance of her former ac *Jose Juan is in pursuit,' was his answer. tivity and her picturesque situation.

The mention of the name left me no wiser; and conSo stifling was the heat of the city, aggravated by sidering it useless to trouble the captain with further the myriads of mosquitos that infested the air, that I questions, I continued to watch the canoes.

It was was glad to escape on an errand of business to a place evident that the fugitive was trying to gain a little some distance up the coast; and engaged a passage on creek among the rocks stretching out from Espirituboard the galliot Guadaloupe, a small vessel of fifty- Santo. It was the only place where he could reach the eight tons burden. The captain desired me to take a shore. In spite of all his efforts, an adverse eddy prelodging near the shore, as he might have to sail unex. vented his making way, while Juan, who was farther pectedly, and could not afford to lose time. After wait-out, rapidly approached to cut him off from his reing three days, a canoe was sent for me to the landing treat. The man in the foremost canoe, despairing of place, and in a few minutes I stepped on board. The escape, rose to his feet, and when his pursuer was deck was covered with heaps of the enormous and within a few feet of him, plunged into the sea. Juan savoury onions for which San Blas is celebrated, mingled immediately stood up, and seizing in one hand the line with gourds and bananas. This collection of fruits and used by pearl divers, leaped in after him. A minute vegetables formed, with my trunk, nearly the whole of had scarcely elapsed, when a head appeared above the cargo. Our preparations were soon made, the the surface of the water ; it was that of the fugitive onions were stowed away in the three canoes which we swimming towards the shore with all the energy of carried, the elustering bananas were hung up like long despair. All at once, as though he had been carried fringes on the starboard and larboard bulwarks, and down by a whirlpool, he disappeared. A thin white then the vessel was abandoned to the discretion of the foam, caused by the boiling of little waves above the winds and the waves.

place where he had sunk, indicated that a struggle The crew was not less singularly composed than the was going on below. Was it between Jose and his cargo. Our Catalonian captain, Don Ramon Pauquinot, adversary, or with one of the ferocious sharks which had under his orders a French sailor, deserter from a abound on the fishing-grounds? The spectators, howvhale ship; a Mexican, who pretended to act as second ever, were reassured by seeing that the foam showed no mate; a Kanaka, or native of the Sandwich Islands; stains of blood ; and soon after two heads appeareda Chinese, alike unwilling to cook or to work; and Jose Juan and the fugitive. But it was at once seen lastly, two young Indians, from one of the tribes in the that the latter supported himself on the surface of the interior of the country, in the capacity of cabin-boys. water by the action of his legs only, for his arms were The captain, when he was not quarrelling with his lashed close to his sides by Juan's cord. This marvel. sailors, passed his time in pacing up and down the lous feat, accomplished under the water, produced a deck, smoking and examining his store of gourds and shout of acclamation from every spectator, intermingled onions. The Frenchman took upon himself the office with cries of Viva Jose Juan. of steering, and looked with contempt on all other per The rapid approach of night hid the remainder of the sons in the vessel. The Mexican lay idle all day long scene from our eyes; at the expiration of a few minutes, in one of the canoes, strumming upon a guitar, and however, we heard loud lamentations on the shore, acaffecting to be highly indignant if the captain presumed companied with ironical bursts of laughter, and the to give him any orders. The Chinese, pretending to be confused noise of a struggle between one man and a busy either with cooking or the ordinary ship's duty, number of others ; after which all was still. We subdid neither one nor the other. The Kanaka was the sequently learned that the fugitive was a diver, who had only one who really worked; he cooked the rice, bana- stolen and swallowed a large pearl ; for the losses thus nas, and cecina or dried meat, which alone constituted sustained, the leaders or captains of the various parties our fare.

are responsible. Juan was one of these captains; and We had been out fifteen days, and were yet far from as usual, when he had got his man on shore, made him our port: the water putrefied in our casks under the swallow a dose of turtle-oil

, which causing him inburning rays of a vertical sun; the cecina and rice were stantly to vomit, the pearl was recovered. i unendurable; when one evening, as the sun was disap The morning after our arrival, at the captain's sugges

pearing behind a fog bank on the distant horizon, the tion, I went on shore, where I met our Mexican, who Frenchman beckoned to me, and on my obeying the communicated to me some particulars of the life of Jose signal, he said, “Look yonder ; we are approaching the Juan, in whom I began to feel much interested : among Isle of Cerralbo; and behind is that of Espiritu-Santo. others, of his having once attacked and killed a shark,

On my inquiring what we were to think of it, he which had devoured a fellow-diver, his intimate friend. replied, that although the captain yet considered him. I had been at a loss, while walking about among the self sixty leagues from Pichilingue, we were in reality miserable dwellings, where to apply for a night's lodgthat distance beyond it, making an error of one hundred ing; but now my mind was made up at once to go to

Juan's hut, and request the owner's hospitality. The short distance from him, and a few feet below the diver, who was a metis, as those are called born of an surface, shone a phosphoric light, approaching slowly Indian father and white mother, received me courteously, nearer and nearer to him. Can you guess what it was ?' and led me to his dwelling, situated some distance be • No.' yond the others, almost at the extremity of the island It was a tintorera, a shark of the most voracious of Cerralbo. On our entrance, we found his young wife species,' answered Juan, and continued his narration. preparing the dinner, which consisted of a turtle, whose A stroke of my paddle brought me close to Rafael: on lower shell was torn off, simmering in its fat on a fire seeing me he uttered a cry of joy, but had not strength of glowing embers. I produced a bottle of excellent to speak. With a desperate effort he seized the gunwine which I had brought with me, and seated on the wale of the canoe; yet such was his exhaustion, that ground, we enjoyed our meal. Night came on; the he could not raise himself from the water. His eyes, stars shone through the open door of the hut; the sea though deadened by terror, looked at me with an imrippled softly on the shore, when, unable longer to re- ploring expression of agony so intense, that I grasped strain my curiosity, I begged Juan to tell me of his ad- his two hands in mine, and held them fast. The streak venture with the shark. No sooner had I spoken, than of light under the water came steadily on; for one a mortal pallor overspread the features of his wife ; she instant, one brief instant, Rafael ceased to strike out looked with a supplicating glance at her husband, who with his legs; a fearful shriek burst from his lips, his with an impatient gesture motioned her away. When eyes closed, and his hands relaxed their hold. The she disappeared, an expression of savage pride lit up upper portion of his body fell back into the sea : the Juan's features ; pouring out another glass of wine, he shark had cut him in two.' said, 'I never felt more disposed for confidence. You The diver paused in a struggle of inexpressible emosaid you would depart to-morrow?'

tion. In reply to my inquiry, he said that, had he been • To-morrow at daybreak,' was my answer.

a little more collected, he might possibly have saved • 'Tis well,' rejoined the diver; you shall know my his companion; his teeth were set, and his voice rehistory,' and he rose and beckoned me to follow him. sembled a hoarse whisper. Recovering himself, howWhen we were out of the hut, he added, "The land- ever— I have not yet come to the end,' he said: 'no breeze blows as usual ; and to-morrow by ten o'clock, sooner had Rafael's body disappeared under the water, when it will cease, the Guadaloupe will be far away.' than I plunged in myself. I had a hundred reasons

He then seated himself on the bottom of an inverted for so doing. The tintorera, although he had rid me canoe, and recommenced:- At the beginning of last of a rival, became hateful to me, and exasperated me year's fishing season there was one man that I met by the brutality with which he had torn poor Rafael to everywhere. Like me, he was a diver; and, like me, pre- pieces. The honour of the corporation of divers was tended to have no family name. He was called Rafael. insulted : I am, you know, one of the captains. Besides, At the washing, under the water, in all quarters, in fact, once enticed with the taste of human flesh, the monster we were sure to meet. These frequent opportunities of would have come to attack us next. And how could seeing each other made us very friendly; and the re- the alcalde expect me to be responsible for my friend, markable skill with which he performed all his avoca- if I killed the shark that had eaten him? tions inspired me with a great esteem for him. His I did not go deep, as you may think; having to courage was quite equal to his skill: he had no fear look above, below, and around me all at once. The whatever of sharks; he had, he told me, a particular waves roared over my head with a noise like distant manner of looking at them which intimidated them; thunder, but around me all was calm: & dark mass he was, in short, an intrepid diver, an excellent worker, drifted against me: it was the mutilated trunk of and, above all, a merry companion.

Rafael; and I concluded the fish I was looking for *This went on very well, until one day a young girl could not be far off. In fact, a distant ray of light, came with her mother to live in the island of Espiritu- at first scarcely visible, grew more and more distinct. Santo. Some business that I had there with one of The tintorera was about the same depth as myself, but the dealers gave me the opportunity of seeing her. I gradually slanting upwards. My breath was beginning became passionately in love; and enjoying a certain to fail; I did not wish to give the shark the advantage reputation, neither she nor her mother looked with an of being above me. I rose to the surface : it was time; unfavourable eye on my pretensions and presents. As for so swiftly did the monster approach, that his fins soon as our day's work was over, and every one thought brushed my body as he passed; and I could see his dull me asleep in my hut, I went across in a canoe to Espi- glassy eyes, and the rags of flesh yet hanging to his ritu-Santo, whence I returned soon after midnight with jaws, which he smacked together with greedy satisfacout any one suspecting my absence.

tion. I snorted rather than breathed when my head “Some days had passed after my first nocturnal excur rose above the water. The shark was close behind me, sion, when one morning, going to the fishing-ground his silver white belly plainly visible as he turned on his before sunrise, I met one of our old Indian women, who back, at the same time opening his tremendous jaws, accosted me with the words—"Listen, Jose Juan; I bristling with frightful rows of teeth. Darting away have something to say that concerns you.”. She then in the opposite direction, I buried my dagger in the went on, much to my surprise, to tell me that I had a body of the fish, and cut a gash as far as my arm could rival, Rafael, one of our divers, who threatened to do me reach. The tintorera, wounded to death, dashed upan injury. That evening I discovered that she spoke wards with a prodigious bound, and fell back, lashing truth, and that Rafael was actually swimming in the the water with his tail. Luckily I was out of the way same direction as myself. All at once a wild cry burst of the blows; but was half drowned before I could get across the waters. There was no mistake; it was Ra- out of the storm of blood-stained foam which he raised fael's voice.' Here Juan sighed deeply as he continued around me. A minute after, at the sight of my enemy

-"I knew that Rafael was my enemy, and that he aimed floating motionless and livid upon the water, frothing at taking from me her whom I desired to make my in the gaping wound, I raised a cry of triumph which wife; I knew likewise that his vengeance was deadly. was heard on both islands. But this was not a time for me to weigh feelings of 'Day was breaking as I regained the shore, exhausted selfishness. It was a gloomy night, and a wailing voice by the efforts I had been obliged to make to surmount came across the waves. Turning my canoe in the direc- the fast-increasing waves. The fishermen visited their tion whence the sounds proceeded, I heard vigorous nets; and almost at the same moment that I landed, blows on the water, and rowing in the direction of the the romains of Rafael and the body of the shark were noise, saw Rafael in the midst of a circle of foam. It drifted on the beach by the tide.' struck me as strange that, instead of using his strength The diver ceased, and appeared lost in profound reto swim towards the canoe, he remained struggling in flection. After a short silence, he bethought himself of one spot. But I soon became aware of the cause: a the rites of hospitality. Re-entering the hut, he stood

for some moments contemplating the beauty of his But he was a heathen, papa, and on that account we young wife, who had fallen asleep in the inner apart- ought not to expect the same from him as from the great ment, the loosened plaits of her long hair stretching to men you have mentioned, who were brought up in the her feet. On the wall

, dimly visible by the expiring light principles of Christianity.” of two candles, hung a rude picture, representing souls

" True, my son, we must not look for Christian virtues in in purgatory. Hastily turning away, Jose unrolled a

a heathen prince; yet as you hold him up as a demi-god, Chinese mat in the outer apartment, which was to be my object is to prove that he was possessed of vices which

are altogether incompatible with true greatness. In the my couch for the night. The accommodation on board first place, his inordinate ambition led him to the practice our ship was not much better ; but the narrative to of deception ; for, not satisfied with human honours, he which I had listened prevented me from sleeping, sought to impose on the credulous, by pretending that he and the first faint streaks of dawn were just visible was a descendant of Jupiter. You may remember, Frank, when the diver's voice spoke close to my ear:-The that the wise man of old has said that's greater is he that breeze still blows, and the Guadaloupe is about to lift ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city;” yet your her anchor.' I immediately rose, and taking leave of Alexander was so wanting in self-government, that he slew my host, returned on board without delay. "The sails his friend, with his own hand, in a fit of passion, only bewere dropped, and, yielding to the breeze, our vessel generally supposed to have been caused by intemperance.'

cause he depreciated his achievements: then his death is soon left the islands far bebind. The next day we dropped anchor in the harbour of Pichilingue.

* Ah, papa, you are exhibiting the blemishes of my hero; I was looking only at his shining qualities.'

Such a course would, in some cases, be proper, being THE TRULY GREAT.

consistent with Christian charity,' his father observed ;

“but in perusing the page of history, it will be injurious to 'If I were asked which of all the distinguished characters the mind of youth to form a wrong estimate of the characof whom I have read I would rather be, I should unhesi- ters it presents to the view. Vice should be seen in its tatingly say Alexander the Great,' was the exclamation true aspects, and not through the medium of the shining of Francis Worthington, as he laid down a volume of qualities of which you speak; lest, whilst the young are Grecian history with a mind full of admiration of that admiring and imitating such striking virtues as courage renowned hero of antiquity.

and generosity, they be led to approve of, and even to Your choice would be far from a happy one, my dear commit, cruelty, injustice, and oppression.' Frank,' his father quietly observed.

* Then, papa, I infer from what you say that greatness * Not a happy one, papa! What, should you not like to really consists in goodness P' be the parent of an Alexander?'

Not exactly so, my dear boy; for there may be goodness “No, my boy-I have no such ambition; I would rather without greatness, although greatness cannot exist without be the father of Frank Worthington.'

goodness. For instance, an individual may possess many “You are surely jesting, papa ? I cannot but think that excellent qualities, and yet be wanting in that strength of you would like to see your son become as great.'

character which is a concomitant of greatness. Those 'I was never more in earnest, Frank; and if you seriously milder virtues which make a man appear amiable in the consider the subject, I think that you will allow that I am every-day concerns of life may be designated goodness; right. Alexander has, by general consent, been termed whereas greatness exhibits loftier qualities, such as moral great; but now inform me, if you can, in what his greatness courage in cases of difficulty-fortitude in adverse circumconsisted?'

stances—the exercise of strict justice, however opposed to Can you ask, papa, when he achieved such mighty con

self-interest-forbearance under injuries a self-sacrificing quests?'

spirit, evinced where that sacrifice would benefit others, • He did achieve mighty conquests; but tell me to what or promote an important end-the pursuance of honourbeneficial results those conquests led?' Francis looked a able independence, even if it should lie in a humble path little puzzled at the question, and remained silent. “He -the possession of a mind above the influence of prejudice extended his power,' Mr Worthington resumed ; ' but that following the dictates of conscience, irrespective of the power was not exercised in ameliorating the condition, world's censure or applause. These virtues, my son, are or raising the character, of the nations he subdued. He more deserving of imitation than the military achievements cansed the blood of thousands to be shed, and spread and prodigal disregard of wealth which your hero disruin and desolation where peace and plenty had formerly played ; and it is only when they are united with the duelt.'

milder graces of which I spoke, that the character becomes • But great military achievements have always these at- worthy of being denominated truly great.' tendant evils,' the youth interposed.

* And should they not on that account be deplored?' his father asked. Francis was again at a loss to reply. "When wars are wholly defensive, and are engaged in for In Bombay and the neighbouring places there are some the purpose of protecting the rights and liberties of one's five or six thousand Israelites. Some of these have more own country, they are not only justifiable, but praise- recently come from Arabia, and are called white Jews. worthy; bat such were not the wars of your favourite Some have come from Cochin, and are called black Jews. hero. He was instigated alone by ambition—the ambition But by far the greater portion, who have been long settled to be styled a Conqueror.'

in the country, and to whom Malıratta is the vernacular He was ambitious certainly; but then his generosity language, are called Israelites, or Beni Israel. When was unbounded: surely generosity constitutes greatness, their ancestors arrived here is not certainly known. They Tape?

say it was about 1600 years ago—that the ship in which No, Frank, I cannot yield even that point. Generosity they came was shipwrecked, and that seven men and seven is indeed essential to true greatness; but it must be such women who escaped settled at Nagao, some thirty miles generosity as Howard evinced when he performed his to the south-east of Bombay. They were at one time errand of philanthropy. The generosity of a Jenner who, generally engaged in the manufacture of oil; but at pre

at a noble self-sacrifice, forbore to keep that knowledge sent many of them are masons, carpenters, cultivators, &c. Il secret which, when known, conferred inestimable benefits When the missionaries first came to this country some

his species-of a Wilberforce or a Clarkson, when they thirty years since, the Israelites were generally unable to stood almost alone in advocating the cause of freedom; not read, and were almost wholly ignorant of their own Scripthe prodigality of an Alexander, who lavished ill-gotten tures. They had generally ceased to observe the Sabbath treasures on unworthy objects of favour.'

as a day of rest, and were in many respects conformed to "Oh, papa, you speak very contemptuously of my hero. the customs of their Hindoo and Mohammedan neighbours. I thought everybody admired Alexander, and deemed him It is stated in a printed journal of one of the earlier misdeserving the title he has always borne of the Great.' sionaries, that the magistrate described them at that

"Sach exploits as Alexander performed were likely to time as being the most drunken and troublesome people be admired in the rude ages, when it was universally on the island. The missionaries in Bombay have, from the acknowledged that military achievements conferred the first, taken a deep interest in the Israelites or Jews. They highest possible glory on a nation; but in these enlight- early established schools among them, in which both sexes

ned days, such actions are seen in their true colours, and were taught to read. They furnished them with the Scripweighed in the balances of justice and morality.'

tures, translated into their vernacular language, and in

THE JEWS IN INDIA.

structed several of them in Hebrew, that they might be savage spirit, which induces animals to wreak their venable to refer to the original. The Jews have in consequence geance upon themselves when deeply mortified and enforsaken many of those things which they, on becoming raged, finds some resemblance in the case of those persons acquainted with the Scriptures, found to be forbidden; who, when greatly perplexed, thwarted, or annoyed, bite and they have greatly advanced in intelligence, wealth, their own nails, tear their hair, or even their flesh; or, morality, and general respectability. Some of them may according to the prevalent custom of some countries, scar feel little gratitude for the labour and expense bestowed their bodies with Aints or with shells—a practice forbidden upon them; but we believe they are generally free to in the Scriptures. Many sorts of caterpillars and toads acknowledge that the missionaries have been their hearty devour their cast-off skins—striking examples of that adwell-wishers and their best friends. The Jews worship mirable economy of nature which permits nothing to be only one God, the Creator and Preserver of all things ; wasted. and they regard all idolatry as sinful. They believe the Old Testament or first part of the Christian Scriptures, and that alone, to be the Word of God. They have two regular

THE GIFT. synagogues or places of public worship in Bombay, and

Oh blessed, blessed flowers ! the hand one at Revadunda. Here they meet on Saturday, which is

That sent ye hither, pure and fair, their Sabbath, or day of rest, and read the Scriptures both

Though it had swept through all the land, in Hebrew and Mahratta. At Alibag, Panwell, and other

Could nothing home so lovely bear. places, where there is no synagogue, their meetings are

Most tender and most beautiful, held in any private dwellings. The white Jews have two

All fresh with dew, and rich with balm, such places for public worship in the fort.-Dnyanodaya.

How from art's garlands dim and dull

Ye bear the glory and the palm !
THE 'LABOURING POOR.'

When thus your gathered crowns I see,
The vigorous and laborious class of life has lately got,

Young queens of nature undefiled! from the bon ton of the humanity of this day, the name

Methinks your only throne should be of the labouring poor.' We have heard many plans for

The bosom of a little child. the relief of the • labouring poor.' This puling jargon is

Yet breathe once more upon my sense; not as innocent as it is foolish. In meddling with great

Ah, take my kiss your leaves among ! affairs, weakness is never innoxious. Hitherto the name

Ye fill me with a bliss intense, of poor (in the sense in which it is used to excite compas

Ye stir my soul to humblest song. sion) has not been used for those who can, but for those

And not alone ye solace bring, who cannot labour- for the sick and infirm, for orphan

Sweet blossoms ! to my present hour; infancy, for languishing and decrepit age ; but when we

In every fairy cup and ring affect to pity, as poor, those who must labour, or the world

I find a spell of memory's power. cannot exist, we are trifling with the condition of mankind.

In every odorous breath I feel It is the common doom of man that he must eat his bread

That thus, in other spring-times gay, by the sweat of his brow—that is, by the sweat of his body

The lips of flowers did all unseal, or the sweat of his mind. If this toil was inflicted as a

To whisper gladness round my way. curse, it is—as might be expected from the curses of the

And there were friends with loving eyes, Father of all blessings-tempered with many alleviations,

And cheerful step, and words of mirth, many comforts. Every attempt to fly from it, and to re

And there was heaven with smiling skies, fuse the very terms of our existence, becomes much more

That bade us look beyond the earth. truly a curse, and heavier pains and penalties fall upon

Therefore my gentlest thanks I sing those who would elude the tasks which are put upon them

To her who sent these tender flowers ; by the great Master Workman of the world, who, in his

They to my present, solace bring, dealings with his creatures, sympathises with their weak

And to my memory, vanished hours. ness, and speaking of a creation wrought by mere will out -Knickerbocker. of nothing, speaks of six days of labour and one of rest. I do not call a healthy young man, cheerful in his mind, and

PENALTIES OF CRIME. vigorous in his arms, I cannot call such a man poor; I cannot pity my kind as a kind, merely because they are men.

It is a striking attribute of men once thoroughly tainted This affected pity only tends to dissatisfy them with their by the indulgence of vicious schemes and stratagems, that condition, and to teach them to seek resources where no

they become wholly blinded to those plain paths of ambiresources are to be found, in something else than their own

tion which common sense makes manifest to ordinary industry, and frugality, and sobriety. Whatever may be ability. If we regard narrowly the lives of great criminals, the intention (which because I do not know, I cannot dis

we are often very much startled by the extraordinary pute) of those who would discontent mankind by this acuteness, the profound calculation, the patient meditative strange pity, they act towards us, in the consequences, as

energy which they have employed upon the conception if they were our worst enemies.-

Burke.

and execution of a crime. We feel inclined to think that

such intellectual power would have commanded great disSELF-DEVOURING ANIMALS.

tinction, worthily used and guided ; but we never find that Dr Mortimer records the case of a boy living at Blade, these great criminals seemed to have been sensible of the Barnsley, in Yorkshire, who possessed so ravenous an apper away. Often we observe that there has been before them

opportunities to real eminence which they have thrown tite, that if he was not supplied with food immediately

, vistas into worldly greatness, which, by no uncommon pruthat he craved it, he would gnaw the flesh off his own bones.'dence and exertion, would have conducted honest men, The 'Quarterly Review, October 1822, states that 'in the half as clever, to fame and power; but with a strange Jardin des Plantes, at Paris, there was an old hyena, which obliquity of vision, they appear to have looked from these broke its leg by accident. One night, before the bone was united, the creature actually bit off the limb; and it was which, by the subtlest ingenuity, and through the most

broad clear avenues, into some dark, tangled defile, in discovered in the morning, that the animal had eaten it up, besetting perils, they may attain at last to the success of a bone and all.' In Rennie’s ‘Insect Miscellanies, it is re- fraud, or the enjoyment of a vice. In crime once indulged lated that an eminent entomologist having caught a green there is a wonderful fascination, and the fascination is, not locust (Acrida viridissima), the creature, attempting to rarely, great in proportion to the intellect of the criminal. escape from his grasp, jerked off a hind leg. The limb was put with the insect in a vial, and was half devoured by stolid man, led by accident or temptation

into guilt ; but

There is always hope of reform for a dull, uneducated, the following morning. Selby, in his • Illustrations of British Ornithology, mentions” a captive eagle which where a man of great ability, and highly educated, besots plucked the flesh off its legs. Jesse says he has been himself in the intoxication of dark and terrible excite

the assured that when rats have been caught by the foot or ments, takes impure delight in tortuous and slimy ways, leg in a trap, they will sometimes gnaw off the limb in good angel abandons him for ever.-Lucretia. order to disengage themselves.'—Gleanings in Natural His

Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also tory, second series, p. 21. We have known mice, when

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORR, just confined in a cage, gnaw their tails considerably, not 147 Strand, and Amen Corner, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, from want of food, but apparently from vexation and re 21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, morse at not being able to escape from captivity. This Edinburgh.

EDINBURG://

JOURNAL

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CIAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE,' 'CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

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HISTORICAL TABLE A U X.

or the wrist of a child. I was told, however, that these

trinkets afforded but a meagre idea of the quantity of CONQUESTS.

objects in pure gold which, from first to last, had been WHEN lately in Ireland, I was, like all other tourists, found in Ireland, and transferred to the melting-pots struck with, and interested in, two things the opposite of the Dublin jewellers-coronets, rings, bracelets, and of each other-one, the surprising number of objects crosiers-realising large sums to the fortunate finders. of antiquity, indicating a former age of wealth, lite. It was the first time I had heard of all this, and I was rature, and refinement; the other, the absence of all of course correspondingly interested. I now felt that present moral vigour, with a wretchedness the very Moore had possessed something more tangible than a nearest thing to an entire negation of property and vague tradition for his mellifluous lyriccomfort. You see the remains of ecclesiastical edifices

* Rich and rare were the gems she wore, with the most gorgeous carvings; stone crosses lying

And a bright gold ring on her wand she bore'prone in the dust, any one of which would be the marvel of an English county; and in museums you are allusive to a lady of rank who, in a species of Arcadian shown books of vellum, in the ancient Irish character, unconsciousness that there was such a thing as evil in bound in gold and silver, and ornamented with precious the world, wandered about the country respected and stones, which are said to be worth, in the present day, unmolested. I left Ireland an Archæologist. thousands of pounds. In the collection of the Royal The Irish, though possessing no distinct individual hisIrish Academy I was shown a copy of the gospels which tory, would nevertheless appear to have been at one pohad belonged to St Patrick; an almost coal-black little riod the most learned nation in Europe. Egypt, Greece, Tellum book, that could not be a day less than fourteen Rome, Ireland—these seem to have been the countries hundred years old; and also a similarly antique copy in which learning of a refined nature progressively of the Psalms of David, which had been the property found refuge and repose. The manner in which the civiof the pious Columba, who went as an apostle to Scot- lisation of each was in its turn laid prostrate was the land about the year 563. The eventful history of these same—MILITARY CONQUEST. Egypt was in part deliterary relics was of course duly verified, and afforded, spoiled by Greece ; Greece was similarly despoiled by among other things, room for much melancholy reflec- Rome ; Rome was despoiled by the Teutonic nations

of the north ; and two branches of these nations, the Ireland possesses an Archäological Society, whose Danes and Anglo-Normans, completed the train of head-quarters are in Dublin, and which has issued a ruination by despoiling Ireland. Since their banishnumber of volumes, transcribed from the ancient manu- ment thence, learning and literature have wandered, as scripts at their disposal. The books are unique as if at random, through all the countries of Europe ; but historical records, and reflect much credit on the dili- they are now, we hope, too deeply fixed, as well as gence of the members. Many of these persons are not too broadly scattered, to be again uprooted from their mere dilettanti Archæologists, in patent leather boots chosen soil. and figured satin waistcoats, and whose chatter is of In this view of affairs, Ireland is to England what tumuli, mummies, and painted glass windows. In going Greece was to Rome—the spot whence it derived not a through the apartments of the Academy, you see old little of its civilisation, and which it afterwards malmen with wrinkled faces and spectacles poring over treated in requital. In a word, and in all seriousness, ancient manuscripts, each of which looks as if it had IRELAND IS THE GREECE OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS kzia a thousand years in a peat-moss, and then been a country in which relics of a period of refinement are taken out and dried before the fire. One thin little lying everywhere tumbled about, like mangled corpses man, of a nervous temperament, whose devotions I on a field of battle; while in the midst of these remains dared to interrupt, told me that he had spent six months are seen, crouching in mud hovels, the shattered remis trying to decipher a single page of St Patrick's nant of the conquered people, impoverished, dispirited, gospels, and that he had succeeded in all but three and in many features of character demoralised. There words in the right-hand corner. 'I would give fifty is, however, nothing peculiar in their state of debasejoande,' said the little man energetically, “if I could ment. The same thing may be seen any day in fifty discover the meaning of these three words. There different regions of the globe. The wild Indian lights wus Archæology!

his fire from the branches of the noble alamo, as it Besides these precious manuscripts, the museum of intertwines with and enshrouds the royal ruins of the Royal Irish Academy contains a vast collection Metasco (Spain did it). The Syrian Arab encamps of gold ornaments of various sizes and shapes ; some under the shelter of rock-sculptured palaces in the beavy and massive, others small and delicate, suitable, silent glen of Wady Moosa (Assyrians and Saracens as it might seem, for decorating the brow of a princess, did it). The Bedouin of the desert tethers his camels in

tion.

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