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It is easy to understand how the Tulipomania may have the liberty of coming down the chimney. The floor originated in the enthusiasm of some devoted cultivator was covered with filth and dirt, to the thickness of one of flowers. He had tended and watched them so long, inch: the very sky, seen through the window, was that at last he knew not where to set a limit to their black. The postmaster had likewise black hair, bevalue. Nature speaks to the heart in a thousand ways, sides being a reprehensibly ill-looking individual, with giving rise to emotions as various: the same objects only one eye, and marked with the small-pox. Yet will excite joyousness, melancholy, pleasure, and pain, with this fright she was doomed to travel, in a crazy, hope and despondency, according to the state of mind dirty, rickety sort of gig, the seat of which, stuffed with of those to whom they are presented. Thomson has a hay, resembled a manger. The next vehicle was a beautiful passage
huge nuisance' of a diligence, already possessed by four • Pair-handed spring unbosoms every grace;
lumbering men ; 'and the atmosphere of a snuffy GerThrows out the snowdrop, and the crocus first;
man, a Frenchman reeking of stale cigar smoke, one The daisy, primrose, violet darkly blue,
or two India-rubber cloaks, and all their respirations, And polyanthus of unnumbered dyes;
was really atrocious. In the next there was a man The yellow wallflower stained with iron-brown;
who was so uncivil as to be fat and elderly, and to have And lavish stock that scents the garden round: From the soft wing of vernal breezes shed
a threatening of gout and a terror of cold. A countryAnemonies: auriculas enriched
woman they met on the road wanted to join them in With shining meal o'er all their velvet leaves ;
the full inside; but the Frenchmen were so revoltingly And full ranunculas of glowing red.
selfish, as not to get out to accommodate her. Among Then comes the tulip race, where beauty plays ller idle freaks :
many hundreds of people going to a fair, they saw only No gradual bloom is wanting ; from the bud,
one good-looking girl. First-born of spring, to summer's musky tribes :
At Lyons, the fair traveller was shamefully fleeced in Nor hyacinths, of purest virgin white,
the hotel, and not allowed to wash herself even so well Low bent, and blushing inward; nor jonquils, of potent fragrance; nor Narcissus fair,
as at Paris. On arriving at Marseilles, her fellow. As o'er the fabled fountain hanging still ;
travellers went off without taking leave of her : an eloquent Nor broad carnations, nor gay spotted pinks ;
fact, that gives rise to some severe strictures on the
Genoa, she amused herself with the appearance of her
fellow-passengers. “A cargo came on board of two clean, cross-looking men, and four veiled women, who began
stumping up and down the deck, each on her own A LADY'S CONSOLATION. hook, betraying, in the very hang of their multitudinous EVERYTHING goes by comparison. A man brought from to be sure! Åt length she found herself bowling on
shawls, the English creature-how peculiar they are, a dungeon into the morning twilight, will think himself to Rome in a crazy, rickety, dusty, dirty, ragged, filthy in the midst of noonday; and, for aught we know, the conveyance, into which she had clomb by three horrid travelling miseries of Mrs Butler may to her be abso. hoes, that scraped her shins to death, and was fairly lute consolation. It is said that a sailor is fated to eat set down in the dark, deep, dismal, stinking streets' a peck of dirt during his life, but that allowance is no- of the city of the past. thing to hers in her consolatory year. She sets out, in
This is not an overcharged account of Mrs Butler's fact, by asserting her belief that England is the only journey from Paris to Rome; in which, notwithstandplace in the world where the people are not disgustingly ing, are exhibited much talent, fancy, and power of de
scription. With a very common blindness, she relates dirty, and that . exceedingly few people are clean there.' an anecdote which reads like a satire on herself
. “We As for the French, they would not permit her to be have just made an expedition to Tivoli,' says she, clean even in her own person; giving her, in the best which was highly prosperous till its very close. Dihotels of Paris, a cream-jug for a water vessel, a pud- rected by to one inn in preference to the rival ding-bowl for a basin, and not so much warm water as establishment, we repaired to the Queen of England, would suffice for the youngest gentleman shaving the and found her most gracious majesty dark, dingy, dirty faintest hopes of a beard.' On leaving Paris for Mar- 1-in short, indescribably dreadful ; but, however, thanks seilles, she was still worse off, getting into a 'filthy inn, to some omnipotent charm, which we, alas ! had not, crowded with men in blue blouses and black muzzles ;' sunny sights, while our experience was-of dirt to eat,
had found sweet smells and savoury food, and and thence into a diligence with the head and tail cut dirt to drink, and dirt to sleep in.' off,' where her maid lay down in the straw at the
Having thus hinted-with comparative mildness — bottom, and where the seats were so contrived, that it that our fair author, in spite of the title of her book, was impossible to sit on them without sliding off every does not derive from foreign travel that •consolation'it five minutes.
is fitted to bestow upon well-regulated minds, we must, But even here she was not allowed to indulge herself, in justice to her, turn the reverse of the medal. The being ejected at midnight, “to her intense dismay and scene is in Rome.
• Now for the chapter of compensations : my bedindignation, and sent into the ion at Château Chinon, room door and window opened upon a terraced garden
the most horrible cut-throat-looking hole she ever be at least forty feet above the street, full of orange and held.' It was dirty of course, and the serving-girl dirty lemon trees, magnolias, myrtles, oleanders and camelias, too, as well as sleepy and stupid, poor thing, at such an roses and violets, in bloom; a fountain of the acqua hour. The kitchen (into which, in France, travellers felice trickles, under the superintendence of a statue, into always make their way from the road) was black and a marble shell, and thence escapes under the garden. filthy; and a gentleman had two abominable dogs, The view from thence of the eternal city and its beauwhich kept running about, and all but knocking her twin towers of the Trinità rise close to it up into the
teous girdle of hills surpasses all description, and the down; so that, taking things upon the whole, poor Mrs blue sky, which looks through the belfry arches as Butler was so terrified, disgusted, and annoyed, that through windows down into my sleeping-room. The she literally shook from head to foot.'
coloured tiles of all our anterooms and passages enchant But in the bedroom she was out of the frying-pan into me; so do the gay-painted ceilings. The little room the fire-or rather into the smoke, for the storm took where I bathe is a perfect delight to me, with its Latin
inscription on the lintel, its marble bath, its walls * A Year of Consolation. By Mrs Butler, late Fanny Kemble. covered with fresco Cupids and dolphins, and altars with London : Moxon. 1847.
flames, and baskets with flowers, all strung together by
waving patterns of wreaths and garlands. This after- nightingale. Thence we proceeded to what is called, noon we drove through the streets of Rome, out to a by those who know, Mæcenas's Villa; and by those place that was once one of the innumerable Cenci pos- who know better, the Temple of Hercules. I, who sessions, but which is now a farmhouse of the Borghese. neither know, nor know better, saw a fine collection In one corner of the littered stable-yard, where heaps of of extensive iron forges, a species of place that I have manure occupied most of the ground, stood a stone sar- the greatest delight in, because of their picturesque cophagus, with spirited and graceful rilievi, into which black chambers, and fiery furnaces, and sooty popufresh water was pouring itself in a glassy stream. As lation, all which we had in great perfection here; for we went round the house, we came upon another stone after walking out on the huge noble roof that juts like basin, of beautiful form and proportions, into which a promontory over the glen, its sides all garlanded another gush of living water was falling in the bright with young verdure, amidst which the milk-white cassunshine: farther on, again, beneath a sombre avenue catelle went rolling in round fleecy ropes down the steep of ilex, another of these precious reservoirs sparkled cliff, we descended to visit the valley, passing through and gleamed. I cannot describe my delight in living the iron-works-through dark passages, where the sound water: these perpetually-running fountains are a per- of rushing waters rolled above our heads, and where petual baptism of refreshment to my mind and senses. some sudden furnace - gleam betrayed them_hurrying The Swedenborgians consider water, when the mention fast beneath the planks under our feet. Huge belof it occurs in the Bible, as typical of truth. I love to lows and hammers, wielded by the subject elements, think of that when I look at it, so bright, so pure, so resounded with deafening clangour through the black transparent, so temperate, so fit an emblem for that vaults. Presently we passed deep-glowing furnaces, spiritual element in which our souls should bathe and from one of which a long bar of iron, that had writhed be strengthened, at which they should drink and be itself crooked in the intense heat, was drawn out, and refreshed! Fire purifies, but destroys; water cleanses thrown like a red snake upon the ground; close to and revives. Christ was baptised in water, and washed, those toiling fires sprang up white sheets of toiling himself, in the regenerating element, his disciples' feet. water, wrestling with powerful wheels, that they lashed He promised living waters to all those who, thirsty, till they turned the appointed way; and sweating, bedrew near to him, and spoke of that well of everlasting grimed, sooty-smaller than the smallest part of this life, which those to whom he gave to drink possessed vast machinery, and weaker than its weakest-stood for ever in their souls. I do not wonder at all the mar in the midst of these, his bright powerful slaves, the vellous wasser.cur reports. I believe the material ele- mighty task-master-man. Leaving these Vulcanic ment to be as potent in regenerating and healing the regions, we descended a steep path, through vineyards, body, as the spiritual element its clearness dimly repre- where the vines, instead of being cut short and fastened sents is to regenerate and heal the mind.
in little stacks to reeds a few feet high, are spread all • It is impossible to describe the soft beauty of over trellises--a mode of training them, disadvantaeverything that surrounded us here; the ilex-trees, geous, it is said, to the grapes, but which produces a the graceful stone pines, the picturesque colour and very pleasant appearance, and looked down upon from outline of the house itself, the sunny far - stretch- above, has the effect of a sort of false-bottom to the ing campagna, with its purple frame of mountains; whole country-that which seems the verdant ground Soracte, standing isolated like the vanguard of the being nothing but the vine-covered trellis that hides chain; the sullen steeps of the Sabine; the smiling it. The whole valley, as we wound round it, was exslopes of the Alban hills ; Frascati, Tivoli, glittering in quisitely beautiful, and we paused by some golden tufts the sunshine, on their skirts; the light over all radiant of broom opposite the cascatelle to enjoy the view, ... and tender; the warmth and balmy softness of the atmo * As we wound down the steep paths to the cavern, sphere-everything was perfect enchantment. Every- the trees through which we passed glittered all in the thing was graceful, harmonious, and delightful to the rain that still rested on them, and added much to the eye, and soothing beyond expression to the mind. Pre beautiful effect of the shadowy procession moving in sently came two of the beautiful mouse-coloured oxen torchlight through the surrounding gloom, and deof the campagna, slowly, through the arched gateway scending, apparently, into the very bowels of the earth. of the farm -yard, and, leaning their serious - looking Arrived at the bottom of Neptune's Cave, which is the heads upon the stone basin, drank soberly, with their top of the Syren's Grotto, all sorts of illuminations took great eyes fixed on us, who sat upon the hem of the place. Bundles of hay were piled beneath the rocky fountain ; I, for the first time in my life, almost com- arch, below which the waters disappeared, and being prehending the delight of listless inactivity. As the set fire to, the sudden light sent a blood-red flare deep water ran lullingly by my side, and between the gray down into the gulf and upon the foaming waters. shafts of the tall pine-trees, and beneath the dark arches Wreaths of burning straw were floated down into the of their boughs, the distant landscape, formed into abyss, whose darkness swallowed them instantly; the separate and distinct pictures of incomparable beauty, rocky roof and eager forms and faces of the assistants, arrested my delighted eyes. Yes, I think I actually and terrified leaping wild waters, all being suddenly could be content to sit on that fountain's edge, and do illuminated by the strong light only for a few seconds. nothing but listen and look for a whole summer's after- Then fires were lighted half-way up the glen in a sort noon. But no more: Up, and be doing,” is the impulse of rocky gallery, with open arches looking down into for ever with me; and when I ask myself, both sadly the deep. Here, as we stood below and opposite, we and scornfully, What? both my nature and my convic- saw the men who were employed in lighting these fires tions repeat the call, “ Up, and be doing ;" for surely run to and fro through the ruddy rock passage: the there is something to be done from morning till night, effect was perfectly infernal; and nothing but demons, and to find out what is the appointed work of the on or some religious rites, such as men have devised for ward-tending soul.'
themselves, and which are fit only for devils, were The following specimen will likewise give a favour-suggested by this strange spectacle. Then the red able idea of the descriptions which form the staple of the faring fires were extinguished, and a pale white chework. “Soon after our arrival, donkeys were procured, mical light was made to pour its radiance into the and we started on the usual giro of the valley, begin- rocky cup, at the bottom of which we stood.' ning our pilgrimage at the Villa d'Este, where we sat Mrs Butler devotes considerable space to a descripby fountains falling in this lovely solitude, and gathered tion of the carnival, and it is no small praise to her to branches thick with orange blossoms, and looked from say, that she has contrived to render readable even so crumbling princely terraces over the glorious cam- threadbare a subject. The following is the conclupagna, and heard in a sort of dark chamber of cypress-sion :- I believe I have nothing more to say of the car. trees, with the red buds of delicate China roses bloom- nival, but to notice the closing-in of the last evening, ing at their feet—the loud sweet singing of a fearless I when, as the daylight grew thick, suddenly a thousand
tapers from the street, the carriages, the windows, the circumstances, he pays the same sum, without scruple, balconies, the house-tops, shone out upon the dusky for his share of a single joint, with cheap vegetables, twilight. The Corso looked like a whole street full of bread and cheese, and a glass of table-beer. Upon the fire-fies; everybody carried in their hands a sheaf of whole, we must say that we have met with more insmall wax tapers, and the swarming sparks in a burning stances of meanness among the English abroad, than of piece of paper, or an assembly-general of all the ignis extortion among the natives. jalui in the world, or the Milky Way suddenly fallen from the sky into the Corso, are the only things I can compare this wonderful and beautiful spectacle to. Far GOLD IS EXPORTING—MONEY WILL BE SCARCE. down the thronged irregular thoroughfare, this magical | In an able paper of the 92d number of the Westminster illumination flickered and twinkled; the street was Review (entitled • Postscript'), there occur some remarks alive with light; the carriages formed little clusters or on the monetary crisis, which have to us a supernumerary constellations of burning tapers ; from the projecting interest, in as far as they support a view taken by ourselves parts of every house the little moccoli were held aloft; in a paper entitled “The Metaphysics of Business,' which sticks, with lights fastened to them, were pushed far appeared in the 74th number of the Journal (new series). out from the very tops of the houses, like strings of The subject is well worthy of being taken to heart by the
guiding minds of our community. strange stars up against the violet-coloured evening
• The financial embarrassment and monetary crisis sky; little boats of green and red oiled silk, with burn- through which we have passed, and which have appeared ing tapers in them, were set afloat in the air, and came immediately to result from the Irish measures of governfickering down like showers of illuminated flowers into ment, may in part be traced to the currency delusions, the street. No words can convey any adequate idea of upon which we commented in a former paper-delusions the brilliancy and singularity of the spectacle. In the still popular with the editors of city articles, although of meantime the sport consisted, not in the beauty and late exposed by some of the ablest thinkers of the day. strangeness of the sight, but in everybody's endeavouring We allude chiefly to the doctrinc, both of the bullionists to extinguish everybody else's light, and keep his own
and the Birmingham philosophers, that commercial transfrom being extinguished. This, which might be supposed actions, and the prices of commodities, are governed by the a satirical representation of society, was carried on with and paper. The text of the alarmists is now the drain of
quantity of money in circulation, as represented by gold a frantic activity irresistibly ludicrous to a looker-on. gold “Gold is being exported to pay for corn ; more We had gone to our balcony, the better to enjoy the gold will be exported ;* money will be scarce; all kinds coup d'eil; and anything more magical, more fairy-like, of property will fall in valne; prepare for ruin.” and more devilish at the same time, cannot be conceived: The time will come when the prevailing notion that the pocket-handkerchiefs, sticks with little flags tied to prosperity of nations depends upon the question, whether them, wisps of paper, and all imaginable weapons, were a ton weight of gold shall lie buried in a vault in Hamused to put out the little moccoli; extinguishers of oiled burg or a vault in London, will be classed with the chipaper or parchment, fastened to long sticks, were in cherished, will hereafter appear the more strange, since to
meras of the nursery. That such an idea should still be great requisition, and everywhere the little tapers all men the fact is palpable, that the use of gold or notes burned and flamed, and were blown out and relighted, has long been practically superseded by accounts and while screams of laughter, and shouts of " Senza moc- cheques ; that what is called the currency of the country colo-senza moccolo!” resounded from one end of the is, in fact, only the small change of society, and an element street to the other. For a while I remained intent upon absolutely insignificant in the vast transactions of a compreserving my light from extinction, but the blows and mercial people. The balances adjusted in the London blasts aimed at it from above, below, and all round, clearing-house of L.3,000,000 per day, afford an indication rendered it impossible ; and finding that this individual that we should be quite within the mark in asserting that care for my own luminary was depriving me of the L.100,000,000 per day would often inadequately represent curious spectacle, I put mine out once for all, and gave the property actually transferred from one to another, or myself up to gazing at the comic rout all round. At the real daily business done in buying and selling by the length we retreated from our stand, and threading our paratively of these transactions is the actual passing of
whole population of the British empire. In but few comway through the crowd, regained our carriage. Imme- either gold or notes from hand to hand required. The diately on leaving the Corso, all seemed dark and still; great majority are effected by figures, placed on the debtor and though the blaze still streamed partly up some of or credit side of an account. A metallic currency belongs the side streets communicating with it, and the con to a state of society (one of semi-civilisation) which is fused uproar followed us like the sound of a distant passing away; and it is not true that notes have replaced beach some way after we had turned homewards, when it-the modern medium of exchange is a ledger. we reached our own serene height on the Pincio, not a
Yet we are told that a handful of gold, or Bank of sound was to be heard but our own carriage-wheels, England notes, disappearing from the circulation, has the nor a light seen but the everlasting stars of heaven, power to affect, by an extreme depreciation, the whole which seemed to look down in quiet supremacy and an property of the United Kingdom! What is certain is, easy consciousness that they were not soon likely to be the predictions ; but it is most important the public should
that the realisation of these prophecies generally follows flapped out.
understand that they lead to their own fulfilment; a fact Throughout the volumes are sundry strictures on the beginning to be suspected, and of easy demonstration, dishonest charges of continental innkeepers and shop Value is governed by supply and demand; but supply keepers, together with some ridicule of the extravagance and demand are governed by opinion. Faith is necessary of the English. For our own part, though tolerably well to the husbandman: he must have confidence in the seed acquainted with the countries alluded to, we must con he is to put into the ground, or it will not be sown. Faith fess we never happened to meet with a single specimen is necessary to the merchant: he must have a reasonable of this extravagance. The great majority of English prospect of a market, or no vessel will be sent by him to a residents abroad have not one shilling to spare ; while distant port. All buying and selling, not designed for imEnglish travellers, rich and poor alike, appear to live in the opinion of the buyer and seller that prices will rise, or
mediate consumption, is regulated by belief-that is, by constant dread of imposition, and to have set out with that they will fall, or that they will remain stationary. All the most absurd notions of what are fair charges. On
are buyers when there is a hope of profit; all are sellers the coach highways in France, for instance, a man when there is a prospect of loss : hence the fluctuations dines on soup, fish, meat, poultry, game, asparagus, cauliflower, haricot beans, pastry, and a plentiful des * The anticipation of a continued drain of gold will, perhaps, sert—the last always including (to the amusement of be somewhat modified by the information, derived from othciai the Englishman) cheese ; and throughout the meal he sources, and communicated to the public by Mr Frederick Scheer, has bread and common wine at discretion. For this he that the Siberian gold mines are annually increasing in producis charged three francs (half-a-crown), and complains 87 zol., surpassing, by 336 poods, 28 liv., 46 zol., the produce of 1843.
tiveness. The produce, in the year 1846, was 1722 poods, 29 liv., bitterly of the imposition; while at home, under similar A pood is equal to 36 lbs.
of the funds and of the share markets, which have literally who uses a tea-kettle, leaves an incrustation on the vessel nothing whatever to do with the permanent security for --carbonate of lime. This is a source of great danger with investment of any of the stocks quoted; and are certainly boilers, causing explosions, by forming a layer of nonnever affected, to any perceptible extent, by a difference conducting matter between the metal and the fluid to be in the quantity of money. The prices of share lists indicate heated, and thus allowing the temperature of the former to nothing but the fears or confidence of holders. Create a rise to a high point, even to redness. The metal oxidises belief that money will be scarce, and you produce the same rapidly at this temperature, and the boiler is thereby effect as if money had suddenly vanished from the world weakened and rendered incapable of sustaining the necesby a miracle, and were really that indispensable medium sary pressure. But a more fruitful cause of accidents, is of exchange in large commercial transactions which, as we the sudden removal of portions of incrustation, when the have shown, it is not. With the cry—“ Gold is going out metal expands on the attainment of the high temperature; -money will be scarce,” all prudent men begin at the the water is thereby brought in contact with the heated same time to contract their obligations, to call in their metal, and evaporation takes place so suddenly, as to redebts, and to make reserves. Hence, and hence only, a semble the evolution of gases from the firing of gunpowder. pressure, for which the shipment of a box or two of bullion, Indeed the results in both cases are identical.' To avoid and the withdrawal of a few bundles of bank-notes from a this peril as far as practicable, the water, when it becomes banker's drawer, can never adequately account.
dense, is frequently blown off,' or driven out of the boiler. • The loss arising from the failure of the potato crop is But this is only a partial remedy, and the crust has to be said to be L.16,000,000. How much per cent. is that upon removed by means of the hammer and chisel, to the injury the fixed and floating capital of the British empire, usually of the vessel. About two years ago, Dr Ritterbandt disestimated at L.5,000,000,000 ? Less than 6s. 6d. Why, covered a cure for this. He found that, by introducing then, if in consequence only of such an insignificant dimi- muriate of ammonia into a boiler containing water holding nution of our exchangeable commodities, have we seen, lime in solution, the carbonate of lime, instead of depositwithin the last six months, a fall of L.10 per cent. in the ing when the carbonic acid by which it was held in solution most solid securities in the kingdom—the funds, and the was expelled at a high temperature, became converted into shares of the North Western Railway Company? Potatoes muriate of lime, a substance eminently soluble; while the were innocent of this extreme depreciation. The shipment carbonate of ammonia, likewise formed by the double deof L.3,000,000 of bullion could not have occasioned it: composition, passed off with the steam, so that the boiler want of confidence alone was the cause. Belief in a falling could not foul. The process is equally applicable to fresh market, produces a falling market ; because all are sellers and salt water.' It has also resulted in dissolving the crust at the same moment, and no buyers. A few years back, formed before its application. It is still necessary to blow there was a belief in the minds of some hundreds of ig- off the water occasionally, but only to the extent of onenorant and credulous persons that London would be de fourth of what is requisite without Dr Ritterbandt's invenstroyed by an earthquake. There was no earthquake; but tion. The Times' has tried the plan on its own boilers, they had hastened to tly into the country.'
and a twelvemonth has fully proved its efficacy.
THE PERSIAN PEASANT.
Where the effects of war have not been felt, and the The terrace cultivation of China has been noticed by hand of oppression has not fallen heavily, the situation of nearly all writers upon this country; and like most other the Persian peasant is not uncomfortable. His house, subjects, it has been either much exaggerated, or under though built of mud, is warm, and may be clean; and he valued. It appeared to me to be carried to the greatest can always spread a carpet, or felt nurmuds (the work, perfection on the hill-sides adjacent to the river Min near probably, of the women
of his own family), on the floor of Foo-choo-foo; at least I was more struck with it there his best room, for the accommodation of a guest. He is than anywhere else. On sailing up that beautiful river, comfortably clad in cotton or woollen cloth of home manuthese terraces look like steps on the sides of the moun- facture, or purchased with his own produce from the neartains, one rising above another, until they sometimes reach est bazaar. The fleecy skins of his own sheep afford him six or eight hundred feet above the level of the sea. When a warm covering in winter, and a cap of the national shape the rice and other crops are young, these terraces are for his head. His wife and children are equally well clothed in luxuriant green, and look like a collection of clothed. Silk handkerchiefs, European or native printed gardens among the rugged and barren mountains. The calicoes, stout home-grown and home-made cottons, comterrace system is adopted by the Chinese, either for the pose the apparel of the former, who, as well as the children, purpose of supplying the hill-sides with water where paddy and especially the girls, exhibit many coins and ornaments is to be grown, or to prevent the heavy rains from washing of silver about their persons. His family fare is generally down the loose soil from the roots of other vegetables. frugal: good wheaten bread, in long thin tlaps, cheese, sour Hence these cuttings are seen all over the sides of the milk, honey, grape-treacle, herbs and vegetables—such as hills, not exactly level like the rice terraces, but level onions, radishes, beetroot- and some eggs occasionally; enough to answer the purpose of checking the rains in or a little meat, stewed or roasted in small pieces, or made their descent from the mountain. For the same reason, into soup with a sort of pea or vetch, into which the bread the sweet potato, and some other crops which are grown is broken; and sometimes a pillau of rice well buttered, or on the hills, are always planted in ridges which run cross with meat, and a few plums and raisins by way of feast ; ways or horizontally; indeed, were the ridges made in a fruits in their season, or preserved by being dried ; rice, or different direction, the heavy rains which fall in the early flour and milk, boiled with sugar into a sort of porridge: summer months would carry both the loose soil and crops these things form nearly the whole of the peasant's bill of down into the plains. Rice is grown on the lower terrace fare for the year round; but when a stranger of any conground ; and a stream of water is always led from some
sequence arrives, there are few respectable villages that ravine, and made to flow across the sides of the hills, until cannot furnish him with a meal that leaves no cause for it reaches the highest terraco, into which it flows and floods complaint, even though his cook be the wife of a peasant. the whole of the level space. When the water rises three or four inches in height, which is sutliciently high for the CARE OF ANIMATE AND INANIMATE MACHINES. rice, it finds vent at an opening made for the purpose in Independently of men being sentient beings and fellorthe bank, through which it flows into the terrace below, creatures, they may also be considered as indispensable which it floods in the same manner, and so on to the lowest. mechanical instruments. But in former times they had In this way the whole of the rice terraces are kept conti- not the attention paid to them which would have been nually flooded, until the stalks of the crops assume a yellow due even to inanimate machines of equal utility ; for there ripening hue, when the water being no longer required, it seemed to be much more anxiety about preserving arms is turned back into its natural channel, or led to a different from rusting, and cordage from rotting, than about mainpart of the hill
, for the nourishment of other crops.-For- taining men in an effective state of health.—Sir Gilbert tune's Wanderings in China.
Blanc on the Comparative Health of the Navy. INCRUSTATIONS ON STEAM-BOILERS. The Times' makes an important announcement of the Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also complete success of a plan for preventing incrustations on
sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. 8. ORR, the boilers of steam-engines. The water employed to be
147 Strand, and Amen Corner, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, converted into steam, as is familiarly known to every one
21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR
THE PEOPLE,'CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.
No. 180. New SERIES.
SATURDAY, JUNE 12, 1847.
been in all times a synonyme for wo! But all is hushed
up and buried under this very surface which, when I EVERYBODY trumpets the advantages of a good me look abroad upon it in the sunlight of May, laughs in mory. Plans for cultivating it, or supplying its defi- the joy which great God has sent down upon it. Thus ciencies by artificial means, make a great figure in it is with our daily existence. We walk enjoyingly • Watts on the Mind,' and other slender-witted well. each moment on a mental sward of freshest verdure, meaning books. Grave middle-aged people shake their composed of the trodden-down hopes and extinguished heads to little boys, and tell them there is nothing like joys of the past. Blessed, blessed is this moral cheMEMORY. With that, all comes easy; without it, nothing mistry which works so well! Could all of these lost is to be done. And so Memory keeps up a tremendous hopes and joys revive before our eyes, and look as they character in the world-has always done, and will con once looked, it would be suffering too great for poor tinue to do so. Nobody in the meantime thinks of humanity. We are happy on the express condition saying a word in praise of Forgetfulness. Yet is For- that we forget. getfulness a blessed thing too, although, no doubt, in a Perhaps it might admit of question, if history is the different kind of way. The one is a noted source of unmixed good it is usually thought to be. It gives to positive good, in as far as it is intellectual power and nations and other bodies of men long Memories, which wealth. So far well. The other, while a source of cer- it were better for them to want. The great public critain positive evils, in as far as it engenders ignorance, minalities of the past—such as the settlements in Ireand leads to neglect, is only attended by negative be- land, the Smithfield Burnings, the Partition of Poland nefits. Thus may the different reputations of the two -it may do some good to remember them as errors to things be accounted for. Nevertheless, it is clear as be avoided, but it seems a pure evil for the descendants, noonday, or any other very clear thing whatever, that or the party of the sufferers, to keep these things in we owe as much to Forgetfulness as to Memory, and mind. They cannot now be remedied—not even rethat it is as much a duty to cultivate the one as the venged. It only keeps alive bad feelings to remember other.
them-exasperation to those interested in the injured ; We should be ready to forgive, say all the good ethical vexation, without correction, to those who represent the codes. Well, I forgive,' cries the wronged or affronted injurers. Could they be entirely forgotten, the present man; 'but I cannot forget.' How unfortunate!—seeing generation might better exemplify the Christian prethat, while he cannot forget, he has not forgiven; he cepts. On a serious reflection, the making holidays of only thinks he does. Forgetfulness is necessary to this the anniversaries of the great treason of 1605 and the solemn duty: it is vain to think of doing without it. death of Charles I., appears as the most deliberately But let us not speak of duty, but only of the comfort of wicked conduct of which a people or a party could be having nothing to complain of or avenge. How blessed guilty-determining to remember injuries by statutefor the man himself, if-having undergone an injury consecrating offences to all time-howling out 'I wont or a mortification—he only can forget! Then, truly, is forget!' even after there is no one against whom the the good thing insured : forgetting, he has no occasion remembrance is a stigma, which is the case with to think of forgiving; it is the major proposition con- the ‘Martyrdom.' We only do not at once condemn taining the minor within itself. Happy, happy, thrice and abolish such practices, because seriousness has happy he who simply has not a Memory for his wrongs actually long ago departed from them, leaving them or his sufferings! Happy the mind which, like water, only as empty mockeries or childish sports. War, may be lashed into foam, and in an instant will resume wholly, might be better forgotten. Its Memories tend the placid smile in which it reflected heaven-compared continually to make more war, less by encouragement with that obdurate one which may be said to resemble to victors, than mortification to the vanquished; for the marble tablet-let it be struck with the same force, a Waterloo may sooner cease to be boasted of than and it lies in hopeless ruins for ever!
to be resented. Could the horrid story, and all its Misfortunes occur and gall us. We meet disappoint- tangible memorials in soldiery, artillery, fortresses, ments, and for the time are wretched. Frantic, and bellicose songs, pass at once from remembrance, the darkly groping, the mind roams about its little world-chances of a renewal of hostilities would be greatly prison in search of consolation. Something of the kind lessened. Would that all who have ever warred, and is encountered and grasped at, and the crisis passes. particularly those who have been worsted, could forget! But how must we all acknowledge that, in the long-run, Memory is directly useful, Forgetfulness indirectly the true and perfect consoler was Forgetfulness! What or negatively so. We might have had more of the one, pains have been suffered on this earth from first to if it had not been necessary that the other should also last ! How sad have hearts been, sitting by the fire- have its share of us. When disposed to lament a failure sides of five thousand years ago! How has human life or deficiency of Memory, let us remember that, had