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Pallas, the Virgilian hero, was discovered in the year and by other means. We may go a step beyond, and A. D. 1041; the corpse unchanged by time, with that ask-If the 'perpetual lamps' were known to the angaping wound in the heart so affectingly described by cients, how was it that a noble Roman's shade was left to the poet; and in the sepulchre was found a lamp, which, the poor consolation of a vegetable wick and most unperhowever, could not be put out by any means whatso- petual tallow? The historians of these lamps are not ever; thus differing from the generally received charac- content with the simple assertion of their being in comteristic of the perpetual lamps.' Merlin the magician, bustion, but they insist upon the 'fact,' that they gave among other wonderful things which he accomplished, forth sufficient light thoroughly to illuminate the seappears to have succeeded in constructing one of these pulchre. This is another ground of objection. It is lights, if we are to take the author before-mentioned well known that light, in ordinary circumstances, as in as a credible authority. But we need not enumerate a lamp, is produced by the ignition of solid particles of examples.

matter; the light of a lamp is due to the ignition of the If the different accounts are to be credited, the mys- carbon of its fuel. In burning, then, a certain amount tery is completely beyond solution. Let us enter more of solid matter is consumed every minute. Dr Ure closely into the subject. Camden, with a customary calculates that a mould candle consumes rather more caution, lays the responsibility of the tale he recounts than a hundred grains of tallow per hour. If we allow, on the shoulders of several .credible persons,' who re to make a rough estimate, sixty grains of solid carbon lated it to him, and contents himself with quoting La- to such a light per hour, this would demand about zius for the exposition of the perpetual flame secret. seventy pounds of solid carbon for one year, or about The account of the lamp of Olybius is an obvious im- three tons for a century, for the production of the light possibility, until at least the laws which affect combus- alone of such a flame. This is, however, only an tion undergo a very material alteration, The other approximative statement of the case, as we are still to examples may be as summarily disposed of, with the account for that portion of the fuel which contributes exception of the most recent alleged discovery in Spain. to the non-luminous part of flame. Thus a whole tallowIt is, however, much to be regretted that no archæolo- chandler's warehouse, economised as you will, would gist was present at the time; that none but ignorant only supply a mould candle with fuel for about a cen. rustics, full, possibly, of superstitious terrors, beheld tury; and it will be a novel discovery indeed to the this famous lamp, or we might have had the question antiquarian world, if such a receptacle be ever found in set at rest for ever. There are suspicious circumstances connexion with any ancient sepulchre. We have taken about the tales, as they have been handed down to us, the fuel to be of the nature of fat or tallow, but it is to which we do well to give heed. It is most unfortu- evident the same line of argument applies itself to all nate, then, that the perpetual lamps' always go out as other kinds, excepting always that liquid Lazian gold, soon as they are discovered. One would think they might which ignorant moderns know nothing about. There have the grace, at anyrate, to keep in, after enduring is a further difficulty, which, even if an eternal supply unaltered the lapse of ages, for a few days or weeks, of fuel were granted, would render the constant flame and so give us moderns a chance of getting trustworthy an impossibility; that is, the nature of a wick. Granttestimony concerning them. But no! they are no sooner ing that it might be made of asbestos, and thus renfound, than they are found out; and this, to ordinary dered indestructible, it would, after the lapse of some judgments, confers upon them at once a highly apocry: time, become so charged with half-decomposed fuel, as phal character. The ingenious Bishop Wilkins explains to form a semi-solid mass, which had lost the power of this feature of the lamps, by presuming that the ex- imbibing the oil in sufficient quantity to sustain the posure to open air disturbed the balance between the flame. A final objection lies in the want of fresh air. fame and the fuel, and that, consequently, the flame With a perpetual flow of oil, and a wick, if it were posshortly went out; but this is a lame and impotent con- sible, so made as to obviate the last objection, the lamp, clusion. It may also be asked--allowing that the lamps without a renewal of the exhausted oxygen of the tomb, were found really burning, and were blown out acci- would speedily become extinct. This appears to have dentally-How is it that they have never been relighted, been the case with the lamp discovered at Barblon. and handed down, from age to age, visible witnesses to Such is the presumptive, such the positive, evidence the truth of the statements ? The question cannot opposed to the perpetuity of the sepulchral lights. be answered. There is, moreover, an air of romance Learned men, however, have perplexed themselves about every account that exists, which considerably much in the attempt to explain away the difficulty. damages its credibility as a matter of fact. On the The penetrating genius of Baptist Porta exercised whole, it may be averred that the stories at present itself in vain upon this subject: he believed in the truth received about these lamps are of a very questionable of the accounts, but failed in all his experiments to nature. There are, however, other grounds for doubt- produce anything like an eternal flame. Bishop Wilkins ing, and of a more satisfactory description. In the 'Ar suggested the idea of the asbestian wick, and innocently chæologia' of the Society of Antiquaries, will be found asks, whether it was not probable that an inconsumable an account of the discovery of a Roman sepulchral lamp, oil might not be extracted from asbestos itself?—which in a 'barrow,' at Barblon in Essex. The tomb was seems a kind of lucus a non lucendo reasoning. Dr opened by an archæologist fortunately, and the lamp Plat has suggested the idea, that a natural fountain of was discovered in one corner of it, with all the appear- naphtha, or a jet of carburetted hydrogen, might be in ance of having been long extinguished. The lamp, with connexion with the lamps ; but this hypothesis is open its contents, was sent to Mr Faraday, the eminent to the objections-first, of the want of renewed air ; chemical philosopher. In it was contained a cake of a and secondly, of the entire absence of any mechanism substance, dry, brittle, and earthy in appearance. The attached to the lamps to justify the supposition, even upper surface of it was black, the lower green, from its if there had been any such natural supply, which has contact with the bronze of the lamp. This substanče never yet been alleged in any instance with which was altogether combustible, and consisted simply of a we are acquainted. Mr Way writes — Some subfatty fuel, much changed by time. In the beak of the stance may have been compounded, which, long closed lamp was found a wick, evidently consisting of a fibrous up amidst the pestilent vapours of the tomb, may at vegetable material, about an inch in diameter, and half- length, on the admission of some measure of purer air, consumed. Near the lamp stood what has been be- have become ignited for a brief space of time, and as lieved to be a curule chair-indicative of the official quickly have been extinguished, when, on being brought authority, or of the noble rank, of the tomb-tenant. forth from the vault, an accelerated combustion had Here, now, were all the elements of a splendid fable, been produced. Now, it is well known to chemists excepting the simple circumstance of the lamp being that some substances may be so prepared as to take out, which, there is little doubt, would have been over fire on the admission of air to them, as in the numerous leaped, had the discovery taken place at another epoch, chemical playthings known as pyrophori; but these

must be rigidly excluded from the air, in hermetically- firesides to father, mother, and the family circle, who, sealed glass tubes, or they become slowly oxidated, and when young, had not the advantage of learning to are useless; therefore the objection to Mr Way's hypo- read like them. Several clergymen of the church of thesis is insuperable, as no substance could be exposed England, and some of the religious denominations, find even to the impure air of the tomb without undergoing, them equally useful for distribution. We all agree that in the course of ages, a slow oxidation, and thus becom-“ignorance is the parent of vice,” and are pleased with ing incombustible. It is remarkable that the same the means you adopt to conquer that evil.' idea suggested itself to the mind of Porta, who was well It is gratifying for us to know that our 'Miscellany acquainted with the tartrate of lead pyrophorus; but he of Useful and Entertaining Tracts' finds its way at candidly admits that it will not solve the difficulty. least in one quarter of the country into the hands of

The solution we would venture to offer (supposing the class for whom it is specially designed. We rethat light is actually seen on breaking into any crypt or gret that, consistently with other duties, it will not be sepulchre) is the following, though it cannot be much in our power to extend the Tracts beyond twenty pressed :—The gas phosphuretted hydrogen is the product, volumes; but within that compass, we hope, will be in certain circumstances, of the decay of animal sub- found as ample a variety of instructing and amusing stances, and instantly shines with a phosphorescent light matter as could reasonably be wished. A unique little on coming in contact with air. Is it not probable that library will have been furnished, fitted alike by its the decaying remains* deposited in the grave may have, character and price to seek for a welcome at every in the course of years, been slowly evolving small quan- fireside. tities of this gas? Let the tomb be supposed to con The above correspondent, who seems to be an enthutain some of this gas, and an extinct sepulchral lamp: siast in popular instruction, concludes by mentioning some labourers break into it, the air falls upon the lumi- that he prints short pithy addresses on pieces of paper, niferous gas, and the vault is filled with light, which to distribute in cottages and elsewhere; and the reading the ignorant intruders refer to the lamp it enables them of which, he says, 'has a good effect. He encloses one to distinguish; they seize upon the lamp, and presently of these addresses, printed in small quarto, within an the light disappears, the whole of the phosphuretted hy- ornamental border. It is headed ‘Fresh Air,' and is drogen has been consumed, and the vault is in darkness. as follows: The idea is perhaps worth entertaining, and appears to * The celebrated Dr Darwin was so impressed with a afford a simple and not improbable explanation of a conviction of the necessity of good air, that, being very long-lived archæological chimera.

popular in the town of Derby, once on a market-day

he mounted a tab, and addressed the listening crowd. OUR CORRESPONDENTS.

Ye men of Derby, fellow-citizens, attend to me! I

know you to be ingenious and industrious mechanics. By Our late article on this subject has brought us a your exertions, you procure for yourselves and families number of communications, some of them odd enough. the necessaries of life ; but if you lose your health, that

A person in humble life, writing from a village in the power of being of use to them must cease. This truth all north of England, asks what book we would recommend of you know; but I fear some of you do not understand him to employ to teach his mother to read. She is, he how health is to be maintained in vigour—this, then, says, upwards of fifty years of age, and is desirous of depends upon your breathing an uncontaminated air; being instructed in the art of reading, 'which will be a for the purity of the air becomes destroyed where many great comfort to her, and an act of gratitude from me.' are collected together -- the effluvium from the body We have suggested a Primer, and hope that this dutiful corrupts it. Keep open, then, the windows of your son will enjoy the satisfaction of seeing his parent able workshops, and as soon as you rise, open all the winto read her Bible and · Chambers's Edinburgh Journal'dows of your bedrooms. Inattention to this advice, be before she quits this mortal sphere.

assured, will bring diseases on yourselves, and engender A correspondent sends us a scrap from a Birmingham among you typhus fever, which is only another name newspaper, containing an impression of a woodcut, re for putrid fever, which will carry off your wives and presenting one of the labours of Hercules—the seizurechildren. Let me again repeat my serious adviceof the stag. This cut purports to be a drawing of a open your windows to let in the fresh air. Remember testimonial in silver, presented to Mr Lines, drawing- what I say ; I speak now without a fee, and can have master, by his pupils. The engraving, which is in no other interest but your good in this my advice.” outline, with a little shading, is stated to have been Next comes a letter from our old acquaintance Grant drawn and executed by Master James Grove, with no Thorburn, the original of Galt's Lawrie Todd, who still other knowledge of the art of woodcutting than what survives in New York. Grant is an oddity. Fifty-two he derived from a halfpenny Tract in 'Chambers's Mis- years ago, while a young man, he left Scotland to seek cellany.' We congratulate the young artist on his taste his fortune in America, and we believe he has not and perseverance. All things considered, his execution sought it in vain. Ponderiug on things long gone by, is remarkably good : we have seen worse cuts from this little old man bethinks him of a usage which he practised and taught hands. His success shows what supposes might be advantageously introduced into Scotcan be done by self-reliance, and an earnest desire to land from America, and we are to be the channel of its overcome difficulties. We are glad that the directions introduction. It is this. In America, it is customary given in the above-mentioned Tract have been of some to shake one or two bundles of loose straw into a grave little practical utility.

over the newly-lowered coffin, in order to prevent the Speaking on this subject, we are reminded of a com rattle of stones and earth upon the lid, which is always munication received a few days ago from a gentleman in ungrateful to the feelings. Grant is rather late in telling Gloucestershire, who deprecates our bringing the ‘Mis us of this custom, but his communication is not the less cellany' to a conclusion, as announced, at the twentieth welcome. In Edinburgh (and probably elsewhere in volume. A few passages from his letter may be ex- Scotland) it has for several years been the practice for tracted. 'I have for some time circulated your Tracts the sexton to throw a quantity of straw into the grave among at least a hundred families in West Glo'stershire, before shovelling in earth : perhaps our notice of the who peruse them with intense interest. I also give fact, however, may carry the usage into quarters where them as rewards at the church Sunday school, or for it has not hitherto been known. writing out of school hours winter evenings. You A letter fro a bookseller in a town in the west should see how the poor ignorant lads will work to get of Scotland, informs us that he has for some time atthem, and how they read them aloud at the cottage tempted to employ men in poor circumstances to go

about selling cheap publications on the plan recom* It is not forgotten that these consisted principally of cinerary mended by us, but that nearly all his efforts have

been unsuccessful. The men,' he says, 'would do well,


and make money, if they could keep from drinking Now, then, is the time for those who wish to take a whisky. I have often set them up in trade, and they hand in this great transatlantic movement. That Westhave almost invariably shown me ingratitude for my ern Canada will participate in the advantages of this kindness, by perishing the pack through dissipation.' new trade, there can be little doubt; but the stoppage of How frequently does this appetite for drink frustrate traffic between the interior and the sea-coast for several every means that can be adopted for improving the months in the year is a serious drawback. A railway condition of the humbler classes! We thank our cor- is talked of to make Canada independent of the St respondent for his obliging communication.

Lawrence, and were this effected, the colonial farmers Our article, 'A Word on Land,' has not pleased the would have cause for rejoicing. In Canada, however, parties who are concerned in leading the working-classes they talk a long time before doing anything; and, like into a notion that the acquisition of an acre or two of the Irish, they are too much in the habit of looking to land is to render them permanently comfortable and government to assist in projects which they should independent. We should have been very glad to see, by execute by their own industry. The outlet from the statements and calculations, that the project we dis- whole valley of the Mississippi, including the valleys of commended is really to turn out favourably; but unfor- the Ohio and Missouri, is open all the year by way of tunately no attempt is made to prove anything of the New Orleans. sort. Our observations are met only by personal abuse, and we are denounced as aristocrats' — rather an amusing accusation, considering what we have been

THE BROKEN CHESS-PAWN. about during the last fifteen years. Not, however, even | Many years ago, I formed one of a happy family circle to gain the applause of the parties who now address us, seated round the tea-table. A letter had that day arwill we stoop to flatter prejudices, or desist from ex- rived, which, with the observation and quick instinct posing what we consider fallacies in social economy. of a child, I guessed in some way concerned myself

. A section of the working-classes may cease to look on It will be a pleasant change for her,' said my father, us as friends; but we shall not the less act a friendly glancing at me. These were words enough to quicken part towards them. We therefore, at whatever risk of my curiosity, had it not been all alive before; and I was offending, repeat our warnings respecting community busy picturing to my mind what this pleasant change land-buying projects and patch-farming, as means for might be, when my mother set the matter at rest by regenerating the operative classes of the United King- saying, 'Alice, your Aunt Walton has invited you to dom. And this, surely, we can do without in anyway spend a month with her, and we think of allowing you approving of the present system of land tenures, or of to go. A month in the country, and in June! What the conduct of landed proprietors generally. We think, young heart, that has been nurtured in a town, does on the contrary, that on both these points there is a not thrill at the mention of it? I could scarcely revast deal to condemn and improve, as we hope at a strain my delight, and ran about the house telling every suitable opportunity to show.

one of my anticipated visit. A late article on Quack Medicine Advertisements My Aunt Walton was a widow lady, living in a fine appears, from various communications, to have given old country-house at some distance. She was a great so much satisfaction, that we should infer the existence favourite with all her nephews and nieces, being herself of a wide-spread sympathy on the subject. The grow- extremely fond of children, and I had always heard her ing detestation of such advertisements will surely shame spoken of as one of the kindest, gentlest creatures on the newspapers into dismissing them from their pages. earth. It was a fine sunny morning when I was put on A dealer in - –’s Pills writes to say that, from con- the stage-coach that was to take me to a small town not scientious convictions, he is disposed to relinquish their far from my aunt's residence. Having never been able sale; and we hope all respectable tradesmen will follow to travel in a close conveyance, I was given in charge his example. No honest man, on consideration, can of the coachman, and had a seat on the outside. People lend himself to the deceptions of the quack medicine may say what they will of the superiority of railway manufacturer. That nearly half a million sterling should travelling to the old coach system, but say, ye lovers of be spent in the United Kingdom annually on quack speed and steam, when flying along through narrow nostrums, which are either for the most part useless, or ravines, or gloomy tunnels, or even when a distant and injurious to health, shows the extraordinary amount of fleeting glimpse of the country is obtained, what kuok ignorance and credulity that still requires to be removed. you of the delights of travelling?

Though not so numerous as formerly, questions as to No loud bell or shrill scream ushers the stage-travelfields of emigration continue to be put to us. Latterly, ler on his journey, but the winding horn of the guard, we have had great difficulty in offering any advice on and the loud crack of the coachman's whip. Once out this subject. At one time we felt warmly disposed of the town, and how beautiful the scene! It is early towards different colonial possessions, but now shrink morning, the sun is drinking up the dews of night, and from the responsibility of recommending any one to go the sweet perfume of flowers is wasted on the breeze. thither. This is not the place to speak of the strange The lark is singing his matin song, now ascending method of managing the colonies, few of which, we higher and higher, then falling like an arrow to the regret to say, are without some kind of grievance to vex ground. The cattle are quietly grazing in the fields, and their inhabitants or retard their prosperity. In place the haymakers are just commencing the labours of the of forming vast and suitable fields for the reception of day. Many a mile has sped pleasantly away, when, an avowedly overplus home population, they seem, for hark! the horn sounds. We are approaching a village, the greater part, to be only engines of expense to the where fresh horses are standing waiting our arrival. parent state. Possibly a more rational and beneficent The business of the day is now begun; all seems life policy may still make them a desirable resort for emi- and activity; yet the girls, with their brooms sweeping grants. But our feeling in the meanwhile is to counsel the cottage floors, rest a while to gaze on the coach as no one to peril his fortune within them. We would it passes by. At a little distance rises the village rather incline to recommend the United States of church, and there the quiet little parsonage lies basking America as the most favourable, all things considered, in the sunshine. The horses are changed, and we start for the purposes of the emigrant. For agriculturists again, merry-looking urchins waving their caps in the with capital, the valley of the Mississippi offers scope air, or may be hanging on behind, till the whip of the the most boundless and profitable. Formerly, produce coachman drives them scampering back. And then the was disposed of with difficulty for want of demand; but vehicles and travellers met on the road: now a sturdy now that a market is open in the British islands, agri- wagoner with his lumbering team ; then a troop of culture in America will rise to importance and dignity, gipsies stretched idly on the grass, the youngest of them and the quantity of land which will be torn from the starting up, and running for some distance by the coach wilderness, and thrown into crop, will be immense. window; now an old woman, with scarlet cloak and

large basket on her arm, trudging to the village for and gave me a box of men; and many a long evening sundry necessaries ; then a group of merry faces in a passed pleasantly away whilst I was engaged with my gaily-decked wagon, setting off on a pic-nic excursion. brother in our newly-acquired game; the only drawThese, and many more, were the sights which met my back to our pleasure being, that my father, for some view on the way to my Aunt Walton's residence, and I reason, never liked to see us engaged in it. One have never forgotten them. Ah! but the reader may day (it seems but yesterday), I had seriously offended say, stage-travelling in the winter! Give us a picture of him by allowing something to be destroyed which he the unhappy outside passenger, half-frozen to his seat, greatly prized. My father was a man of even temper, vainly endeavouring to keep out the cold blasts, with and I never remembered having seen him in a passion; rain or hail pelting him in the face, or perhaps a heavy but now he was roused, and saying, “ If you care not fall of snow, and the coach at last brought to a stand for what I value, neither will I for what you do,” he still. Gentle reader, having never been in such an un- caught up my chess-box, which lay on the table, and fortunate situation, I cannot describe it; I will only say, dashed it on the floor. I looked at him in amazement: I think I have heard very similar complaints from cer- I thought not of the chess-men, but of him and of tain third-class travellers. I belong to a generation myself. I saw how he had degraded himself before me; that is fast dying away; the world is changed now from it was a passionate act, but it was also a mean one. what it used to be ; people cannot stay quietly at home; That single action taught me more than all the reproof they must be going here, there, and everywhere. Well, I had ever received, for I learned that passion was mean if they like it, I would be the last person to prevent and humiliating; and if thus my father appeared before them, only it was not so when I was young.

me, so must I also appear before others. The chess-box I know a dear girl, to whom I sometimes talk in this still lay upon the floor-the cover had not fallen out, strain ; and she laughs, and says those barbarous times and apparently no mischief had been done. Quietly are gone by; and that railways make people more rising from my seat, I picked up the box, and left the sociable by bringing friends oftener together; and make room to examine its contents. The men were all safe, nations too more sociable, so that we shall soon have save one, a pawn. I looked at this broken pawn, and no more wars, and

made a resolution, that as long as I lived I would pre

serve it-it had taught me a lesson which I hoped never • The pen shall supersede the sword, And right, not might, shall be the lord ;'

to forget.'

Here my aunt drew the ribbon from her bosom, and and I don't know what happy things she does not pro- I saw attached to it a broken pawn. phiesy. She says she belongs to the new generation; ‘And is that the very same?' I asked with surprise. and I think she does, for I never heard people talk so: 'It is,' said my aunt. 'I have worn it ever since; but I daresay she is right, for she reads a great deal and whenever tempted to give way to passion, this little more than I do, and I know so little of what is going piece of ivory has exercised over me an almost magical on in the world now. But this is wandering from my power. Heaven blessed my endeavours, and though story. All journeys end, and mine did at last. I the struggle was often severe, in the end I was the reached my aunt's residence, and a fine old place it was, conqueror.' Then taking my hand in hers, she added with its terraced garden and massy stone porch. And in her softest, kindest tone, Whenever, dear Alice, you then the rooms! I had never seen such roonis, so large feel inclined to give way to passion, think of my story, and lofty, with polished oak panels, round and finely- and of the Broken Chess-pawn.' carved ceilings. And the paintings! Family portraits looking as antique in their curious costumes as the house itself. My aunt received me very kindly, and I GOVERNMENT APPOINTMENT HUNTING. soon began to feel quite at home; and often, as she was

A FEW weeks ago we presented the contribution of an sitting with her knitting, would I take my place at her Irish gentleman, ridiculing the too common practice among feet, and read aloud from the large family Bible, which his countrymen of waiting for a commission, instead of bealways lay on a table near her.

taking themselves earnestly to some line of private enterAt times, laying aside her work, and pointing to the prise. The practice, however, of waiting for appointments portraits on the walls, she would tell me the history of of a similar kind, and also for civil oflices under governmany who had lived in that house before her; and so ment, is, we lament to say, far from uncommon in Great much did these stories fill my childish mind, that often, Britain. On this subject the "Manchester Examiner” made when wandering through the long galleries and rooms lately some suitable remarks, which we take leave to lay

before our readers. that were seldom entered, I have almost expected to meet some of those fair beings whom the portraits, and vail in this country, as well as in many others, there is one

* Amongst the various “popular delusions” which premy aunt's vivid descriptions, had for ever impressed on which has been little dwelt upon by public writers, but my memory.

which is, nevertheless, well-deserving of exposure – we One day I was standing behind my aunt's chair, / allude to the belief which has long been entertained, that when I took hold of a black ribbon she wore round her there is at the disposal of the executive government an inneck, and which seemed to be attached to something exhaustible fund of patronage in the shape of government

hidden in her bosom. I had often looked at it with appointments. The Post-oflice, the Customs, and the Exl' curiosity, and now asked her what was at the end of cise, are the grand avenues through which men hope to the ribbon. She smiled, and said, “You would never

find the way to a permanent settlement, and to comfortguess ;' and then added, " sit down, my child, and I will tunity of seeing a list of the letters of application which

able quarters for life. We should like to have the opportell you. You are fond of stories, and this is a true one.

are received in a year, or in a single month, by some of the When I was young, I was very proud and passionate.'

members of parliament now sitting on the ministerial side You, aunt!' I interrupted her in astonishment. Pas- of the House, from such of their constituents and others as sionate--that kind, serene, old lady whom I had never are anxious to devote themselves to the service of their seen even ruffled !

country. At this moment, we doubt not, there are in the • Yes,' she continued ; 'you would not have doubted United Kingdom some thousands of individuals who are bad you known me then. Many an anxious hour did I indulging the fond expectation of becoming servants of the Occasion my parents, and many a time did they talk to state, and who are spending months, or even years, in the me of the sin and folly of giving way to temper; but it pursuit of this the darling object of their ambition and was in vain. I thought that passion and resentment their hopes. They fix upon some member of parliament

who is supposed to be on good terms with the ministry of were an evidence of spirit, and of all things, I hated a

the day, and most commonly on the representative of the tame-spirited person. Books were not so common then borough or county in which they reside, and for whom as they are now, and we had little to employ our time they have given, or expect to give, a vote, and through his with but embroidery. I was therefore delighted when a intercession they entertain sanguine hopes of success. They kind friend from London taught me the game of chess, / write their unfortunate member a pressing request that he




will interest himself on their behalf, and express their con count is annually published, with the names and weight fidence in his kindly feeling towards them, and in his power of the successful sorts, in the Manchester Gooseberry to further their views. They wait his answer with great Book.' The prizes vary from ten shillings to L.5 or L.10anxiety; and when it comes, with an indefinite expression the second, third, even to the sixth and tenth degrees of of good-will and of willingness to serve them, they are merit, receiving often proportionate rewards. There are buoyed up with the hope that he is doing all he can to meetings held in spring to make up,' as the term is, assist them. The most importunate are not content with the sorts, the persons, and the conditions of exhibition ; writing, but actually make a journey to town to press the and in August to weigh and taste the fruit, and determine matter more strongly upon him ; and at his lodgings, or his the prizes. The perfection the Lancashire berries have club, or in the lobby of the House, they besiege him with attained owes nothing to men of scientific knowledge, solicitations for his interest with the ministry he supports. being cultivated scarcely by any but the lowest and most In addition to these efforts, they get up inemorials signed illiterate members of society, but these, by continual by influential electors and others, testifying to the merits experience and perseverance in growing and raising new and capacity of the applicants, and hope by these means to sorts, have brought the fruit from weighing ten to upwards force the gates which lead to the “fools' paradise” of a of thirty pennyweights, and that, too, under the greatest government appointment.

disadvantages, not having the privilege of soil, manure, “We need not dwell on the miseries of waiting for that situation, &c. like the gardens of their more wealthy neighwhich, however ardently hoped for, is almost, and, in most bours, but oftentimes limited to a few yards of land, either cases, absolutely impossible to be attained. That men shaded by trees, confined by buildings, or exposed to the have written, memorialised, and implored for months and most unfavourable winds, and so barren, that they have years, and have at the last been grievously disappointed, is frequently to carry on their shoulders a considerable way known to everybody at all acquainted with the interior of the soil in which the plants are to be set.-Gardeners government offices, or with the routine life of an unfortu- Monthly Volume. nate member of the legislature. That men should still go

SLANDER. on seeking to dig for gold, where, in ninety-nine cases out

It is almost as criminal to hear a worthy man traduced of every hundred, no gold is to be found, is only another without attempting his justification as to be the author of instance, added to multitudes besides, where people resign the calumny against him; it is, in fact, a sort of misprision themselves to the delusive expectations of success in a

of treason against society.—Junius. lottery, and neglect the solid prizes which offer themselves in so many other directions. To show how desperate is the chance of sucoess in the lottery of government appoint

THE THREE STAGES. ments, we need only state a fact which is within our own knowledge, that at this moment there is a list of applications for places in the Post-office alone, which contains

It was a happy group. The honest pair, upwards of two thousand names, and that a list of names,

Followed by many a blessing and kind wish, selected from these, numbers some seven or eight hundred

Trod lightly down the elm-embowered walk strong! But even this formidable array is not equal to the

Towards the ivied porch. The conscious nurse, applications which are received at the treasury. We have

Big with the deep importance of her charge, no means of knowing accurately the exact number of names

Folded with careful arms the tender babe, in the books in that department, but we do know that they

Round whom so many budding hopes did cling. amount to several thousands, and that, in connexion with

Oh what a heaven was in that smiling face, one class of appointments altogether very limited in num

As, throwing out its dimpled hands, it pecped ber, the letters of solicitation received within the last six

From out its flannel nest! What deep pure joy months would fill a large hamper.

Seemed swelling that young heart, as, yet unstained * There are several points to be observed with respect to With passion or with care, it gazed abroad these applications. They come generally from men who

With its blue eyes upon the arching trees, seek an easier way to comfort than is afforded in the ordi

The sky, and the green earth! nary channels of industry, and very often from those who

It was a merry group. Twice twenty years have failed to succeed in other and more independent pur

Ilad left unchanged that row of towering elms. suits. They hold out the prospect of a permanent, and, it

But oh how changed was he who 'neath their shade is generally supposed, of an easy mode of obtaining a living.

Led, fondly leaning on his stalwart arm, We pronounce the whole system of “appointment hunt

Ilis young and blushing bride! The gossips round, ing” to be a great “popular delusion,” causing much mischief to those who are imposed upon by it, creating cor

Uncovered, bowed before him as he passed ;

For he was wealthy, had his numerous flocks, ruption among constituencies, and involving an incredible

And acres stretching far for many a mile. amount of labour and annoyance to the members of the

He had become a shrewd, far-seeing man, legislature. From long observation, we have come to the conclusion that ninety-nine out of every hundred who

Learned in ledgers, big with calculations, apply are doomed to disappointment, and that of the few

And deeply read in this world's sapience;

But on this morn, his marriage morn, who succeed, the majority might have been more wealthy,

sung, and much more independent, if they had devoted their

Forgot his speculations for a while, time and energies to some of the many branches of trade

His pains and losses, and paced blithely on, or professions by which the millions of our population

Exchanging many a jest with friends around, secure a competent and honourable subsistence.”

To the old hoary porch.
It was a mournful group. The sun shone out,

Lusty and young as sixty years before,

But he who then had twinkled his young eyes
In Spain and Italy the gooseberry is scarcely known; in

In its bright beams, was now all sadly borne France it is neglected, and little esteemed ; in some parts

To the cold grave. There was a motley crowd, of Germany and Holland the moderate temperature and

More curious than loving, and a train humidity of climate seem to suit the fruit; but in no

Of dry-eyed mourners, full of bursting thoughts country is its size and beauty to be compared with that

Of wills, and title-deeds, and legacies, produced in Lancashire, or from the Lancashire varieties

Of heirs and next of kin. One, one there was, cultivated with care in the more temperate and humid

Whose heart wept o'er him, though she was not there, districts of Britain. Dr Neill observes, that when foreigners

Whose bosom throed with one big thought-her husband; witness our Lancashire gooseberries, they are ready to

And no one mourned beside, but hurried on, consider them as forming quite a different kind of fruit.

With decent coldness and grave unconcern, Happily, this wholesome and useful berry is to be found in

And laid him down by his unconscious sires almost every cottage garden in Britain ; and it ought to be

In the dark dustful earth. considered a part of every gardener's duty to encourage the introduction of its most useful varieties in these humble enclosures. In Lancashire, and some parts of the adjoining Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also counties, almost every cottager who has a garden culti

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORR,

147 Strand, and Amen Corner, London ; and J. M'GLASHAX, vates the gooseberry with a view to prizes given at what 21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, are called Gooseberry Prize Meetings, of which an ac Edinburgh,


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