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duct; and who can estimate how much of crime, and it was finally determined by the former to stop the conconsequent misery in the world, result from miscal-traband importation of opium, they managed the affair culation! But further-is it not certain that an in- in so haughty and tyrannical a manner, that European structed community would be able to apply its energies patience gave way all on a sudden. The pretence was more beneficially for the whole than is possible where a moral one; but, in reality, opium had become the general ignorance prevails ? that employments would article of foreign produce which turned the balance of be more certain and more profitable, and temptations trade against the Chinese, and seemed to impoverish to dishonesty fewer and weaker?'

the country by draining it of its silver. The Chinese The general spread of intelligence has contributed government, instead of legalising and taxing a traffic powerfully to the improvement of manners. The brutal which it could not prevent, and which was shared sports and disgusting conversation of former days would in by its own functionaries from the highest to the not now be tolerated. And although we are far from lowest, seized arbitrarily upon the persons of the English disguising the evils that yet remain, we cannot but see officers and merchants at Canton, and compelled them that education has produced something like general en to surrender the whole of the opium in the Chinese lightenment. In its further advances, the population waters, to the amount of 20,283 chests, and of the estiwill learn to discriminate between real and imaginary mated value of two millions and a half sterling. This evils, and the authority of fallacies will disappear. Mr was the true cause of what will be stigmatised in hisPorter contends that there is no cause for alarm in in- tory as the Opium War. crease of numbers, and inquires Why, then, shall we When the conflict fairly commenced, the iron steamer not go forward to double, and again to double, our Nemesis with her redoubted captain_Hall-dashed into population, to safety, and even to advantage, if, instead the thickest of it. She was called, it will be observed, of rearing millions of human clods, whose lives are after the vengeful daughter of Jupiter and Necessitas, passed in consuming the scanty supplies which is all whose ire was chiefly provoked by the proud and boastthat their lack of intelligence enables them to produce, ful. And well did she vindicate her claim to the naine ! the universal people shall have their minds cultivated After astonishing the upper fort of Chuenpee with her to a degree that will enable each to add his proportion shells which appeared to the unhappy Chinese as to the general store?'

very fit missiles to come from such a quarter-she ran These are sound views, and we gladly assist in giving close up to the sea battery, and poured through the them wider diffusion, feeling that they must assist the embrasures destructive rounds of grape as she passed, progressive movement. We commend Mr Porter's book and then looked round for some mode of service not acto all interested in national progress, and who regard our

cessible to ships of ordinary mould. The enemy's fleet present activity as an earnest of yet better things. His

was anchored in concealment within the entrance of a official position enables him to give correct information little river, where the shallowness of the water (little on the multifarious topics brought under consideration.

more than five feet) seemed to secure them from our vessels ; but no sooner did the Nemesis get an inkling of

their hiding-place, than she sprang towards it, and with THE NEMESIS AND CHINESE WAR.

such headlong haste, that she struck upon a reef of rocks

as she passed. But this was nothing to her, since she Ox the 25th of November 1840, an extraordinary visitor managed to get over in any way; and coming bounce was seen approaching the town of Macao, in the Canton upon the junks, she sent a rocket into one of the largest river. This was a large two-masted steamer of 630 tons of them, which blew her up, says our author, 'with a burden, long, sharp, and narrow at the beams, rising only terrific explosion, launching into eternity every soul on a few feet above the water's edge, and with a pair of board, and pouring forth its blaze like the mighty rush staring eyes painted on her bows. The inhabitants came of fire from a volcano. The instantaneous destruction of down in crowds to the esplanade to gaze at this singular the huge body seemed appalling to both sides engaged. specimen of naval architecture, and did not wonder the The smoke, and flame, and thunder of the explosion, less when they saw, by the salute of the Portuguese flag, with the fragments falling round, and even portions of that she was a personage of consequence. The stranger dissevered bodies scattering as they fell, were enough to dashed through the Typa anchorage without any appa- strike with awe, if not with fear, the stoutest heart that rent intention to bring to, and the startled governor at looked upon it. A momentary pause ensued, and no length sent off a messenger to warn her that the water wonder ; but this did not last long. The junks made off nearer the town was only deep enough for trading boats. as fast as they could, some of them bumping ashore, But this was nothing to the demon ship, as she was after- some vanishing in creeks, but all pursued by the demon wards named by the Chinese ; and flashing through the ship, clawing them out with her grappling-irons, and shallows, she ran almost close under his excellency's setting fire to them ; while their shotted guns, as they house, and while gliding past like a spirit, thundered a burned, went off, and added to the strangeness of the salute, which was echoed by the screams of the ladies who scene. She then hastened up the river for three miles in crowded the windows. Such was the first appearance of successful pursuit of additional prey ; the inhabitants the Nemesis in the Chinese waters. It may be considered scouring off in all directions, till they gained the sumsomewhat late in the day for us to notice her exploits, mits of the neighbouring hills, whence they looked down the book which chronicles them having already reached in terror upon the progress of this destructive engine.

its third edition ;* but in doing so we have ulterior Some notion of the astonishment of the junks may be li Fiews, desiring, by means of the surprise and interest obtained from the fact, that they were provided with nets

excited by the ship, to lead the attention of our readers to catch our small boats, the only visitors they expected Il to the war, the prospect of which had called her, like a in such a place! bird of prey, to the scene.

The next appearance of the Nemesis is when passing The Chinese war, of which the appearance of this ves- through the Bogue, during a truce, and saluted by the sel may be said to have formed the commencement, was, forts on both sides ; the Chinese, with their silken flags as everybody knows, the result of gross cupidity in Euro- and strange costumes, looking down upon her from the pean nations. The indignities to which they habitually crowded battlements. But even here she could not refrain submitted, for the sake of a trade which was still more from a little piece of devilry ; for as she neared Tiger important to the Chinese than to themselves, led the Island, she sheered in close alongside the battery till her Celestial people to suppose them to be really the barba- yards touched the stones, as if admonishing the garrison, rians they were called in the imperial edicts; and when with an impudent leer, that she could batter the walls .

to pieces if she chose, while their guns would thunder * The Nemesis in China, comprising a History of the Late War harmlessly over her head. The hint was taken afterin that Country, with a Complete Account of the Colony of Hong: wards, and the useless fort abandoned.

The security Personal Observations of W. D. Bernard, Esq. A.M. Oxon. Third arising from this light draught of water was strikingly Edition, revised and improved. London: Colburn.

exemplified at the celebrated attack of these same Bogue

forts; the Nemesis, in order to save herself from the shot accomplished after four hours' hard work, in which, oddly of the batteries, running ashore, and thus hanging with enough, the Chinese peasantry bore an active part, volunher head completely out of water, and her stern deep in tarily coming forward to assist, and even venturing to come the river.

on board the steainer itself.' In the course of this day a But the voyage of the Nemesis up the back passage large mandarin station was destroyed, and she came to from Macao towards Canton, by what is called the Broad anchor for the night. The next morning she arrived at way, is the most remarkable, as well as the most useful another large town, where she set fire to the custom-house, of her exploits. The Broadway, though sometimes men- and blew up the object of her pursuit-the remaining tioned as a distinct stream, appears in reality to be junk. Beyond this the river became still more narrow merely a narrow, tortuous, and shallow channel of the and shallow; and the Nemesis, at length turning into a Canton river. In addition to its natural protections from lateral passage, threaded her way to the main Canton everything but small craft, it was strongly fortified river, where she emerged just below the second bar. throughout its whole length; and the idea of forcing Her intromissions with the fire rafts of the Chinese, such å passage, in the heart of a hostile country, by it may well be supposed, were quite in her own way. means of a single steamer and two ships' boats, was one These rafts were composed of boats filled with all kinds of the most daring that can be conceived. But on went of combustible materials, and connected by long chains, the Nemesis, ' nothing daunted by mud, sand, or water, so that, in drifting down the river, they might hang across or even by the shallowness of the river,' till she reached the bows of our ships. The business of the Nemesis was a fort, which she captured and burned. Another fort, to tow these away, or otherwise frustrate their intentions ; and likewise a military depôt higher up, met the saine and it was a grand spectacle, in the sullen darkness of fate. “They had ascended a very little way further up the night, to see these floating masses of fire drifting the river, when, to the joy of every one, they espied nine about the river, and showing, by their own reflected light, war-junks under weigh, a considerable distance ahead, the panic-stricken parties of Chinese who had charge of and chase was given at full speed, in spite of all obstacles them trying to escape towards the shore, which few of of the navigation. The interest and excitement momen them were destined to reach. Some threw themselves tarily increased, as every mile they advanced served to overboard, were carried down the stream, and their lead them to the conclusion that the Chinese were better struggles were soon ended; others were shot at random prepared for defence than had been at all expected. In- by our musketry the moment they were discovered by deed it was not a little remarkable that a passage never our men, betrayed by the light of the fires they had thembefore explored by foreigners should have been found selves kindled.' Another extraordinary towing service in a state of preparation against attack, by forts of old- was performed when she moved up to Canton with the standing and solid construction, as well as by works of whole of our troops at her tail. "The enormous flotilla recent and temporary formation.'

of boats, including of course those belonging to the menOn went the Nemesis, till she had the satisfaction to of-war, necessarily retarded the progress of the steamer see the runaway junks at a stand-still, determined to very much, particularly in the more intricate parts of dispute the passage. It is true they were protected by a | the river. As she advanced, numerous boats from our considerable fort on one side, a field-work on the other, ships were picked up, until their number could not have and a fence of stakes across the river in the middle; | been less than from seventy to eighty; hanging on behind but all this was nothing to the demon ship. The stakes each other, and following in the wake of the long low were quickly passed, the batteries destroyed, and seren steamer.' of the junks set on fire and blown up. It was necessary But the adventures of the Nemesis, we are grieved to to pursue the remaining two; and in process of time say, forin almost the only portion of the war that is the invaders found themselves quietly passing through a capable of being represented in such a light as ought to large and populous town. * The people crowded upon inspire any other feeling than horror and indignation. the banks of the river; the house-tops and the surround- After the very first serious collision, there was no room for ing hills were covered with curious gazers, wondering the boast of valour' which is expected to cover so many what strange event would happen next. Hundreds of sins. The Chinese, with all their might of numbers, were trading-junks, and boats of various kinds, most of them found to be no match for us ; and the struggle from first the sole home of their owners, were crowded together on to last resembled that of a handful of determined men both sides of the river throughout the town, and even with a crowd of poor little boys. The unwieldy junk, above and below it. The river was narrow, and so densely opposed to vessels like ours, was merely a machine for were the boats packed, that the only passage left was caging helplessly up a certain number of human beings directly in the centre of the stream, where, as if by mutual to be shot at, drowned, and burned alive at the pleasure consent, a clear way had been left, only just broad enough of their enemies. 'In some of the junks,' says the author to allow the steamer to pass, and requiring some dexterity of the Nemesis in China, which were not yet quite abanto avoid running foul of the junks on either side.' doned by their crews, the poor Chinamen, as the English

On went the Nemesis; and by and by one of the fugitive sailors boarded them on one side, rushed wildly over on junks was overtaken and burned, and a masked battery the other, or let themselves down by the stern chains, clingstormed and destroyed. She had been at work ever since ing to the ship's rudder. Others, as the fire gained upon three o'clock in the morning, and it was now getting dark, their junk, retreated before it, and continued hanging to and the river becoming more and more shallow: she there- the yet untouched portions, until, the flames advancing fore anchored for the night-in a stream so narrow, that upon them rapidly, they were obliged to throw water it was impossible to turn her head round—with devasta- over their own bodies to enable them to bear the intense tion behind, unknown enemies before, and surrounded by heat, still desperately clinging to their fate, more from a mighty population, into whose bosom she had carried fear of ill treatment if they should be taken prisoners, insult and death. The next day she had seldom more than from any rational hope of being saved. In many than six feet water, and in many places only five, so that instances they would not be saved ; in others they could she was frequently forced through the mud itself. There not, and were destroyed as their junk blew up.' Bad was not rooin to turn her fairly round, and the only mode powder, bad gunnery, and almost entire ignorance of the in which she could be managed was by sometimes driving art of fortification, in other cases completely neutralised her bows as far as possible into the river's bank, some- all apparent advantages. times her stern, while at other times it was hard to say * The Chinese, not accepting quarter, though attempting whether she was proceeding over a flooded paddy-field, to escape, were cut up by the fire of our advancing troops; or in the channel of a water-course. This gave occasion others, in the faint hope of escaping what to them to a facetious remark, in which sailors sometimes delight, appeared certain death at the hands of their victors, that this “ would be a new way of going overland to Eng- precipitated themselves recklessly from the top of the land."' New forts, new fighting, new burning; and, worst battlements; numbers were now swimming in the river, of all, new stakes, with sunken junks between their lines. and not a few vainly trying to swim, and sinking in that These were surmounted with difficulty; and it was only effort ; some few, perhaps a hundred, surrendered thein

selves to our troops, and were soon afterwards released. they lost from five to six hundred men, while on our Many of the poor fellows were unavoidably shot by our side only a few were wounded, and not a single man troops, who were not only warmed with the previous killed. Yet the English were so much .exasperated,' fighting, but exasperated because the Chinese had fired that they pursued the flying enemy for seven or eight off their matchlocks at them first, and then thrown them miles-not to take prisoners, but to slay! At Tseke, the away, as if to ask for quarter; under these circumstances, English had three men killed and eighteen wounded ; it could not be wondered at that they suffered. Some of the Chinese, including killed, drowned, and wounded, them, again, barricaded themselves within the houses of nearly a thousand ! At Chapoo, the English had ten the fort-a last and desperate effort; and as several of killed and fifty wounded ; while of the enemy,' says our soldiers were wounded by their spears, death and Ouchterlony, 'the number left dead, or to die, on the field destruction were the consequence. This may serve as a could not have been less than five to six hundred; and general picture. A few wounds were the excuse for the many more perished after the close of the action by suisacrifice of hundreds of lives! On the same occasion (at cide, or from the effects of their undressed wounds. We Chuenpee), we are told by Ouchterlony that about four could carry these instances much farther : we could show hundred dead and dying lay in and about the fort when that, throughout the war, the Chinese were slaughtered the firing ceased. In one particular spot, where the rock by our countrymen as cattle are slaughtered by butchers, rose with a steep slope behind some military buildings, not as men are slain in equal conflict by men ; and that the corpses of the slain were found literally three and four in various instances, when the panic-struck wretches fled deep-the Chinese having been shot while trying to escape in helpless crowds to the shore, they were there met by up the hill, and having rolled over, until this ghastly the guns of our gallant tars,' who, without the excuse pile was formed.'* The loss of the British amounted to even of the brutal excitement of the pursuit, poured thirty-eight men wounded-many of them by the acci- murder into the unresisting mass ! But we have space dental explosion of a field magazine after the struggle! for only one more incident of this sickening war.

At the capture of the famous Bogue forts the British At the attack on the town of Chapoo, the Tartar garhad fire men slightly wounded, and the Chinese five rison, in order to give themselves a chance of preserving hundred killed and wounded! The British force under the sanctity of their homes, came out to meet the assailarms before Canton amounted to 2200 men ; while within ants, and posted themselves upon the heights in the the city, defended by its hitherto inviolate ramparts, neighbourhood. From this position they were scattered were, at the lowest calculation, 20,000 Chinese. Of the like chaff-too easily to admit of much slaughter ; but former, the loss in killed, wounded, and missing, during the fugitives were fortunately' met in the hollow by the whole series of operations, fell short of 130 men; another division of the British troops, and thinned to while some accounts-though supposed by Ouchterlony some purpose ! A party of them, however, amounting to to be exaggerated-state that of the Chinese at 6000! three or four hundred, could not be said to fly. When all In the expedition of the Nemesis up the Broadway, no was lost on the heights, they marched towards the town mention is made of the number of the enemy killed; but in good order ; and when they saw their retreat cut off, the following is the other results :— The whole loss on took refuge in a building which had only a single enour side during this adventurous trip was only three trance, conducting, as usual, to the square court round men wounded. Altogether, one hundred and fifteen guns which the apartments of Chinese houses are ranged. A were destroyed, together with nine war-junks, and several screen of masonry in the interior, before the entrance, armed mandarin-boats ; six batteries, and three govern- prevented a view of the court from the outside; and ment chop-houses or military stations, together with here, therefore, the Tartars awaited, silent and unseen, barracks and magazines, were also taken and set on fire.' the attack of their enemies. At a fort near the Brunswick Rock, below Whampoa, the The English entered the building with their customary Chinese lost three hundred in killed and wounded; the gallantry, but were repulsed by the ambushed Tartars British eight wounded and one killed !

with some loss of blood, and the death of one officer. The butchery at Chinhae furnishes a specimen of mean- They withdrew to the outside, and threw rockets over the ingless ferocity which is perhaps unparalleled in the an- walls into the court; but these were received with cheers nals of war. The city was taken by escalade without of defiance. A field-piece was then brought to bear upon resistance, and the only legitimate object, therefore, was to the house ; and at length a fifty-pound bag of powder, disperse the Chinese troops that were posted in the neigh-placed at the bottom of the wall, opened a wide breach bourhood. These filed before a column of the British, and by its explosion. The assaulting party, however, were made for a bridge of boats, with the view of escaping over driven back with loss by the courageous Tartars, who had the river; but in doing so, came suddenly upon another now, under such accumulated horrors, sustained a siege column. It is not difficult,' says Ouchterlony, 'to con of three hours. But by degrees they lost hope, and some ceive the scene which ensued. Hemmed in on all sides, of them took advantage of the retreat of the storming and crushed and overwhelmed by the fire of a complete party to endeavour to escape. These were shot down like semicircle of musketry, the hapless Chinese rushed by wild beasts. We give the conclusion in the words of hundreds into the water; and while some attempted to Ouchterlony :escape the tempest of death which roared around them, 'It was now resolved to set fire to the building, and a by consigning themselves to the stream, and floating out second breach having been blown in the opposite side, beyond the range of fire, others appeared to drown them some wood was collected, and a fire kindled, which soon selves in despair. Every effort was made by the general spread to the roof, composed of dry, light pine-rafters and and his officers to stop the butchery ; but the bugles had beams, and in a short time the house was reduced to to sound the “cease firing" long and often before the ruins. Some fifteen or sixteen of the enemy, who became fury of our men could be restrained. The 55th regiment exposed by the throwing down of a portion of the outer and Madras rifles having observed that a large body of wall, were destroyed by a volley from without, and on our the enemy were escaping from this scene of indiscriminate troops being at length suffered to enter within the smokslaughter along the opposite bank of the river, from the ing and shattered walls, they found that all resistance citadel and batteries which the naval brigade had stormed, had ceased. But few of the Tartars were bayoneted after separated themselves, and pushing across the bridge of the joss-house had been carried, and the survivors, most boats, serered the retreating column in two ; and before of whom were found crouching on the ground, with their the Chinese could be prevailed upon to surrender them- arms folded, and their matchlocks and swords laid aside, Belves prisoners, a great number were shot down, or driven in evident expectation of a violent death, and with a into the water and drowned.'

manifest resolution to meet it as became men, were taken In the attempt of the Chinese to recapture Ningpo, out, and shortly after set at liberty. Of the whole body,

however, who had originally taken post in the fatal joss* The Chinese War: an Account of all the Operations of the house, only sixty were made prisoners, many of them British Forces from the Commencement to the Treaty of Nanking. wounded, all the rest having been shot, bayoneted, or By Lieutenant John Ouchterlony, P.G.S. Saunders and Otley. burned in the fire which consumed the building: the last

must have been the fate of many of the wounded, whose lead to the conclusion that the life of the applicant is forms, writhing in the agonies of so frightful a death, really a good one, the assurance is accepted. The were seen by the troops outside, who were unable to assured then agrees, on the one hand, to pay to the afford them succour.'

company, according to his age at the time of entry, a We might close this catalogue of terror by a picture of certain fixed sum (or premium) during every year of what took place at Chapoo and other towns, where the lis life; and the company, on the other hand, bind conquered slaughtered their wives and children to pre- themselves to pay to his representatives, on the occavent their falling into the hands of the victors. But the sion of his death, at whatever time it may happen, guilt or frenzy of the Tartars has nothing to do with our another much larger fixed sum. These are the usual present purpose, which tends merely to strip this truly terms of the assurance contract; but they may be diabolical conflict of the false lustre which has been varied to suit the views of the different assurers.' thrown around it, and to awaken the people of Great In the middle ranks of life, few have much capital to Britain to a sense not only of the sin and horror, but of stand for the benefit of their families, in the event of the foul disgrace of war.

their early decease; but most have incomes. By deBut although the carnage we have described cannot be voting a portion of the latter in the way of life-assurdefended on moral grounds, it had at least this political ance, the head of a family can make sure that, die when advantage, that it abridged the conflict. By the time he may, even were it the day after his first annual paythe British had penetrated to the Imperial Canal, the ment, his widow and children will be endowed with a grand artery of the internal traffic of the country (which certain amount of means. Life-assurance is therefore they ought to have done long before), there was no army one of the humane agencies attendant upon our present to oppose to them. Many thousands of the Tartar troops system of civilisation, and it ought to be encouraged by had been butchered in detail, and the remainder had no all philanthropic persons. There are, however, many stomach for an enemy so irresistible and so ruthless, modes of conducting this business, some half-obsolete When the Fanqui, therefore—the 'wandering demons' and bad, others more fair and advantageous, and it may of Europe-had severed the empire in two, by grasping therefore be of much importance to an individual that the canal, which is the medium of communication between he chooses a right office. the centre and the capital, they found that a nation

Mr Sturrock, like ourselves, condemns the proprietary which comprehends one-third part of mankind had abso- companies. In the infancy of the system, capital was lutely no troops to meet them in the field! The last necessary, and a remuneration for its risk was fair. place they had captured, Chin-keang-foo, was a city of Now, the absence of all risk being ascertained, lifethe dead-an abode of unimaginable horrors, where the

assurance is no fit subject for mercantile speculation. air was poisoned with the swollen and blackened corpses. When such companies,' says Mr Sturrock, "are anof its inhabitants, and from which even the gorged plun- nounced to the public (and the principle applies equally derers, Christian and heathen alike, fled aghast, leaving to pure or mixed proprietary companies), the greedy the wild dogs to their hideous banquet, Nanking, the capitalist is eagerly invited to become a partner, by second city of the empire, was the next object of the con: showing the universally large profits such companies querors; but here the courage of the Chinese at length make, and that the stocks of similar societies are sellgave way. Matters were easily arranged, for the English ing in the public market at profits from one to some as yet wanted no territory of special importance. They hundreds per cent. As soon as the company is estabhad an eye, however, to what might come, and demanded lished, such public announcements of profit immediately one little island, large enough to hold their foot—which stop. It is no longer how profitable are such investwas conceded. By a treaty dated the 29th August 1842, ments, but the constant tale to the public is, sce what Hong-Kong was ceded to the crown of Great Britain,

a large capital we are risking for your benefit. Such five other ports were thrown open to trade, and twentyone million dollars were agreed to be paid. The indeli

a procedure is, to say the least of it, an outrage upon

Will not the public see that the large cate subject of opium was not alluded to at all!

profits these companies announce, and pay to the share

holders, is just the measure of the gain taken out of STURROCK ON LIFE-ASSURANCE.

their pockets—it is not too strong to say, upon false

pretences ?' What use of mincing terms ? A proprieWithin the compass of a small pamphlet,* Mr Sturrock tary life-assurance office is a mercantile lie, and nothing discusses very ably the principles and practice of life else. Let such, we say, be avoided. Even those called assurance, using such terms as all can understand.

Mixed Offices, which admit assurers to a share of beObserving the ignorance generally displayed by indi-nefits, are only reprehensible in a less degree. It is viduals who apply at life-assurance offices, he very pro- the more necessary to speak strongly, because the keenperly sets out with explanations. The person applying ness of a trading interest makes these companies exto any oflice to get his life insured, must, as a prelimi- tremely active, and they usually secure a proportion of nary and indispensable step, satisfy the company that business in the inverse ratio of their deserts. his life is, in common phrase, a good one-or, in other The purely Mutual Offices—those which divide the words, that the state of his health and constitution is whole surpluses amongst the assured—are alone entitled such as to make the company believe that he will live to encouragement. Mr Sturrock discusses with much to the average age—that is, to the age which persons acumen the various arrangements of these offices with at his time of life generally attain. For this purpose he regard to rates and bonuses. He places the true nature is required to sign a proposal to assure, and to give a of bonuses in a clear light-not as the result of profits, reference to his medical attendant and to an intimate as is generally said, but of an over-high system of rates, friend, who have known his state of health and habits arising from the employment of tables which give unof life for a number of years, and who must report favourable views of human life. To insure L. 1000 in thereon to the assurance office. In addition to the evi- some of the old mutual offices, the sum demanded from dence thus required to be furnished by the person pro- a person of thirty years of age is L.25, 10s. 10d.; other posing to effect the insurance, the company, for their offices, which are flourishing, demand only L.20, 15s.; further security, employ a medical officer to make in- while the experience of many shows that the sum quiries, and use such other means as they deem proper, rigidly required, under existing circumstances, is no that they may completely satisfy themselves of the more than L.16, 19s. 5d. Of course, when an assurer goodness of the life offered for insurance. If the result gets a bonus, he only gets ck what he had paid more of the inquiry is unsatisfactory, the assurance is re than enough, minus the expenses of business. It is nejected; but if it be in every respect satisfactory, and cessary, however, for the sake of caution, to exact rates

which leave something for contingencies; and hence it * The Principles and Practice of Life-Assurance. By John were wrong to expect the L.1000 to be insured at thirty Sturrock, Junr. Dundee: 1846.

for L.16, 19s. 5d. Granting that some moderate sur

common sense.

his way:

plusage should be taken, the question arises, In what Callao, and other ports in the Pacific. Doubling the Horn, way should this be disposed of?

we track him in the Atlantic: at Monte Video, Buenos This Mr Sturrock calls an unsolved problem. We Ayres, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, and Pernambuco, he must say, with deference, that we can see no objection is advertising in those parts in Spanish and Portuguese. to periodical divisions among the assured, according to and Lower Canadas, and the neighbouring provinces of

In all the British West Indian islands, as also in the Upper the usual methods. The bonus, indeed, if allowed to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, his medicines are as lie in the society's hands, becomes virtually the basis familiarly known, and sold by every druggist, as they are of a new assurance, whether the member be then eli- at home. In the Mediterranean, we find them selling at gible in point of health or not: he may be ineligible ; Malta, Corfu, Athens, and Alexandria, besides at Tunis, but it is a contingency open to all from the beginning, and other portions of the Barbary states. Any one taking and therefore unfair to none. An office of which Mr the trouble to look at the “ Journal” and “Courier” of Sturrock speaks favourably, and which we ourselves Constantinople, may find in these, as well as other papers, regard with respect, reserves all surplusage for those that 's medicines are regularly advertised and selling who have lived so long as to pay in as much as they throughout the Turkish empire; and even in Russia, where are assured for. But this we think objectionable, for an almost insurmountable barrier exists, the laws there

's ingemore than one reason. In the first place, the member prohibiting the entrée of patent medicines, who dies before he has paid in so much, is, in reality, no

nuity has been at work, and obviates this difficulty by forsource of loss to the society, as is assumed. All took warding supplies to his agent at Odessa, a port situated on

the Black Sea, where they filter themselves surreptitiously their chance on the strength of the annual payment. If by various channels into the very heart of the empire. that be in excess even to a shilling, the shilling belonged | Africa has not been forgotten by this indefatigable man, who to the assurer, and he is entitled to get it back, when- has an agent on the river Gambia ; also at Sierra Leone, ever the whole contingencies of the year, or whatever the plague spot of the world, the inhabitants readily avail other period may be agreed upon, are discharged. To themselves of the ointment and pills. Thus we can show speak of loss from a short-lived member, is to depart our readers that has made the complete circuit of the entirely from the principle of life-assurance, and pass globe, commencing with India, and ending, as we now do, into that of a bank deposit, which is quite a different with the Cape of Good Hope, where his medicines are pubthing. In the second place, the remote postponement lished in the Dutch and English languages; and while speakof bonus is discouraging. A certain moderate indefi- ing of Dutch, we have heard that he has made large shipniteness of prospect is agreeable to our nature, and it ments to Holland, and is about advertising in every paper

or periodical published in that kingdom. We might add is a pity not to take advantage of this feeling as an

that he has also started his medicines in some parts of inducement to make men insure. We venture to say France: in some portions of Germany: as also in some that this plan will not be extensively adopted, nor will of the Italian states. We have been at some little trouble it be endured beyond the first experiences of the enor to collect all these facts, because we fear that the article mous, and, as we think, unjust advantages which it before alluded to, “The Art of Making Money,” is calculated will throw into the hands of the long-lived few.

to lead people to spend their means in the hope, as the author states, of making a hundred thousand pounds in six years for his pains, by holding up as an easy example

to follow such a man as who is really a Napoleon in FORTUNES MADE BY ADVERTISING.

Many may have the means, but have they the On this subject we find the following amusing particulars knowledge, ability, energy, judgment, and prudence necesin a late number of the ‘Pictorial Times. For obvious sary? Falling in any one of thescerequisites, a total loss reasons, we suppress the name of the quack alluded to: is certain.

is a man calculated to undertake any en'From a small pamphlet, entitled "The Art of Making terprise requiring immense energies of body and mind. No Money," an extract has been taken, and is going the round doubt he has been well repaid for all his labours ; and is, of the provincial press, pointing out the facility of making we should suppose, in a fair way of making a large fortune. immense sums by the simple process of continuous adver- of course it is not to our interest to deter the public from tising. Doubtless large sums have been, are, and will be advertising ; but, as guardians of their interest, we think made by such a system by certain persons of ability, who it our incumbent duty to place a lighthouse upon what we no doubt would make their way in the world if called upon consider a dangerous shoal, which may, perhaps, sooner or to play different parts on the great stage of life ; but to later prevent shipwreck and ruin to the sanguine and inexsuppose that men in general must, as a matter of course, perienced about to navigate in such waters. The editor acquire wealth by such means, is as absurd as to imagine of the “Edinburgh Review," in a number published about that all the penniless and shoeless of London are capable three years ago, stated that he considered he was making of rising to the dignity and wealth of an alderman or the a desirable bequest to posterity, by handing down to them lord mayor of London simply by reading the “Young Man's the amount of talent and ability required by the present Best Companion.” Money is not so easily made as the class of large advertisers. At that period, 's mode writer of the article referred to would lead people to sup of advertising was most prominently set forth: and if these pose: if it be so, few need be poor. But to our text: for remarks, conjointly withi his, should descend to a generatunes made by advertising. Undoubtedly the greatest tion to come, it will be known to what extent the subject man of the day as an advertiser is who expends of this article was able to carry out his views, together the enormous sum of twenty thousand pounds annually in with the consequent expenditure in making known the advertisements alone : his name is not only to be seen in merits of his preparations to nearly the whole world.' nearly every paper and periodical published in the British To the foregoing we only add the hope, that a higher conisles, but, as if this country was too small for this indivi- sideration of what is due to the feelings of readers will dual's exploits, he stretches over the whole of India, having soon induce the publishers of newspapers to exclude all agents in all the different parts of the upper, central, and advertisements which, like those of are a pollution lower provinces of that immense country, publishing his to their pages. medicaments in the Hindoo, Oordoo, Goozratee, Persian, and other native languages, so that the Indian public can take the pills, and use his ointment, according to general directions, as a Cockney would do within the sound of Bow A discovery has been recently made in Germany tells. We find him again at Hong-Kong and Canton, namely, the production of an excellent nutritious bread making his medicines known to the Celestials by means of from beet-root and flour mixed in equal proportionsa Chinese translation. We trace him from thence to the which is likely to be followed by important results. The Philippine islands, where he is circulating his preparations present condition of Europe as to food, in consequence in the native languages. At Singapore he has a large of the late potato failures, has drawn the attention of depót: his agents there supply all the islands in the Indian several authorities to the subject; among others, Dr kas. His advertisements are published in most of the papers at Sydney, Hobart Town, Launceston, Adelaide, Lindley, who thus delivers his opinion in the ‘GarPort-Philip, and indeed in almost every town of that vasť deners' Chronicle::—We have had the experiment portion of the British empire. Returning homewards, we tried, by rasping down a red beet-root, and mixing with find his pills and ointment selling at Valparaiso, Lima, it an equal quantity of flour; and we find that the dough

DEET BREAD.

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