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sitting, but more generally while sustaining itself on the become the happy possessor. But I have talked enough wing above its mate, swelling its notes as it ascends, and of myself. What is my mother doing? What has become sinking them as it descends, like the skylark. It is not of my brothers and my other sisters ?' a settled point whether the skylark or the woodlark has My poor mother is still a mantuamaker; but as she the finest song. That of the latter is universally ad- works only for the poor, it does not bring in much. James mitted to be very beautiful, but not so powerful and pro- is a farmer's boy at M. Perrin's. The curé has taken John longed as that of the former. • When the bird takes to his house as a choir boy, feeds, clothes, and teaches the top of its flight,' says Mr Mudie, ‘it sends down a him reading, writing, and Latin. Mary works at Martin's volume of song which is inexpressibly sweet, though the washerwoman's; and Frances and Genevieve are too there is a feeling of desolation in it.' Burns, addressing young to do anything yet.' The speaker herself was the it as a hapless lover, courts its' soothing fond complain- wife of the village apothecary. ing,' and adds

Thus conversing while they walked by the side of the

ass, the brother and sister arrived at a small white house .Sure nought but love and sorrow joined

at the entrance of the village of Bollot. An aged woman Such notes of wo could waken.'

was seated on a stone in front of the door, busily occupied "To hear the woodlark,' pursues Mr Mudie, on a wild | in sewing, who, on raising her eyes, uttered a cry of joy, and lone hillside, where there is nothing to give ac and her work fell from her as she opened her arms to companiment save the bleating of a flock and the tinkle receive the new-comer. of a sheep-bell, so distant, as hardly to be audible, is “My son !! certainly equal to the hearing even of those more mellow 'My mother!' songs which are poured forth in richer situations.'

Some moments passed in tears and kisses.

'Mother,' said the youth sorrowfully,' here am I again,

come to be a burden on you!' And he related to his ANTOINE GALLAND.

mother what is already known to the reader.

"God is good, my son,' replied the pious woman sadly ABRIDGED FROM THE FRENCH OF MADAME FOA.

but submissively. He will not abandon us. Besides, On the 3d of July 1660, a young boy, about fourteen you are tall and strong. What can you do ?' years of age, was passing with a light firm step along the Alas! my poor mother, all I know, all I can do, is of broad and dusty road which led from Noyon to Bollot, a little use in a village,' replied Antoine. 'I know a little little village near Montdidier in Picardy. The costume Greek, a good deal of Latin, and have a tolerable know. of the youth was of a simplicity approaching to poverty, ledge of Hebrew.' and a studious paleness had banished the freshness of * And is that all you learned at college !' exclaimed early years from his brow, which wore an expression of the simple woman in a tone of regret. the deepest uneasiness. At times his large black eyes Galland spoke of hope-perseverance-trust in God; sparkled with a flash of momentary joy, as he passed but the old woman shook her head; and it was not till some little manor-houses, whose constantly lowered draw her son-in-law, the apothecary, came to offer to take bridges bore testimony to the good-natured hospitality of Antoine for his shop-boy, that she was reconciled to his their inhabitants. Sometimes, also, the sight of one of learning. the little white houses which arose out of the midst of a You say nothing, Antoine,' replied Madame Galland, green meadow, drew to the lips of the traveller one of uneasy at the silence of her son. those languid smiles which rather resemble a nervous ' I say that Picard is very kind,' replied Antoine in emcontraction than an expression of pleasure. But more barrassment. frequently his downcast eyes and abstracted air denoted * Very kind!' repeated the old woman; why, he is that he had some engrossing subject of thought.

generous, munificent! I never dreamt of half so much The young traveller now struck off into a little rough for you. Get up and thank your brother-in-law! Tell by-way, bordered on each side by a row of apple-trces, him that you accept-tell him that you will work hardbehind which the sun was at this moment setting. Some that you will be quiet, steady, and obedient.' paces before him trotted an ass loaded with grass and * Yes, mother,' replied Antoine in desperation. shrubs, and led by a young woman, who was forcing it When he entered the druggist's shop, and saw all the to quicken its pace, by beating it now and then with a herbs piled on one side, the pots, jars of leeches, and vials willow branch which she held in her hand. The names on the other—when he saw the back-shop, dignified by the of Annette and Antoine escaped at the same time from name of laboratory, a dark, dirty receptacle, reeking with the lips of both as she turned her head; and the lad all kinds of smells—when he saw the small loft over the forgot his troubles for a moment in greeting his sister. laboratory, with a little straw laid down for a bed in one

These troubles were neither few nor light. Brought up corner, and which showed him it was to be his room—when from childhood at the college of Noyon, through the be- he saw the place where his life was to be passed-his nevolence of the principal and a canon of the cathedral, heart sunk within him. But what were the feelings of he had now lost both his patrons by death, and after the young and studious collegian when his brother-in-law, having made considerable advances in learning for his pointing out to him several caldrons smeared with ointage, was sent back to his poor little village to be a ments and cosmetics, said in a tone of gaiety, 'Come, my burthen upon his widowed mother.

boy, off with your coat and clean these caldrons a little "Oh, Annette,' said he, as he concluded the recital of Though Antoine felt his heart die within him, he said his griefs, 'imagine what I felt when, the very day after nothing, but threw off his coat, turned up his shirt sleeves, the death of the good canon, the new principal who had took the mixture which his brother-in-law gave him to succeeded my first patron called me to his room and said, clean the caldrons, and began to rub away as if he had “As he who used always to pay your pension has just never done anything else in his life. died, have you any one else interested about you who • Bravo-bravo ! exclaimed the enchanted druggist, would continue the charitable work begun by the Canon taking the desperation of the youth for zeal and activity. Fernon ?” “Alas! sir," said I, “ I have only my mother, Bravo! Go easy, my boy. In a few days these little white and she has barely sufficient for her own subsistence and hands will be as hard as mine, and these beautiful little that of her six other children.” “I am sorry for it,” nails will be as black as my own. Bravo-bravo! If you replied he; “but the college cannot keep you for no continue this way, you will become a capital druggist.' thing: you must go back to your mother." You see, Is this to be the result of my ten years' study ?' said sister, after that, I could not remain another hour in the the collegian to himself, with difficulty restraining his college. I set out without even bidding farewell to my tears. He continued to work, however, and work hard companions. I had not courage. I set out, bringing no too; but his heart was not in his occupation, and it did thing but some of my clothes on my back, a couple of him no good. He grew pale and thin; he lost his spirits crown-pieces—the last gift of the canon some days before and his appetite ; and his affectionate sistes began to his death-and the few books of which I had, by degrees, I fear that her brother would die.

Antoine,' said she one day, tell me what is weigh- of streets which he must traverse before reaching them. ing on your mind? My husband has often said we ought Aided by this kind of compass, he soon found himself not to be above our situation. You are above yours, in the court of Notre-Dame, just as the bell rang for Antoine : is it not so? You were not born for mixing prayers. drugs, but to be a learned man: am I not right? Oh, My first visit ought to be to God,' said Antoine, you need not shake your head. I have received no edu- whose heart beat audibly with doubt of his reception cation; I hardly know how to read ; and I know no more elsewhere. Then mingling with the crowd of worshipof writing than suffices to sign my name; and, in com- pers who were thronging the gate, he entered the church parison with you, who know so much, I am a fool. But at the same moment with an old woman, whose costume, I see clearly that here, at Bollot, there is only one person that of his native Picardy, attracted his attention. But with whom you enjoy yourself, and who brings brightness soon the sound of the organ, the harmony of the singing, to your eye or a smile to your lip. It is the curé; be the spacious edifice itself, the solemnity of the ceremonies, cause with him you can speak all your jargons of Greek the multitude of assembled worshippers, the crowd of offiand Latin that you learned at college, and many other ciating clergy, the whole imposing scene, so new to him languages besides. My poor brother! Let us put our who, for a long time, had seen nothing but a miserable heads together, and devise something to make you happy. village chapel with its one solitary priest, so entirely abTell me what can I do for you ?'

sorbed him, that, plunged in devotional ecstasy, he for'Nothing, my dear sister-nothing. But listen to me, got that he was not alone: his eyes fixed on the vaulted answer me frankly, but say nothing to anyone else.' ceiling of the building, and his hands clasped, he breathed "Well, what is it, Antoine?'

forth his desires, his prayers, his hopes. 'Tell me, Annette, have I dreamt it, or did I not hear When his devotions were over, he looked again at the it said when quite a child, that we had an old relation old Picard woman, and she at him; and presently they in Paris ? Whenever I ask my mother, instead of an- fell into conversation, drawn together by some mysterious swering me, she bursts into tears. “You want to leave instinct, as some might say, but more probably by the us," she exclaims; "you are not happy here.” Happy consanguinity of their provincial dress. This old woman here!' added the youth bitterly; 'how can I be so, after turned out to be his veritable aunt; and Antoine was having passed ten years of my life in study? And delight- hardly released from her embraces, before he found himing in it, how can I resign myself to scouring and cleaning self in her mistress's drawing-room, formally announced caldrons, to boiling herbs, and compounding drugs; for as the servant's nephew. this is the extent of my employment with your husband ! Madame Lecaur looked kindly at the young boy, who Annette! I have drunk of the stream of knowledge; and remained standing before her, modest and respectful, but now, with parched lips, I am left to die. I pant for air, unembarrassed. She asked him when he had arrived for motion, for life. I will leave Bollot; I will go to in Paris ?'

* To Paris !' added Annette ; for her brother, alarmed at This morning, madame.' having let his secret escape him, suddenly stopped.

How did you come here from your own country ?' You are right, sister,' replied he sadly; "and even you On foot, madame.' perhaps may blame me ”'

On foot!' cried Madame Lecour. Margaret, bring 'No-quite the contrary,' said his sister ; 'for I, too, a chair for your nephew. You must be much fatigued ? hare some ambition for you. I should like to see you added she Kindly. rich and happy, and I see clearly that it is not in my hus Not very much, madame,' replied Antoine, sitting band's shop you will find happiness. You will go to Paris down. -is it not s0! Well, do not be uneasy as to the means of * And for what are you come to Paris, my child !' again getting there. I have a few crowns which my husband inquired Margaret's mistress. knows nothing about; I kept them to buy books for you To try to continue my studies, madame,' said Antoine, to-day at Montdidier. Here they are: but why do you casting down his eyes. not take them! Do not go standing on ceremony with *You have been studying, then ?' said Madame Leme, your sister; besides, you can return them to me when cour in surprise. you make your fortune,' added the kind Annette, putting I was brought up at Noyon by the principal of the into her brother's hand, who yielded to the last sugges- college, and by the almoner of the cathedral, M. Tempier.' tion, a small leathern purse, but little swelled, alas! by My son knew the almoner very well,' said the lady. the savings of the druggist's wife.

Yes, I have seen the Abbé Lecæur at my patron’s,' * It is not much,' replied she, as if ashamed of offering said Antoine. so little; 'but, however, it is enough to support you for * That was my son. He knows you, then ?' said Madame ten days, and before that time you will reach Paris. Lecæur. Once arrived in the town, you can inquire for the Abbé He has seen me, madame; but I think he can scarcely Lecrur.'

know me from among the crowd of boys that saluted him “The Abbé Lecour!' interrupted Antoine; he was a at his entrance and departure.' friend of the principal of the college at Noyon. I know No matter, my child, I will speak to him about you,' bin well: but he, will he remember the poor little col- replied the old lady. “Tell me what you wish-tell me legian Antoine !

your plans. Your answers please me--your manners are Our Aunt Margaret, our poor father's eldest sister, has good; but indeed I should feel interested in you, were it been in his service these twenty years,' replied Annette. only that you are the nephew of my good old Margaret. And what is her address at Paris ?'

I would gladly be useful to you, so speak freely to me. No. 16, Cloisters, Notre-Dame.'

What was your plan, what were your intentions, in learAnd you say she is in service ?'

ing home, and coming to Paris on foot, to find your 'Yes, with the Abbé Lecceur.'

aunt ?' "What a sorry patronage !'

. I hoped, madame,' said Antoine, that, with the reOh, the servant of an abbé is not such a bad relation commendation of my aunt to your son, I might succeed to have,' said Annette; and with this assurance the thing in getting into some college; no matter upon what footwas settled.

-even upon that of a servant.' Two days after the conversation just related, Antoine, And why a servant in a college, rather than elscwith his mother's blessing, and a little money (for an where ?' demanded Madame Lecour. addition had been made to Annette's savings by the gene * Because there are books in a college,' said Antoine rosity of her husband), entered Paris on a Sunday, in the hesitatingly,' and masters, and lectures, and pupils.' month of July in the year 1661. The first inquiry he 'Well, my child ?' said Madame Lecour, whose curiomade on setting his foot on the pavement of the capital sity was raised. of France was for the Cloisters of Notre-Dame. He was Emboldened by the almost maternal kindness of her directed to them; and the two towers which rise above manner, Antoine replied— For my services, I should rethe city were given him as a clue through the labyrinth ceive some recompense either from the masters or pupils.


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From the former I should ask permission to listen; from accident, or even by involuntary abstinence, he had not
the others--youth are kind to each other-I could borrow spent more.
themes and books.'

Though the author of many learned and important ‘But, my child,' replied Madame Lecour, scarcely able works, that which has made him popular is “ The Thouto conceal the emotion which the answers of Antoine ex sand and One Nights.' On the appearance of the two cited, 'you do not remember that your time would not be first volumes of this work, a singular hoax was played off your own; your whole day would be occupied.'

on the author. One very cold night, in the middle of ‘But I should have my nights, madame,' replied An- winter, Antoine Galland was suddenly awakened by setoine quickly.

veral knocks at the street-door. He got up, threw his 'Charming-charming, child !' cried Margaret's mis- dressing-gown hastily around him, ran to the window, tress. “Yes, you well deserve that we should interest opened it, and, in spite of the darkness, perceived several ourselves for you. My son is well acquainted with M. persons assembled at his door. 'Who is there !' said he. Petitpied, doctor of the Sorbonne; and through the interest Several voices instantly answered, 'Is this Monsieur of this friend, I hope you will get a better place than that Galland's?' of a servant. Go, my child-go with your aunt.


“Yes,' replied he. have perhaps eaten nothing, and I have thoughtlessly Are you sure?' inquired they again. kept you here. Go, give your nephew some refreshment, 'Quite sure,' said Galland. and prepare the little room opposite yours for him; and * Take notice,' said one of the persons below, that as soon as my son comes in, let me know; I myself wish what we have got to say can only be said to himself.' to present Antoine to him.'

Then you may speak freely, for I am Antoine GalAccordingly, M. Petitpied, delighted and interested land; but speak quickly, for the wind is blowing in my with the enthusiasm and perseverance of Antoine, was of face in no very agreeable manner.' great service to the little native of Picardy. Thanks to Do you speak,' said one of the interlocutors to his this learned professor, Antoine increased his knowledge of neighbour. Hebrew and the other Eastern languages. He went through Speak yourself,' rejoined he. the usual course of the Royal College, and even began the No, I must speak,' said a third. catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts of the Sorbonne. * Ah, gentlemen, you must let me have a word,' ex. In 1670, he had just entered the house of M. Godvin, claimed a fourth. principal of the Mazarin College, when M. de Mointel * For the love of Heaven, gentlemen,' cried Galland, was setting out on his embassy to Constantinople. Having who was perishing with cold, make haste: I am freezheard of young Galland, who was already beginning to be ing!' known for his industry and talent, he took him with him, The same colloquy recommenced, and Galland, who and employed him in copying, from the Greek churches, had been listening with wondrous patience, again exformal attestations of the articles of their faith-a great claimed, still shivering, “ For the love of Heaven, gentlesubject of dispute between Arnaud and the minister men, make haste, for the cold is piercing !' Claude. Galland accompanied M. de Mointel in his At last all the young people who had disturbed the voyage to Jerusalem, and took advantage of it to copy sleep of the Orientalist joined in one chorus, ' Ah, Monnumerous inscriptions. From Syria he went direct to the sieur Galland, if you are not asleep, tell us one of those Levant, with the intention of collecting some new medals. stories which you tell so well !' In 1679 he was intrusted with a commission to the Indies, This was in allusion to the two first volumes of The for the purpose of making a collection that might enrich Thousand and One Nights,' in which every chapter begins the cabinet of Colbert, the minister of Louis XIV.; and thus— My dear sister, if you are not asleep, tell us one again he undertook a third voyage. Colbert being dead, of those stories which you tell so well.' Louvois, his successor, commanded him to continue his Antoine Galland had too much sense to be angry at researches, and nominated him to the post of royal anti- this sally; he began to laugh, and replying, 'Gentlemen, quarian.

au revoir!' he closed the window, and returned to his bed, About this time, being still in Smyrna, but on the point where he was not long, before he regained some of the of returning to France, he was near being buried alive by caloric which he had lost at the window. He, however, an earthquake, which shook the whole town, and even profited by the lesson, and published all his other volumes threw down several of the houses, and among others that without this exordium. Antoine Galland died at the age in which Galland resided. His life was saved by some of sixty-nine, on the 14th of February 1715. beams providentially falling crosswise above his head, and thus leaving him room to breathe. He was extricated

PROGRESS OF THE NATION. the next day, though with great difficulty.

On his return to France, living in an easy situation, The social progress of individuals, families, neighbourwith a fine library at his command, and a numerous col- hoods, is familiar to us all, and usually forms one of lection of coins, and well versed as he was in Arabic and the most common subjects for our inquiries ; but when the Persian and Turkish languages, with which he had such details as come within the scope of our own perbecome familiar during his sojourn in the East, Antoine sonal observation are multiplied, extended, and classimade use of his retirement to complete several works; fied by mathematical minds, so as to embrace the great among others, "The Thousand and One Nights,' better aggregate of the nation, the result must be a picture of known in England as the 'Arabian Nights’Entertainments.' the highest imaginable interest and importance. But He had his nephew, Julien Galland, with him, whom he it is a picture which comparatively few have leisure, brought up, and to whom he communicated his taste for and fewer still are qualified, to examine or enjoy in the Oriental languages. In 1709 he was made professor of detail. The salient points are all on which the mind Arabic in the Royal College of France. Galland laboured of the many will desire to dwell; and for this reason, unceasingly in whatever situation he found himself, paying we think we shall perform an acceptable service, if we little regard to his wants, and none at all to conveniences. take advantage of the republication of a valuable work His whole study in his lectures was to come direct to the to direct attention to the great landmarks of the point, without any regard to encumbering ornament. national progress.* Such a service, too, will be wellSimple in his habits and manners, as in his compositions, timed; for in the ten years just expired, greater adhe would all his life have taught his children the rudi vances have been made than in any preceding tenth of ments of grammar with the same pleasure he took in a century. The elements of prosperity, commercial exercising his erudition. He carried his integrity, as and educational, are daily taking new and more active every truly honest man will do, even into the most trifling combinations; and it is no longer heresy to consider matters; and his accuracy was so great, that, when settling with his employers for his expenses in the Levant, he sometimes only charged them a penny or twopence, cal Relations, from the beginning of the Nineteenth Century. By

* The Progress of the Nation, in its various Social and Economiand sometimes nothing at all, for days in which, by some G. R. Porter. A new edition. London: Murray. 1847.


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the welfare of the many as better worth attention than forget the great evil of which the test was the corrector. inert and antiquated theories.

Mr Woolley says-Let any man see the straightforward Now that the people are not regarded as the material of walk, the upright look of the labourer, as contrasted war-food for cannon; mere hewers of wood and drawers with what was before seen at every step in these counof water-we find them estimated at their true value in ties (Kent and Sussex). The sturdy and idle nuisance all calculations of power and advancement. A hundred | has already become the useful, industrious member of years ago, wars and epidemic diseases were considered society. No man who has not looked well into human to be the natural means whereby Providence kept the nature, and the practical working of the wretched syshuman race within reasonable limits—a sort of predes tem of pauperism, can form an idea how different is tinated check to undue increase. It is only from the sixpence earned by honest industry, and sixpence wrung commencement of the present century that anything from the pay-table of a parish officer. I am fully conlike correct population returns have been obtained. vinced that the measure has doubled the value of proThe increase in the first half of last century was-omit- perty in many parts of the kingdom.' The saving in the ting fractions — not more than 17 per cent. ; in the expenditure for the relief of the poor in 1841, as comsecond half it rose to 52 per cent. The number added to pared with 1811, was 53 per cent. The assessments are the population of the kingdom from 1801 to 1841, was highest in Berks, Bucks, Dorset, and Wilts; and lowest 10,700,000, but in 1846, this had risen to 12,000,000; in Cumberland, Monmouth, Lancaster, and Stafford. nearly as much as the whole number of inhabitants in Among several comparative statements of the means 1811. This increase is in a ratio 3 to 1 greater than adopted for the relief of the poor in other countries, that of France, which country doubles her population we find returns from the pauper colonies of Holland. but once in a century, while England doubles hers in A few years ago, a great deal of interest was felt in fifty years.

these establishments; they have not, however, realised In 1801, the number of marriages was 67,288; in the expectations of their projectors, partly owing to 1840, 115,548. The number of houses in the first year the very inferior quality of the soil on which they are of the century was 1,467,870, but in 1841 it had in- placed, and the great expense attendant on the first creased to 2,753,295, or nearly double in the space of settlement of poor families ; neither have they sensibly forty years; the yearly value at the latter period was diminished the amount of pauperism with which HolL.23,386,401, in 1815 it amounted to L.14,290,889. To land is oppressed more than any other country in meet the wants of the rapidly increasing population, Europe. According to a report published in 1827, an addition of house accommodation to the amount of paupers comprised one-fifth of the population of the L.10,000,000, and 1,000,000 tons of shipping, are re United Netherlands. The effect of isolated pauper quired annually.

communities is said to be bad. Without the example With an increasing population we have a decreasing of the better conditions of society, there can be no hope rate of mortality. In 1700, 1 in 39 died; in 1800, 1 in of such a community gradually acquiring those qua47. *This effect,' observes Mr Porter, .so strongly in-lities that would fit the members of it for a better dicative of amendment in the condition of the people, condition also.' Every statement shows that English must be attributed to the coincidence of various causes. labourers earn nearly double wages to those of other Among these may be mentioned the less crowded state European countries. of our dwellings, the command of better kinds of food, Under the head of consumption, we learn that, since the superiority and cheapness of clothing, and probably the beginning of the reign of George III., 7,076,610 also more temperate habits and greater personal clean- acres have been brought under cultivation ; and alliness.' A large proportion of births, it is shown, is not though the proportion has somewhat diminished in the always to be taken as an evidence of prosperity. Late last forty years, yet such is the improvement in agriinquiries have made us aware of the prodigious waste culture, that 10,000 acres of land which, on the old of life, particularly in large towns, which more than method of cultivation, supported but 3810 individuals, counterbalances the numerous births. “Population does now maintain 5997. Mr Porter considers that, for a not so much increase because many are born, as because long period, population is not likely to increase in a few die.'

greater ratio than the supply of food. It has been The number of persons employed in agriculture has affirmed,' he observes, that in Wales the land does not diminished, and in manufactures increased. Where produce half of what it is capable of producing; and formerly the labour of seven families was required to that if all England were as well-cultivated as Northproduce a certain amount of food, the same quantity is umberland and Lincoln, it would produce more than now raised by five: an instructive fact, showing that double the quantity that is now obtained .... and the present rate of progress in manufacturing industry when at length the increase of population shall have may be kept up, as the tendency is to improve agricul- passed the utmost limit of production, there can be no ture and augment the supply of food. Between the reason to doubt that we shall still obtain, in full sufyears 1811 and 1831, the agricultural class increased 7 ficiency, the food that we shall require.' per cent., and the trading and manufacturing class 34 The greatest progress is seen in manufactures : the per cent. The greatest proportion of the latter is exports of woollen goods, which in 1829 were between found in the counties of Cheshire, Derby, Lancaster, four and five millions, now exceed L.8,000,000 annually: Middlesex, Stafford, and Warwick : the former in Cam- Between the years 1835 and 1839, one hundred and bridge, Essex, Huntingdon, and Rutland. Mr Porter thirty-two woollen and worsted factories were built in justly exposes the absurdity and injustice of the old addition to those already existing, and the increase of poor-law." Under such a system,' he says, ' a labourer operatives in those branches of industry for the same in an agricultural district was inevitably rendered a period was 15,137. It is well known that the population pauper ; be was deprived of all means for exercising of some of the Yorkshire towns, the principal seat of the the virtue of prudence, and became almost necessarily woollen trade, has more than doubled since the comimprovident; he was brought to look upon the parish mencement of the century. allowance as his freehold, and if, under such circum During the last forty years, a great improvement has stances, any spark of independence remained unex- taken place in the growth of wool. Sheep which protinguished in his breast, it should have been received duce long or combing wool have been almost everyas evidence of a degree of innate virtue deserving of where introduced, while short-wooled sheep have corthe highest admiration.'

respondingly declined in nunbers. Much of the short Public opinion has now declared so decidedly against wool

, it appears, could find no market, but for the a rigid adherence to the workhouse test,' that we are importation of long foreign wool to mix with it; there bound to suppose there must be something in that ad- is, however, a stiil more remarkable importation for herence either absolutely wrong, or which jars with ex this purpose. 'A curious trade,' says Mr Porter, has isting circumstances. Yet we should not be too ready to of late years been introduced, that of importing foreign

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woollen rags into England for the purpose of re-manu classes. “This improvement,' he says, 'is by no means facture. These are assorted, torn up, and mixed with confined to those who are called, by a somewhat English, or more commonly with Scotch wool of low arbitrary distinction, the working-classes, but is cnquality, and inferior cloth is made from the mixture, at joyed in some degree or other by tradesmen, shopà price sufficiently moderate to command a sale for ex: keepers, and farmers ; in short, by every class of men portation. By this means a market is found for wool whose personal and family comforts admitted of material of a very low quality, which otherwise would be left increase.' on the hands of the growers.'

Less than fifty years ago, some of the tradesmen in In 1801, 54,203,433 pounds of cotton were imported; the chief thoroughfares of London had no carpets to but so unparalleled has been the increase in this branch of their floors--no books or pictures--none of those useful trade, that the quantity entered in 1844 was 554,196,602 or ornamental objects which add so materially to the pounds. In the same year thic value of cotton goods charm of domestic life. Sheffield is noted for the comexported was L.25,805,348, having increased from fortable manner in which the houses of the industrial L.16,516,748 in 1820. Two pieces of calico per week population are furnished, although the town itself is was the utmost a hand-loom weaver could produce; but not better built or laid out than others. From whatthe steam-loom weaver of the present day produces, ever cause this attention to in-door arrangements may with an assistant, twenty-two such pieces in the same arise, it is one that should be encouraged; and a disspace of time. The article of bobbin-net employs nearly position that way may be classed among the evidences two hundred thousand persons in its manufacture, at of progress. In connection with household reports, it an annual expenditure in wages of L.2,500,000. The may be mentioned that the expenses incurred for dolinen trade of Ireland has shared in the general expan-mestic servants in 1841 amounted to L.38,222,620. sion; the value of linen goods exported having advanced The author goes on to treat of all excisable articles: in the first quarter of the century from L.34,000,000 to every year's experience confirms the fact, that increased L.55,000,000.

consumption follows diminished price. The true policy A glance at the tabular statements sufficiently proves of government, he contends, should be to collect no that peace is essential to national prosperity. No other custom duties than what are required for revenue. sooner do we approach a war season, than disturbance Turning to the details respecting crime, we find it inand dininution at once appear in the aggregates of timated that although our disposition is to magnify quantity and value. Even if no higher motives existed, every present evil, yet we are not proportionately this alone should be treated with due consideration ere worse off in this respect than our forefathers were. the expensive injustice of war is adopted. Increased The exploits of highwaymen are within the recollecproduction necessarily leads to an abatement of prices ; | tion of persons now living : merchants who lived in but glass was for many years an exception to this rule. the suburbs of London dared not go home from their

The trade was so overloaded with duties, as to be a counting-houses in the evening alone. A certain place virtual monopoly ; and the manufacturers were ham was fixed on as a rendezvous where they met, and pered and harassed in every way by absurd excise whence, for mutual protection, they returned in a body regulations. An ingenious proprietor, who had suc to their residence. Individuals were knocked down in ceeded in making great improvements in the quality the streets, and robbed in broad daylight; no of bottle.glass, was stopped in his operations by the could ride on the roads in any direction unless well excise oslicers, on the plea that the articles which he prepared to repel the attack of robbers, or to run his produced were so good quality, as not to be readily chance of being murdered. However strange it may distinguished from Hint-glass.' Not the least pleasing, secm, there are fewer offences against property now however, among the signs of progress, is the removal of than in the days of our forefathers. More perfect police such restrictions. The abolition of the glass duties by arrangements, better lighting of streets, readier means the legislature in 1845 has done everything for the relief of communication, have done more towards the reof the trade, which will doubtless expand in proportion pression of crime than all the sanguinary laws of the to those we have above enumerated.

last century. The diminution in the number of capital Travelling, roads, and the iron trade, occupy an in- punishments is perhaps the most hopeful indication of teresting section of the work; the benefits they confer moral progress. Not more than twenty-five years are seen to be gradually diffusing themselves through | ago, it was not at all uncommon to hang one hundred every class of society. Something yet remains to be criminals in the course of twelve months. From 1805 done for greater cheapness in the carrying of passengers to 1825 there were one thousand six hundred and fourand goods: with respect to the latter, we read that teen executions; from 1825 to 1845 six hundred and • the charge made for the cartage of a puncheon of rum twenty-six. Of the latter, one hundred and eleven have from the West India Docks to Westminster, exceeds the been hanged in the last ten years—less than the numcharge that would be made for conveying the same ber executed in 1813 alone. puncheon from those docks to Hamburgh!' Among the The ameliorating effect of education is shown in a various schemes for expediting and cheapening the series of tables, and the value of good instruction indelivery of parcels in the metropolis and the provinces, sisted on as the best preventive of crime. But, as Mr it is to be hoped that less expensive transport of heavy Porter observes, there must be something beyond the goods will not be lost sight of. The progress of steam mere ordinary branches of school learning 'to render navigation is striking. In 1814, the United Kingdom our prisons useless, and shut up our courts of justice. and colonies owned but 2 steam vessels ; in 1815, they in communities where the great mass of the people had 10; in 1820, 43; in 1830, 315; and in 1844, 988. are left in ignorance, and only a few comparatively inScotland, which took the lead in steam navigation, has structed, those few will find themselves in a far better ever since shown a large proportional list of vessels. position than the mass for obtaining honest employOf the above 988, England had 679, Scotland 137, Ire- ment, and thus will have fewer temptations to withland 81, Guernsey, &c. 3; and the colonies 88. The total stand. If all were equally instructed, this condition burden was 125,675 tons. The number of steam vessels of course could not exist, and then we might be better in all the world besides, is stated in another table at able to estimate at its true value the moral influence of 719, of which the United States had 261, and France instruction. Knowing what we know of the quality of 119. It thus appears that Scotland has more steam education, as it has usually been imparted to the youth vessels than all France. Mr Porter discusses the of this country, dare we hope that its restraining inquestions of finance, carriage, public income and ex-fluence would be great? It is true we might even then penditure, wages, taxes, &c. taking occasion to show expect to put an end to much of the violence and fraud the great improvement that has taken place in the by which the community is now disgraced. Merely physical condition of the people, and the disappearance instructed persons would better calculate the worldly of some of many unfortunate inequalities among the advantages and disadvantages of right and wrong con

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