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weavers, &c., both as to theory and as to practice, in the whole field of woven, spun, stitched, and knitted goods; also to enable young merchants and dealers, who wish to do business in the raw materials and made-up goods of the textile industry, to acquire the necessary special knowledge. The Central Board supplies the school with the requisite new apparatus and pays the teaching staff in part. The institute, which is one of the most frequented of its kind, has so far had over 1,400 pupils, coming from Württemberg, the rest of Germany, also from Russia, America, and Asia. The outlay made by the Central Board on behalf the Reutlingen school amounts in 1899 to 26,500 marks.
Other Textile Schools supported by the Central Board are that of Heidenheim for foot-looms and jacquard weaving (receiving 8,300 marks), that of Laichingen, for linen manufacture (receiving 2,500 marks), that of Sindelfingen (700 marks), of Westerheim and Sontheim (850 marks).
In 1900 another Technical School will be opened, namely in Schwenningen for delicate mechanics, watchmaking and electromechanics at a cost, for the erection only, of 105,000 marks. (Of this 65,000 are contributed by the municipality of Schwenningen and by specially interested persons, 40,000. by the Central Board. The latter contributes another 20,000 marks to equip the school, and 23,000 annually for current expenditure, the muncipality defraying 2,000 annually.) Another impending enterprise is the erection of a Tannery School
Moreover the Central Board has aided and encouraged the establishing of industrial museums in several towns :-Ulm, Gmünd, Heilbronn, Spaichingen contributing in 1899 a sum of 3,000 marks.
But all this does not even yet exhaust the efforts of the Central Board. It has sought further to influence industrial activity directly. Herein an instructive precedent in large-scale undertakings had been given to the Württemberg world of industry by the establishment of State mines and foundries, and State salt works, as well as by grants in aid to various private industrial establishments. These are now in full vigour, among them being the machine factory of Esslingen, the bleaching works at Weissenau, the straw plaiting at Schramberg, the jewellery works of Erhardt and Sons at Gmünd, the powder factory at Rottweil, &c. The Central Board, for its part, undertook to induce different firms, on the condition of receiving grants in aid from the State, to procure for themselves new machinery, apparatus and expert foreign workmen. Smaller machines and tools were provided by the Central Board outright, and deposited in turn at workshops to be used and copied. In this way the Central Board has intervened in several branches of industry to support and to co-operate. For example, one of the most flourishing industries in the country, the knitting (“ tricot ") trade is to be traced to the action of the Central Board in introducing the “circular stool"
trial exhis experts. Tomberg
method. Again, it undertook half the cost of introducing knitting machines in 1869.
Similarly the Central Board has done much to stimulate commerce, especially the export trade. The company of the “ Württembergische Handels-gesellschaft in Stuttgart” was virtually founded by it in 1853, with a Government grant of 50,000 marks (dissolved in 1871), and greatly quickened the export business of the country,
Finally the Central Board is a permanent Government agency in the event of exhibitions. One of its chief functions is to arrange and direct industrial exhibitions, to see that Württemberg is fitly represented, and to send to them competent experts. Thus the organisation and the success of the industrial exhibitions at Ulm, 1871, at Stuttgart, 1881, of the exhibition of electro-plating and artistic crafts at Stuttgart, 1896, as well as of various minor exhibitions in the country, is due to the Central Board. As early as the Universal Exhibition in London, 1851, Württemberg through its industry was largely and properly represented, and was highly commended. The same may be said of other International exhibitions : Paris 1855, 1867, 1878, 1889; London, 1862, Moscow, 1872, Vienna, 1873. And the Central Board enabled many artisans to visit these exhibitions by pecuniary help. Its outlay in connection with the Chicago Exhibition was 40,000 marks; 30,000 are voted for the forthcoming show at Paris in 1900.
The Central Board takes a special interest in coming to the aid of manual industry wherever the competitive struggle with factory production is very keen. It makes monetary advances to guilds and associations of workers in minor industries to enable them to procure motors and machinery, to domestic industries, and to co-operative societies for credit, raw materials, distribution, and production. On such it spends, in 1899, 7,000 marks. In the same way it supports. the Chambers of Handicraft, and other associations of the kind, whose object it is to maintain the cause of small-scale industry. To these it contributes in 1899 5,000 marks.
Following the example of other countries (Baden and Switzerland) the Central Board contributes sums (7,000 marks in 1899) to employing manufacturing experts to train apprentices systematically under certain conditions. And in order to gain a permanent view of the training of apprentices, and stir up both masters and apprentices to carry on that training efficiently, the Central Board organizes periodical exhibits of apprentices' work over the whole country, and gives prizes. To these ends 3,000 marks have been voted in 1899. The Board also starts courses of instruction, in which masters and men can get systematically taught in their respective trades by experts, and, in particular, be made acquainted with new methods and instruments. To this 6,000 marks have been voted in 1899. Finally the Central Board has appointed a peripatetic teacher whose duty it is to give lectures about the country on technical and economic questions and bring home to different industrials such technical progress as will ensure improvement in their work. To this he must add the inspection of the Government apprentice schools and assistance in the apprentices' exhibitions, 6000 marks were voted hereto in 1899. And 4000 marks towards aiding workers in minor industries by means of travel, and of attendance at technical schools.
I A considerable share in the progressive development of the national export trade is due to the Exhibition of Export Patterns and Models (Exportmusterlager), established in 1882 by a society of larger manufacturers. It contains a collection of every kind of manufactured goods and models, publishes catalogues in all languages, has an affiliated branch at Hamburg, and representatives in twentyfour of the most important commercial centres in the world. Hence it is able to give its members the most valuable information.
2 These Chambers of Handicraft (Handwerks-Kammern) will shortly, in consequence of imperial legislation, be called into existence in every state of the German Empire. They are legally sanctioned bodies, representing handicraftsmen. And it is their function to assist government and municipal boards in promoting handicraft, to regulate and supervise apprenticeship, and to organise advanced industrial and technical training for masters, employees, and apprentices. In Württemberg four such chambers are to be established. The Central Board will contribute 12,000 mks, towards the cost of erection, and 5,000 annually towards current expenditure.
II. Technical education in Württemberg is the object of special fostering, unquestionably more so than in any other German State. As early as 1825 technical schools were opened on Sundays to give special public instruction to such of the growing generation as were intended for an industrial life. In these a modest amount of geometrical and applied drawing was taught, as well as arithmetic, composition and letter writing. In 1846 there were secondary (technical) schools in 69 towns and villages with an aggregate of 4500 scholars. In 1853 technical instruction was organized by the appointment of the “Royal Commission for Technical Secondary Schools."
This was composed of representatives of the Central Board and of the “ Royal Board of Studies (Studienbehörde),” the chairman being the President of the Central Board. Under its direction municipalities were soon competing with each other in the erection of technical schools. The following are subordinate to the Commission :
(1) The Technical Secondary Schools and Schools of Drawing which are intended to supply youths of over fourteen years, apprentices and artisans, in return for school fees, with the requisite training to qualify them for a career in manufactures, commerce and domestic economy. This is given partly in the daytime, partly and chiefly on free evenings and on Sundays. In 1895 the number of the schools was 228 with a total of 17,235 scholars. The subjects taught are arithmetic, mathematics, chemistry, physics, drawing, modelling, letter writing, composition, foreign languages, and political economy.
The Trade Unions (v. supra) have merited much praise in their attitude towards these secondary schools. The Central Board, in its turn, endeavours to assist them through its collections (v. 'supra)
as well as by training and supporting efficient teachers in drawing and modelling
(2) The Girls' Secondary Schools (of which in 1895-6 there were sixteen in as many towns, with a total of 915 scholars) give instruction in book-keeping, business composition, commercial arithmetic, with a view of making girls independent bread winners.
(3) The School of Female Industries, in 1895-6, numbered twenty-two in as many towns with a total of 3,549 scholars. The model for these was the school at Reutlingen, founded in 1868 and now one of the most select institutions of its kind. This is conducted in five divisions ;knitting and weaving and hand-sewing, machining, dressmaking, and embroidery. There are also courses in landscape painting, flowermaking, fine laundering, book-keeping, singing and dancing.
To these three kinds of secondary schools the Government makes a grant (1899) of 317,000 marks. There are periodical school exhibitions, the first having been held in 1850. It is not easy to appreciate enough the aid and stimulus they give to industrial and secondary education.
The Commission on Technical Secondary Schools has also to supervise industrial and commercial pupils' examinations. To establish such examinations was one of the first cares of the Central Board in its earnest conviction of the importance of a good industrial training. The apprentices' examinations established by the Society of Arts in England served as the model. In 1881 the Central Board drafted a plan for a system of voluntary apprentices' examinations, which, revised in 1885, is still in force. In 1898 industrial examinations were held in eighty towns, and commercial examinations in seventeen. They are taken over chiefly by the Trade Unions, the Central Board contributing a subsidy. The subjects for the industrial examinations are reading, composition, arithmetic, industrial book-keeping, knowledge in commodities, drawing, any one kind of practical work; for the commercial examinations the subjects are commercial correspondence and arithmetic, book-keeping, practical commercial knowledge.
The state protection of industry and commerce is not exhausted by the Central Board and the Royal Commission on Technical Education. There are finally the measures taken by Government on benalf of schools and in the field of economics, especially in the matter of transport and communication, in the interests of industry and commerce. Special mention is due to the higher State Technical Institutes, which in the attention of the Ministry come next only to the Church and Education. These are(i) the Polytechnicin Stuttgart with its six sections :-architecture, engineering, machine-construction, chemical technology, mathematics and natural sciences, and general culture; in 1895-6 the number of teachers was eighty-two, of scholars, 683, 249 of whom were not of Württemberg. (ii) The School of Building in all its branches, both for constructors and for workmen (joiners and masons, glaziers, locksmiths, &c.); in 1895-6 there were 46 teachers, 1147 scholars. (iii) The School of Artistic Crafts in five sections :—furniture, modelling, wood-carving, decorative art-work, drawing. The annual state grant to (i) is 326,000 marks, to (ii) 173,300; to (iii) 53,500.
Finally we must mention the “ König Karl Jubiläum Stiftung,” — the Jubilee Institute founded in memory of King Charles, with an endowment of 528,000 marks to be applied to agricultural and industrial objects. In the latter connection grants are made to support existing, or introduce new, branches of domestic industry in poor communities. For instance 3,610 marks were voted in 1898. Again, money is given in the form of travelling scholarships to specially gifted young persons entering on a coinmercial or technological career, seven such having received between them 2,050 marks in 1898. Pecuniary support is also given to arrangements for the promotion of small industries, and, finally, medals are assigned to workmen and servants for a long term of steady service.
The outlay made by the State on behalf of industry and commerce amounts, in 1899, to 1,186,360 marks. Of these, 316,560 were voted to the Central Board, 317,000 to the industrial secondary schools, 552,800 to the higher technical colleges. To agriculture were voted 1,385,171 marks (526,200 to the Royal Central Board of Agriculture, 40,000 to the veterinary organisation, 160,000 to insurance against hail, 329,843 to horse breeding, and to agricultural colleges 329,128 marks). The aggregate current need of the State for the year 1899 is reckoned at 80,750,000 marks.
Statistics show us the results of this State protection :
1829. 1835. 1852. 1861. 1875. 1882. 1895. Population ...... 1,562, 233 1,571,012 1,733,263 1,720,708 1,881,505 1,971,118 2,070, 662 Number of per:
sons actively engaged in industry and
commerce ... 192,000 196,256 227,774 268,890 287,985 312,741 395,828 Number of in. dustrial firms
- 100,225 - 144,978 129,609 Number of commercial firms
The population in 1829–1895 increased by 33 per cent., the persons actively engaged in industry and commerce in the same period by 106 per cent.
The falling off in 1882-95, in the number of industrial firms is due to the growth of large concerns and of the factory system militating against the existence of small firms. The number of firnis employing more than five assistants increased, during that period, from 3,036 to 5,791, that is by 2,755 =91 per cent., while the total number of persons engaged in those firms increased from 81,348 to 172,913, that is, by 91,565 = 112.5 per cent. The number of factories with 2001,000 hands was, in 1895, no less than 119 (in 1882 it was only 51),