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March. Les Associations professionelles de l'Avenir. E. DE GIRARD._ La Théorie

de la Rente foncière du Karl Marx. N. SLEPZOFF. Essai sur les Variations du Taux de l'Escompte. F. S. NITTI.

April. Les Villes tentaculaires. E. VANDERVELDE. [The effects of crowding

into cities are discussed with special reference to Belgium.] La genèse de l'argent. Ch. FAIRE. Les Groupements féministes en France. CHARLES TURGON. [A piquant classification of the Amazon hosts by which the supremacy of man is threatened.] La Productivité du Travail et les salaires. L. DECHESNE.

Jahrbücher für Nationaloekonomie und Statistik (Jena).

February, 1899. Zur Geschichte der lehre von der Gravitation der Löhne nach gewissen

Kostenbeträgen. F. J. NEUMANN. Die Abgabenfreiheit der deutschen Ströme und die deutsche Landwirthschaft. VICTOR KURS. Die erkenntnistheoretischen Grundlagen der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung. L. v. BORTKIEWICZ. [A discussion of the first principles of Probabilities, with special reference to Goldschmidt's book.]

March. Die chinesischen Vertragshafen. . . H. SCHUMACHER. Der begriff

Sozial politik.v. BORTKIEWIEZ.

In the Miscellanies, statistics of the numbers of students in German Universities, from 1831 on, show a great increase in the proportion of students to population, a decline in the proportion of theologians.

April. Die Grundrententheorie im ökonomischen System von Karl Marx. KARL

Zur Erkenntnislehre der Volkswirtschaflichen Phänomene. STAN. GRABSKI.

Statistics of births, deaths, and marriages for the different people of the world in recent decennia are presented in the Miscellanies.

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May. Die Entwickelung der Kindersterblichkeit in der europaischen Staaten.

DR. F. PRINZIG.

A copious compilation of statistics seems to show that in many lands, France, Russia, Great Britain, Denmark, there has been a slight increase in child mortality during the last few years.

Die Entwickelung des Preis niveaus in den letzten Decennien. J. CONRAD.

Referring to former papers on the subject-beginning with that of Laspeyeres in 1864-Dr. Conrad tests the change in the level of prices by a variety of methods.

Bemerkung zur Wahrscheinlichkeitslehre. C. STUMPF. A reply to Dr.

Bortkevitch.

Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft Socialpolitik und Verwaltung. Bd. VII.

Heft II. E. BöHM-BAWERK.

Professor Böhm-Bawerk maintains his thesis as to the greater productivity of longer circuits of production (Productionsumwege) against Professor Lexis and other critics.

De Economist (The Hague) for April, 1899, presents a comparison between the prices of several articles in Holland and Germany on the strength of which certain employees of the Dutch State Railway Company serving at a place on the German side of the frontier have petitioned for an increase of pay. Some of the contrasts between the free trading and the protected country are very striking. 5 cents per pound for wheat bread in Holland, 27 cents in Germany; for rye bread 5 cents in Holland, 48 in Germany.

The March number contains an article on obligatory insurance of workman against invalidity and old age by M. BOISSEVAIN,

In the Nordisk tidskritt for 1898 (Stockholm), Professor Harald Westergaard has an article on “ Monopoly in the Science of Finance," with special reference to Professor Knut Wicksell's Finanztheoretische Untersuchungen. Among other peculiarities of taxation in a régime of monopoly there is adduced the theorem propounded in the ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 1897, p. 231, that a tax on first-class railway tickets might conceivably lower the fares both for the first class and also for the other class or classes.

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We take this opportunity of calling attention to an article by Professor Westergaard in the Nationalokonomisk Forenings Festsckrift (Copenhagen) 1897, on the “ Basis of Taxation ”; in which he examines various theories as to the just apportionment of the burden of taxation, with the conceptions of the relation between the state and the individual on which they more or less definitely rest. There is much that is arbitrary in all proposals, whether based on value of services rendered by the state, or on taxation according to ability, or that interpretation which demands equality of sacrifice. So far as a principle of apportionment is concerned, Sax is quoted with greatest approval, and equality of sacrifice

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interpreted to mean that the proportion between the marginal utilities of different incomes should not be changed as a result of taxation. The arbitrary element is reduced to the minimum in this solution.

Ekonomisk Tidskrift. Edited by David DAVIDSON (Stockholm). 1899.

Monthly. 10 kronor per annum.

We have received the first four numbers of this new Swedish monthly, devoted to economic subjects. The scope of the publication does not appear to be restricted to any special aspect of social affairs, and these first numbers contain articles on subjects ranging from town mortality in Sweden and principles of industrial legislation to railway-tariff problems and questions of banking policy and practice. The subjects treated should certainly possess present interest in the country of publication, in view of the long discussion on matters of labour legislation, the continued favour shown to the policy of agricultural protection, and the recent banking reforms. Useful tables, summarising the accounts of over thirty of the largest banks of the country, are a feature of each number except the first. For those who make a study of internal migration the third number affords a striking example of a district (that round Sundsvall) where nearly two-thirds of the population are immigrants. There is no evasion of controversial subjects, and no lack of vigour or reality in the tone of the articles. We wish the editor and his colleagues success in their enterprise.

Giornale degli Economisti (Rome).

March, 1899. Il Profitto del Capitale Technico. C. A. CONIGLIANI. Le Migrazioni

del Lavaro agli Stati Uniti d'America. C. OTTOLENGHI. La Protezione dell' Agricoltura nella Riforma Doganale Leopoldina. A. MORENA. Il Parlamento contro la Libertà di Stampa. A. DE VITI DE MARCO. Associazione Economica Liberale (il Riordinamento delle Finanze Locali). Congresso Internazionale per l'Insegnamento Commerciale. LA DIREZIONE.

April.
Il Lavoro Umano e la Macchina. A. GRAZIADEI. La Nuova fase dell

Immigrazione del Lavoro agli Stati Uniti d'America. C. OTTOLENGHI.
Il Quarto Censimento Italiano. G. B. SALVIONI, L. Bodio.

May. L'Origine del Baratto. . . M. PANTALEONI.

A study of primitive forms of barter, with special reference to the recent work of Cognetti. La Partecipazione dello Stato ai Profitti delle Banche di Emissione. P. DES ESSARS.

NEW BOOKS.

BROWN (MARY W.). The Development of Thrift (saving agencies ; people's banks; insurance). New York: Macmillan Co. 16mo. Pp. 222. $1.

CLARKE (A.). Effects of the Factory System. London : Richards. 12mo. Pp. 186. 2s. 6d.

DÜCHERSHOFF (ERNTS). How the English Workman Lives. Translated by C. H. d’E. Leppington. London: P. S. King. 1899. Pp. 97.

LAWRENCE, (F. W.). Local Variations in Wages. Studies in Economic and Political Science. Edited by W. A. S. Hewins. London : Longmans.

LORIA (A.). The Economic Foundations of Society. Translated from the second French edition by L. M. Keasbey. With new preface. London : Sonnenschein. 8vo. Pp. 402. 3s. 68.

MENGER (A.). The Right to the Whole Produce of Labour. Translated by M. E. Tanner.

With introduction and bibliography by H. S. Foxwell. London and New York : Macmillan. 8vo. Pp. cx. and 267. 6s.

ODGERS (W. B.). Local Government. London: Macmillan. 16mo. Pp. 284.

POWERS (PROF. H. H.). Wealth and Warfare. Publication of the American Academy.

WILSON (Mona). Our industrial laws. Working Women in Factories, Shops, and Industries, and How to Help Them. Edited, with a preface, by Mrs. H. J. Tennant. Duckworth. 1s.

ADAMS (PROF. HENRY CARTER). The Science of Finance. An Investigation of Public Expenditures and Public Revenues. New York: H. Holt and Co. 1898. Pp. 573.

American Economic Association Handbook, together with Report of the Eleventh Annual Meeting, New Haven, Conn., December 27-29, 1898. Supplement to Economic Studies. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1899.

BEMIS (E. W.). Municipal Monopolies. Papers by American Economists. Edited by E. W. Bemis. New York : Crowell and Co. $2.

Census, the Federal : Critical Essays by Members of the American Economic Association. New York: Macmillan Co. 1899. Pp. 516.

COOLEY (CHARLES H.). Personal Competition. Its Place in the Social Order and Effect upon Individuals; with some Considerations on Success. (In Economic Studies, published by the American Economic Association). New York: The Macmillan Company. 1899.

MAROT (HELEN). A Handbook of Labour Literature. Philadelphia: Free Library of Economics. Pp. 96. Some hundreds of publications are arranged under some twenty heads : “ Monopolies, Trade Unions, Unemployed,” &c., each title generally labelled with a compendious indication of the contents.

1898.

POOR (H. V.). The Money Question. New York : Poor. Pp. 337.

Woods (Robt. A.). The City Wilderness. A Settlement Study by Residents and Associates of the South End House.

Edited by R. A. Woods. Boston: Houghton. 1899. Pp. 319.

WRIGHT (CARROLL D.). Outline of Practical Sociology, with special reference to American conditions. (In American Citizen Series, edited by A. B. Hart.) New York: Longmans, Green and Co. [Announced.]

Paris: Guillaumin.

RAFFALOVICH (A.). Le Marché Financier. 1899.

VILLEY

(E.). L'œuvre Économique de Charles Dunoyer. Paris : Larose et Forcel. 8vo. Pp. 338.

BORGIUS (W.) Mannheim und die Entwickelung des südwestdeutschen Getreidehandels. Freiburg i. B.

CONRAD (J.). Grundriss zum Studium der politischen Oekonomie. Dritter Theil : Finanzwissenschaft. Jena: G. Fischer. 8vo. Pp. 183.

HECHT (FELIX). Die Entschuldung des ländlichen grundbesitzes. Mannheim,

HELFFERICH (KARL). Zur Errinnerung des deutschen Bankgesetzes. Leipzig

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