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solution again. Use weaker bichloride of mercury solution for the next and succeeding dressing (1 to 4000). If too strong, the healing granulations may be retarded.

Home Made Aseptic Gauze.—Plain aseptic gauze (absorbent) may be prepared at home by the following methods: For each five yards of ordinary cheese cloth use one-quarter pound common washing soda to sufficient water to cover the gauze. Boil for one-half hour and rinse in several changes of water to remove the soda. This process removes the fat or oil from the fabric and makes it absorbent. After it has been dried it is cut into suitable sizes— strips one yard long and four inches wide are convenient. The gauze is sterilized and packed ready for use in the following manner: Screw top jars with caps are placed in a large bread pan, and the gauze is arranged loosely in the other end of the pan. Place in the oven and bake until the gauze begins to scorch slightly. Remove the pan and all to a table and while hot pack the strips into the jars. Use a pair of forceps or long tweezers and a short wire for this purpose. The tips of the tweezers and wire should be made sterile by passing through an alcohol flame several times, or they may be sterilized by baking with the jars and gauze. Seal the jars and you have a good supply of aseptic gauze ready for instant use. When using the gauze it is well to remove the strips with a pair of tweezers, the tips of which have been sterilized in an alcohol flame. This avoids possibility of contaminating the gauze left in the jars. A quick convenient alcohol flame may be had by saturating a small pledget of cotton in the mouth of a bottle.

Moist bichloride gauze, which is expensive to buy, yet invaluable in case of accident, is made as follows: Prepare and pack the gauze as above. Then prepare a 1 to 1000 solution of bichloride as just explained (burning out the pan with alcohol and using boiled water). Pour this solution over the gauze in the jars until it is thoroughly saturated and allow it to stand for 24 hours. Pour off the excess and seal it air-tight. If dry bichloride gauze is desired prepare the gauze as above, dry it thoroughly in the oven and repack. However, the moist gauze is to be preferred. In using this gauze observe the precaution stated above, i.e., use weaker

antiseptics after 24 hours and for subsequent dressing. Moist picric acid gauze for burns may be made and kept in a jar for immediate use as follows: Prepare and pack aseptic gauze, as above. Prepare a picric acid solution in the manner described (1 to 200) and pour it over the gauze. Let it stand and then pour off the excess and seal it air-tight.

CHAPTER XIII

HINTS AND KINKS

Hacksaw Blade Reflector-Holding Polished Pipe-Easily Made Soft Hammer

Straightening Shaft on Planer-Holding Small Work Without a Vise Holding Small Work in Vise-Putting on Tools—Illuminated MagnetRemoving Keys—Truing Crankshaft-Repair of Broken Gear Case—Simple Priming Device-Coal Gas for Engine Testing—Warming Manifold for Easy Starting-Stopping Fuel Pipe Leaks on the Road-Use of TapSome Threading Kinks—Removing a Stud-Removing Stubborn NutUse of Nuts and Bolts—Placing Nuts in Difficult Places-Forming Rod Ends—Winding Springs in a Vise-Cutting Sheet Metal-How to Make a Wiped Joint-Forms of Keys—How to Make Keys and Keyways—Woodruff Key Sizes—Nut Locking Means-Shop Uses of Arbor Press and Wheel Puller-To Make Wood Acid Proof-Sharpening Old Files-Cheap Blackening of Brass—Heat Proof Paint-Etching—Use of Tools—Drilling Holes in Glass—Making a Magnet of a File-Peculiar Cause of Knock ing-Rust on Tools—Screw Cutting Gears—Restoring Dull Polished Iron or Steel-Speed of Grindstone-Cleaning Brass Castings—Pipe Joint Cement-Drilling Hints—Body Polishes—Care of Tops—Leather Upholstery-Cloth Upholstery.

Hacksaw Blade Reflector Useful.- When sawing metal with a hacksaw and trying to saw it to a line which has been scribed on the surface the task is found very difficult unless there is good light. A workman in a shop where the writer was employed made a reflector for his saw so that it could throw a good light on the work. A round disk of brass was made as shown at Fig. 468, B. The disk was turned so as to have a collar at the back; a slot was cut through the center of disk so that it could be slipped over the saw. A 318-inch set screw in the collar served to hold the disk in place while in use. Some white enamel was spread over the face of disk to provide a good reflecting surface. A better reflecting surface would result if the disk were nickel plated.

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· Holding Polished Pipe in Vise.—A very good way to hold pip or rods having a polished surface is to sprinkle dry plaster of Pari on heavy paper and roll in this paper the article to be held, havit: plenty of powder between the paper and the polished surface Place the roll between blocks of wood having hollow faces an: clamp firmly in an ordinary bench vise. When removing the paper if the plaster adheres to the pipe in hard cakes, do not scrape bu wash the surface in clean water, which will loosen the plaster an

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- Fig. 468.-Straightening Shaft on Planer at A. B-Hacksaw Reflector

C_Holding Small Work Without a Vise. D-Holding Polished Pipe
E—Holding Small Work for Filing. F-Making Soft Metal Hammer.

leave the pipe in perfect condition. Another method is to place the pipe between pieces of lead sprinkled with plaster, and use a pipe vise for a clamp. A means often employed by mechanics who handle quantities of polished pipe is to face the hollowed wood blocks with soft felt, which is sprinkled with crocus or plaster of Paris to increase the friction. The method is shown in sketch Fig. 468, D, which is self-explanatory.

An Easily Made Soft Hammer.—A soft hammer often comes in handy around an automobile wherever heavy driving is to be done on metal that must not be marred or scratched. Nearly every automobilist carries a hammer of some sort around and is therefore loath to believe that another hammer, even a soft-face one, is a necessity. Whenever metal parts are to be protected he protects the driven piece with wood, leather, or other soft substance. There is nothing handier, however, than having a hammer that is soft and various types have been made for different kinds of machine shop usage, some out of all-metal from pipe and pipe fittings and others similar to the one in Fig. 468, F. To make this one, use an ordinary gas pipe that will easily slip over the head of the hammer and cut off a suitable length so that when finished and assembled the proportions will be about as indicated. Saw out any number of V's from the pipe so that when the teeth are bent inward a spring is formed that will snugly catch the head of the hammer. After the V's are cut out of the pipe, slip the pipe over the head and arrange for pouring the lead or babbitt. The mold is easily made by submerging nearly the whole hammer in sand or by filling the space between the pipe and hammer head with putty. Part of the hammer head should be surrounded with the poured metal in order to insure a good, close fit, but the fit must not be too close. It is well before pouring, to wrap a single thickness of paper around the head, holding it in place with thread or string. Lastly, bend the teeth to produce the spring-locking effect and you have a nice serviceable hammer. As soon as the face is worn it is a simple matter to repair it by melting out the soft metal, and remolding it.

Straightening Shaft on Planer.-It is sometimes possible to straighten a long shaft or tube, such as a propeller shaft or live axle on a planer bed if no straightening machine is available. The

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