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of the remains of the old rubber tread from the canvas base. Any cuts, bruises or bursts are then cut clean and built up with fresh fabric and rubber and the cover is then treated to a process that forces a rubber compound under heavy pressure into the spaces between the layers of canvas where movement between them has produced separation. To the whole of the inside of the cover one or two layers of specially prepare canvas are applied, the cover
Fig. 450.—Method of Combining Worn Tires and New Material to Pro
duce a Reconstructed Casing Capable of Giving Considerable Addl. tional Service.
being put into a special sewing machine which covers it with a network of stitching which runs through the entire carcass, this reducing the internal movement of the layers relative to each other to a minimum. A final lining of friction canvas is attached to the inside over the stitching. The stitching and treatment up to this point form the basis of the patent which protects the manufacturers repairing by this process. The illustration at A indicates the stitching of the inner cover before the outer cover is applied. The view at B shows the completed unit with the other tread in place and fastened to the inner cover. In this view A indicates the old cover with its tread removed, B, the cross sewing, C, the
joining rubber, D, the new tread, E, dark rubber forming the new tread, F, light rubber and canvas forming the base of the new tread. After the cover has been stitched as shown at Fig. 450, A, the next stage is to treat it to a generous layer of rubber compound on the outer side and the prepared jointless tread is carefully fixed in place. The cover is then filled with molds which are hammered into place to stretch the cover base into its original shape and approximating as near as possible the shape it assumes under working inflation pressure. The next process is the wrapping and binding of the cover. This is then followed by treatment in a vulcanizer from whence it emerges with the tread attached to the original canvas base by a thick layer of resilient black rubber. It is said that the life of a reconstructed tire is often equal to that of a new one whereas the cost of reconstruction is but 50% of that of new tires in most cases.
Repairing Punctures with Mechanical Plugs.-Repairmen who have had experience in bicycle work are thoroughly familiar with the advantages as well as the limitations of the screw down plug which has been widely sold for repairing single tube bicycle tires. A modification of this form of plug has been introduced for use on inner tubes and has the advantage of being very easily handled though its use is limited to the repair of small punctures. The plug itself consists of two threaded discs of metal which are firmly vulcanized in a surrounding mushroom shaped mass of rubber. The lower one of these has a stem attached to it on which the upper head is threaded. The plug is clearly shown at Fig. 451. For motorist's use these are sold as a kit with a set of special pliers to facilitate manipulation. The first operation after the puncture is located is to use the conical punch end or cutter as indicated at C, which makes a smooth round hole that is not apt to tear. The next operation is to stretch the hole as shown at D in order to permit the insertion of the lower portion of the plug. After this is in place the upper part is kept from turning as shown at Fig. 451, E, by pressure of a finger, while the lower portion is brought tightly to bear against the inner tube which is sandwiched between the two parts of the plug by turning the bent part of the stem which acts as a lever and makes possible the secure retention of the inner tube
between the upper and lower portions of the plug. After these parts have been tightly screwed together, the projecting end of the threaded stem is broken off or cut with the pliers and if any projects it is smoothed down with a file. In order to prevent the plug cutting through as would be the case with metal plugs the edges of the rubber pieces are very flexible and soft which, of course, prevents them cutting into the inner tube.
AIR PRESSURE AND CARRYING CAPACITY PER WHEEL OF
STANDARD SIZED PNEUMATIC TIRES
For weights in excess of 1,000 pounds per wheel, 5-inch tires or larger are recommended.
28 to 36x21 28 to 36x3 28x31 30x33 32x31 34 and 36x31 20x4 32x4 34x4 36x4 32x41 34x41 36x41 36x5 38x51 40x6
225 350 400 450 550 600 550 650 700 750 700 900 1000 1250 1350 1500
1350 1500 2000
INCREASE IN AIR PRESSURES
CAUSED BY DRIVING
The figures given by tire manufacturers as the most suitable for initial inflation generally take into account the increase in temperature and pressure created by prolonged running. It, however, is useful to know what this increase is. The figures in the following table are given by a French authority and are averages computed on tires from 3 to 442 inches diameter under usual touring car weight and speed conditions. For larger tires the increase is greater on account of the greater rigidity of the cover walls, resulting in greater internal strains in the fabric at the points of bending.
Initial Pressure in Tire,
Working Pressure in Tire,
Increase Resulting from
88.183 105.750 123.546 141.920
17.067 20.411 23.984 28.135