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Requirements of Buildings Utilized-Lighting Methods—Heating and Ven

tilation-Arrangement of Departments—How Raw and Finished Stock Is Stored—Planning Small Shop-Arrangement of Medium Size Shop -Typical Large Service Station-Assembling Room EquipmentBench Construction-Bench Furniture-Assembling Room FurniturePit Construction—Turn Tables-Lifting and Moving Appliances—Machinery Equipment for Small Shops-Equipment for Complete Machine Shop -Power for the Shop-Electric Power-Small Generating Sets—The Gas and Gasoline Engine—Power Needed for Various Machine Tools—Installation of Machine Tools—The Lathe Types and Accessories—Shapers, Planers and Drilling Machinery-Miscellaneous Appliances—Air Compressor Equipment—Fuel Storage Methods—Shop Forge Equipment.

The care and maintenance of automobiles is one of the most important branches of this large industry and as great advances have been made in the erection and equipment of establishments for repairing these vehicles as in the design of the automobiles. The equipment of a service station will vary from a very simple tool outfit of the small shop mechanic to the more expensive installation found in metropolitan service stations. Many special appliances have been evolved, especially for automobile repairing and special tools and fixtures have been contrived by the ingenious mechanic to simplify repair work. Before describing the processes incidental to the repair of the various motor car components the writer believes that a discussion of the equipment needed for repairing will prove of value to those who are about to erect an automobile repair shop or service station, as well as to those who plan to increase present more or less limited facilities. Several

important points that are apt to be neglected by the average architect in designing a garage or repair shop building will be considered first and then the equipment of tools, supplies, and special appliances necessary to furnish the repair shop in a first class manner will be discussed.

Requirements of Buildings Utilized.-Structures that have been used in another business do not always give full satisfaction when remodelled and equipped for motor car repairing. The one general fault all of these buildings have is inadequate lighting facilities, and they are seldom properly heated or ventilated. Large wooden structures formerly used for carriage or wagon shops, livery stables, etc., are often utilized, but these are invariably very inflammable, which alone should condemn them, even if the proper lighting and heating facilities were installed.

Many buildings have been erected for repair shops or garages that are lacking in conveniences not included because of lack of experience on the part of architects or builders, who do not understand the requirements of the repair business. These buildings obviously could be improved in arrangement and even in details of construction by those familiar with the restoration of automobiles and their component parts.

Any structure used for motor car housing or in repair work should be absolutely fireproof, which means that only materials having the desired qualities, such as steel, brick, stone or concrete be incorporated in the construction, with a minimum of wood. The building should not be more than two stories high, if the land is available, though large establishments in the heart of big cities will have to be three, four or five stories in height, depending upon the size of the lot available, the floor space needed and the prevailing prices of real estate. If it is to be operated in connection with a garage business on the same premises, the repair shop should be in the second story, the storage room on the ground floor.

In any event, the point of using natural to the exclusion of artificial light cannot be too firmly impressed on the builder. Mechanical work of all kinds demands the best of light, and in those buildings utilizing daylight in preference to electricity or other source of illumination, not only is the work carried out better,

but a large item of expense, which must be included in the fixed charges of operation, is eliminated. The best construction, and one that has been demonstrated to be thoroughly practical in large, modern manufacturing establishments, is a steel framework, with concrete walls pierced by many large windows, and a sawtooth roof. The advantages of this construction over that using ordinary skylights is that the sun cannot shine in directly to interfere with the work, as the openings point toward the north, a stronger roof having more openings for light is obtained, and there is no possibility of water leaking in. What is most important in the northern states, the light will not be shut out as much by snow during the winter.

It is well to remember when planning large shops having more than two floors that high structures involve the use of power elevators, so the cars can be taken from one floor to the other, with increased overhead expense as it augments the cost of handling cars, either in repair work or storage for which no charge can be made the patron.

Lighting Methods.-The lighting problem can be viewed from two aspects: that of general illumination and the equally important one of individual lighting. For the former, powerful, though well diffused lights are wanted, these being placed high enough so they will be out of the way and yet give as much as possible the general effect of daylight. The amount of illumination needed varies with the different departments and the class of work carried on therein, but in making determinations it is always best to err on the excess side than to attempt to economize at the expense of the eyes of the workman. This is poor economy because it reacts directly upon the quality of the work turned out by the shop. In the car assembling or overhauling department, the general illumination should approximate about 120 candle power to every 200 square feet, while in a regular shop or room where the general lighting means is supplemented by individual lamps at vises and drop lights to carry to the cars themselves, the allowance of 100 candle power of general illumination to 300 square feet floor area will be found ample. Machine shop lighting should always be on a very liberal scale and should not only include good general illu

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