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and medium sledge hammers, three or four forge hammers, tongs for holding round, flat and irregular work, cutting off tools or “hardies” for both cold and hot cutting and the flatting and swaging tools with handles of conventional patterns.

The gas forge shown is made of standard pipe and fittings, the table is a framework of iron pipe, across the top of which a piece of sheet steel serves to support ordinary firebrick against which the flame may be directed. A small hand torch is provided, this for use on the smaller brazing or soldering jobs. The melting ladles can be placed over either coal or gas flame, and either forge will melt the anti-friction metals used in lining bearing boxes.

The parts of a blacksmith's equipment for repair work that may be purchased as a complete outfit for around $50.00 are shown at Fig. 49. While two or three of the tools are intended for use in horseshoeing they can be employed to equally good advantage in the automobile repair shop. These consist of the farrier's hammer, knife and pincers. The remaining tools will be found suitable for use in general metal work. A post drill is provided which is a very practical tool for shops not provided with power. An outfit of drills in standard sizes is usually supplied with this tool. The forge is light and compact and a hand-operated blower is utilized to furnish the blast. A post vise, medium size anvil, hand sledge and various small tools complete this set. In a shop already furnished with various machine tools the only parts of the outfit needed would be the forge, anvil and post vise. Tongs can be made as needed to best suit the requirements of the work at hand.

In large repair shops, where considerable tool dressing is done and where it is necessary to heat-treat various parts, the electric furnace shown at Fig. 50 will prove a good investment. The amount of heat may be regulated within close limits and sufficiently high temperatures may be obtained for hardening, carburizing or annealing any pieces within the range of the furnace. While it is not expected that a furnace of this type will be used in the small or medium size shops, there is sufficient work in the large establishments or service stations to warrant the installation of a furnace of this nature, if electric current is available, or an

equivalent gas, or oil-burning type where it is not convenient to use the electrically heated form. The almost universal use of high grade alloy steel in the construction of automobiles makes it necessary for the repairman to have some knowledge of heat treatment: of the various special steels. They cannot be machined unless an

Fig. 50.—Electrically Heated Furnace for Heat Treating Steel.

nealed and are of but little more value than ordinary machinery steel parts if they are not properly heat-treated to bring out the physical characteristics desired after fabrication. A review of the various heat-treating processes, especially those needed for the different alloy steels used in automobile construction, will be found in the chapter dealing with miscellaneous processes.

CHAPTER II.

SMALL TOOL EQUIPMENT FOR REPAIR SHOPS

Tools for Adjusting and Erecting-Drilling Machines—Machine Accessories

– Measuring Tools-Lathe Accessories and Lathe Tools—Miscellaneous Tools-Special Tools to Facilitate Repair Work-Wheel and Gear Pullers -List of Tools and Supplies for Typical Shop.

THERE are so many small items of equipment entering into the outfit necessary to carry on repair work economically and efficiently, and so many supplies are needed that it is difficult to distinguish between the tools used only on the car and others which serve a general purpose about the garage or repair shop. In the previous chapter the various forms of machine tools that have a place in the machine room equipment have been described, so in this chapter endeavor will be made to confine the discussion to the smaller tools used in assembling and dismantling automobiles as well as in making the necessary adjustments to the various machine parts.

Machine tools in themselves are of little value without an adequate supply of smaller tools to be used in connection with them, For example, a lathe could not be employed to advantage without a complete set of accessories and cutting tools, while a drilling machine would be valueless if not supplied with proper chucks and drills for making the holes. We will first consider the small tool equipment, such as would be used by automobilists or repairmen in making the everyday adjustments on the car, then the tools that are of special value to the machinist and lastly those special appliances which facilitate repair work and which usually can be made cheaper than they can be purchased.

Tools for Adjusting and Erecting.—A very complete outfit of small tools, some of which are furnished as part of the tool equip.

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