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means of placing the country in a position of independence.

In the last chapter, some portions of the pamphlet above alluded to are republished: and the same arguments are frequently repeated throughout the work, with a view of shewing the evils of large encumbered estates, and the necessity of such alterations in the laws, as may give security and simplicity of title; may facilitate and cheapen the means of transfer; may free the land from the various restrictions which interfere with its improvement; and may permit its sale to those who possess the capital indispensable for that purpose.

He trusts that the details he has given of the recent calamity, of the means adopted for its temporary alleviation, and of the present position of the country, may prove interesting to many of those who have evinced their sympathy for the sufferings of the Irish peasantry, by the greatness of their liberality.

Dublin, 20th of First Month, 1848.

Security of property essential to civilization ... 28

England has enjoyed this advantage more than any other nation 29

Constant warfare in Ireland from the time of Henry IL to

that of Cromwell 29

Penal Laws unfavourable to industry .... 30

Note on effects of Penal Laws ..... 30

Restrictions on trade . . . . . 31

Note on commercial restrictions ..... 32

Free trade granted and Penal Laws relaxed in 1782 . . 32

Influence of oppressive legislation still felt .... 33

Struggles of the Boman Catholics to obtain the removal of remain-

ing disabilities ....... 34

Emancipation Act passed in 1829 ..... 35

Effects of agitation unfavourable to industry . . 35

Ireland has improved in spite of all depressing circumstances . 86

Agricultural class improved, though still much inferior to that of

England 36

Labouring class not improved ..... 37

Extract from report of Land Commissioners on this subject . 37

Condition of Irish peasantry the opprobrium of the empire 38

Must be raised to the position of English labourers, or they will

bring down the English to their own level ... 39

Note—Extracts from proceedings of Glasgow Parochial Board . 39

Irish emigration to England cannot be prevented under present

circumstances ....... 40

Note—Extract from Lord Stanley's speech to this effect . 41

CHAPTER III.

Small number of proprietors in fee in Ireland ... 42

Tenants in possession very numerous .... 42

These features peculiarly striking in Connaught . . 43

Greater part of Ireland confiscated since the reign of Henry VIII. 43

Confiscated lands in Munster granted by Elizabeth in large tracts 43

Hence resulted absenteeism and sub-letting .... 43

Note on subordinate interests ..... 43

Grants by James I. in Ulster much smaller than those of Eliza-

beth in Munster ....... 44

Cromwell's grants smaller than either .... 44

Property naturally accumulates ..... 44

Extract from Report of Land Commissioners respecting landed

proprietors ....... 45
Injurious effects of settlements and incumbrances .
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