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means of placing the country in a position of independence.

In the last chapter, some portions of the pamphlet above alluded to are republished : and the same arguments are frequently repeated throughout the work, with a view of shewing the evils of large encumbered estates, and the necessity of such alterations in the laws, as may give security and simplicity of title ; may facilitate and cheapen the means of transfer ; may free the land from the various restrictions which interfere with its improvement; and may permit its sale to those who possess the capital indispensable for that pur


He trusts that the details he has given of the recent calamity, of the means adopted for its temporary alleviation, and of the present position of the country, may prove interesting to many of those who have evinced their sympathy for the sufferings of the Irish peasantry, by the greatness of their liberality.

Dublin, 20th of First Month, 1848.

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Injurious effects of settlements and incumbrances . . .

Middlemen condemned without sufficient consideration

Unsuitable agents often employed in the management of estates .

Management under the Courts extremely objectionable .

Under these circumstances, land has remained almost unimproved

Wise provisions for the settlement of Ulster . . .

Industrious character of the peasantry of Ulster . .

Custom of tenant-right

Extract from Report of Land Commissioners respecting tenant-

right . . . . . . . .

Probable origin of this custom . . . . .
Tenant-right compared to copyhold tenure in England .
Large sums of money invested on this security . . .
Any serious attempt to break this custom would be dangerous to
the public peace . . .

. . .

Agrarian outrages . . . . . . .

Note-Extract from Report of Land Commissioners respecting

agrarian outrages . . . . .

Extent of these outrages . . . . . .

Exciting causes .

Insecurity of possession depresses industry.

Prevents improvement . . . . . .

Subdivision of farms . . . . . . .

Note on subdivision

Consolidation of farms; ejectment of tenantry

Note on ejected tenants . . . . . .

Difficulty of obtaining a farm. .

Anecdote illustrative of this difficulty .

Miserable shifts of ejected tenants to support existence . .

Wretched condition of cottiers ,

Condition of those who subsist by con-acre still more deplorable.

Estimate of the number of persons supported by con-acre .

Extract from “Digest of Evidence” respecting the labouring

population . . . . . . . .

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Note-Extract from Lord Lansdowne's speech. .
Calamity greatly increased by the previous total dependence of

the poor on the potato crop
Fearful results of this calamity throughout the whole country
Note in illustration of these effects .
Distress very much mitigated in the Eastern counties of Ireland

by their superior resources . . . . .

All classes affected by the calamity. .

Landed proprietors and others interested in land brought into

great difficulty . . . . . . .

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